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SOLAR RADIATION MEASUREMENT
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Solar radiation -

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This presentation gives a idea towards sun insolation towards earth, earth angles and other related things that affects the SPV area.

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Solar radiation -

  1. 1. From:- Amitesh kumar
  2. 2.  The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) defines “Sunshine” as direct irradiance from the sun measured on the ground of at least 120 w/m².  Direct Sunlight gives about 93 lux of illumination per watt of electromagnetic power.  Bright sunlight provides illumination of approx. 100,000 lux/Sq.m at Earth’s surface.  Sun’s surface temperature, T = 6000k.  About sun’s total radiated energy, Ultraviolet region(λ<0.40μm) - 8.73%. Visible region (o.40μm<λ<0.70μm) – 38.15%. Infrared region (λ>0.70μm) – 53.12%.
  3. 3.  Earth’s inner core is a solid made of iron and nickel.  2/3 of earth is covered with water rest 1/3 is land.  It reflects 1/3 of the sunlight received.  Earth is inclined about its axis at an angle of 23.5º.  The earth’s atmosphere absorbs the UV & infrared radiation and allows only radiation having λ between 0.29μm and 2.3μm (Short wavelength radiation).  Radiation of λ>2.3μm is not allowed.
  4. 4.  Photovoltaic (PV device) – A device used to convert SWR into direct current(dc) electricity.  Solar still – used for desalination for saline water.  Sunshine recorder – Pyranometer Or Pyrheliometer.  A Pyranometer
  5. 5.  Solar radiation reaching earth is classified into two components : Beam & Diffuse radiation.  Beam radiation(Iь) – Direct Sunlight.  Diffuse radiation (Id) – solar radiation scattered by aerosols, dust and molecules.  Total radiation (It) – (Iь+Id) also known as global radiation.  Pyrheliometer – broadband instrument that measures the direct component of solar radiation at normal incidence. It is sensitive to λ’s in the band from 0.284μm to 0.3μm.  Sensor - Thermopile.
  6. 6.  Pyranometer – is a type of actinometer used to measure solar irradiance. It is designed to measure solar radiation flux density (in w/m²) from a view of 180º.  Silicon solar cells have the property that the light current (approx. equal to Isc at normal radiation) is a linear function of the incident solar radiation. But their spectral response is not linear.
  7. 7.  Where, θz = is Zenith angle, α = solar altitude (is Zero at sunrise & sunset), α + θz = 90º. γsun = solar Azimuth angle.  Solar declination – the angle that sun’s rays makes with the equatorial plane. Where, n = no. of days of the year (1≤n≤365).  Its maximum value is 23.45º on 21 December & the minimum value is –23.45º on 21June.
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This presentation gives a idea towards sun insolation towards earth, earth angles and other related things that affects the SPV area.

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