Chap3 flow charts


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Chap3 flow charts

  1. 1. Chapter – 3 Flow Charts
  2. 2. Flow Charts <ul><li>A diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operations to be performed to get the solution of a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally drawn in the early stages of formulating computer solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate communication between programmers and business people/end users. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the flowchart is drawn, it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language. </li></ul><ul><li>Must for the better documentation of a complex program. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Flow Charts <ul><li>A flow chart can be used to: </li></ul><ul><li>Define and analyse processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Build a step-by-step picture of the process for analysis, discussion, or communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Define, standardise or find areas for improvement in a process. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Flow Charts <ul><li>Symbols for drawing a flowchart : </li></ul><ul><li>Start or End of the program </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Input or output operation </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Computational Steps or Processing Function of a program </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Decision Making and Branching </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Connector or joining of two parts of program </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Magnetic Tape </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Magnetic Disk </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>HYBRID </li></ul>For Display
  12. 12. <ul><li>Flow lines </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Annotation (foot note) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Guidelines in flowcharting - </li></ul><ul><li>In drawing a proper flowchart, all necessary requirements should be listed out in logical order. </li></ul><ul><li>The flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow. There should not be any room for ambiguity in understanding the flowchart. </li></ul><ul><li>The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top to bottom. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>… Guidelines in flowcharting - </li></ul><ul><li>Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol. </li></ul><ul><li> OR </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>… Guidelines in flowcharting - </li></ul><ul><li>Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two or three flow lines, one for each possible answer, should leave the decision symbol. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>… Guidelines in flowcharting – </li></ul><ul><li>Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol. </li></ul>Start Stop/End
  18. 18. <ul><li>… Guidelines in flowcharting – </li></ul><ul><li>Write within standard symbols briefly. As necessary, you can use the annotation symbol to describe data or computational steps more clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>This is confidential data </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>… Guidelines in flowcharting – </li></ul><ul><li>In case of complex flowchart, it is better to use connector symbols to reduce the number of flow lines. Avoid the intersection of flow lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start and finish. </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Advantages Of Using Flowcharts : </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective analysis : With the help of flowchart, problem can be analyzed in more effective way. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper documentation : Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation, which is needed for various purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient Program Maintenance : The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Limitations of using Flowcharts : </li></ul><ul><li>Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations and Modifications: Alterations may require re-drawing completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Example - Add three numbers <ul><ul><li>A program is required to read three numbers, add them together and print their total. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Defining diagram </li></ul>Input Processing Output Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Read three numbers Add number together Print total number Total
  24. 24. Solution Add numbers to total Read Number1 Number2 number3 Print total Start Stop
  25. 25. Example 2. Draw a flowchart to find the sum of first 50 natural numbers.
  26. 27. <ul><li>Example 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a flowchart to find the largest of three numbers A,B and C. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Example 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a flowchart for computing factorial of a given number </li></ul>
  28. 31. Assignment <ul><li>Fill in the blanks- </li></ul><ul><li>A program flowchart indicates the_________ to be performed and the __________ in which they occur. </li></ul><ul><li>A program flowchart is generally read from _____________ to ________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Flowcharting symbols are connected together by means of ___________________ </li></ul><ul><li>A decision symbol may be used in determining the ____________ or ___________ of two data items. </li></ul><ul><li>__________ are used to join remote portions of a flowchart </li></ul><ul><li>____________ connectors are used when a flowchart ends on one page and begins again on other page </li></ul><ul><li>A ________ symbol is used at the beginning and end of a flowchart. </li></ul><ul><li>The flowchart is one of the best ways of ________ a program.. </li></ul><ul><li>To construct a flowchart, one must adhere to prescribed symbols provided by the __________ . </li></ul><ul><li>The program uses a ____________ to aid it in drawing flowchart symbols. </li></ul>
  29. 32. Answers <ul><li>Operations, sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Top, down </li></ul><ul><li>Flow line </li></ul><ul><li>Equality, inequality </li></ul><ul><li>connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Off -page </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>documenting </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI (American National Standards Institute) </li></ul><ul><li>Flowcharting template </li></ul>