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Chap 8 MGT162


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Chap 8 MGT162

  1. 1. CommunicationCommunication 1
  2. 2. What is communicationWhat is communication • The process by which people share meaning through the transmission of symbolic messages. 2
  3. 3. The importance ofThe importance of communicationcommunication • 1.Communication is the process by which managers accomplish the management functions. • 2.Communication is the activity to which managers devote an overwhelming proportion of their time 3
  4. 4. Three essential points in communication 1.Communication involve other people 2.Communication involve shared meanings 3.Communication is symbolic e.g gestures, sound, letters 4
  5. 5. The communication process / theThe communication process / the elements of communicationelements of communication 5 1.Sender 2. Encoding 3.Message 4. Channel 5.Decoding 6. Receiver 7.Feedback 8. Noise
  6. 6. Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 1 of 5 Basic Elements in the Communication Process Slide 1 of 5 6 SenderSender EncodingEncoding DecodingDecoding ReceiverReceiverMessageMessage Social context NoiseNoise NoiseNoise NoiseNoise NoiseNoise
  7. 7. The Communication processThe Communication process 1.Sender The message source. 2.Encoding-The sender selects symbols to compose a message e.g words or pictures 3.Message-Information formulated by the sender . 4.Channel – The medium carrier through which a message travels.e.g telephone or paper 5.Decoding-The receiver translates and interprets the message • 7
  8. 8. 6.Receiver-The target audienc 7.Feedback-The receivers response or reaction to the message 8.Noise –Any factor which disturbs, interferes or become a barrier to the message. 8
  9. 9. Two types of noise: 1.Physical noise e.g noise from machines 2.Psychological noise e.g lack of attention or poor listening 9
  10. 10. One way versus two wayOne way versus two way communicationcommunication One way com.-The sender communicates without expecting feedback from the receiver e.g policy statements from top managers Two way com.-involve feedback e.g group discussion 10
  11. 11. Categories of interpersonalCategories of interpersonal communicationcommunication.. 1.Oral com.-spoken 2.Written com.-e.g letters 3.Technology com.e.g e-mail 4.Nonverbal com.e.g gestures,time,physical characteristics, appearance,etc 11
  12. 12. Steps in achieving effective communication 1.Clarify your ideas before communicating 2.Identify the purpose of com. 3.Consult with others. 4.Understand your target audience and the environmental setting 5.Communicate for tomorrow as well as today 6.Follow up your com. 7.Develop supportive com. behavior 12
  13. 13. Barriers to effective communicationBarriers to effective communication 1. Differing perceptions-e.g differences in priority, experience and values 2.semantic problems-words may connote different meaning to different people. 3.Filtering-An alteration of ainformation to make it acceptable to the receiver. 4.Noise-factors which interferes or disturb the message • 13
  14. 14. Barriers to effective communication 5.Emotionality e.g anger or hate 6.Distrust-The com. Will be blocked 7.Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal com.-e.g double standard 14
  15. 15. Overcoming Barriers toOvercoming Barriers to effective communicationeffective communication 1.Obtain feedback 2.Use simple language 3.Recognize emotions 4.Do not make own conclusions 5.Avoid noise 6.Create openess and trust 7.Understand verbal and non-verbal com. 15
  16. 16. Formal Communication inFormal Communication in organizationorganization There are two main types of formal com. In organization : 1.Vertical com.-messages move upward or downward 2. Lateral com.-Also known as horizontal com. 16
  17. 17. Vertical communicationVertical communication 1.Downward com.-managers pass the info. To the employees e.g co.policies & rules 2.Upward com.-Subordinates convey info to their superior e.g suggestion boxes 17
  18. 18. Lateral communicationLateral communication • Com.between individuals on the same level e.g com.between marketing and finance manager. • Used to share info among co- workers and increase coordination and cooperation. 18
  19. 19. Factors affecting communication in ORG.Factors affecting communication in ORG. • 1.Formal channels – As org size increases the communication channels becomes more complex. • 2.Authority structure –A person’s position in the org. • 3.Job specialization – Facilitates com among members in the same dept. • 4.Information ownership – a person may possess info. But unwilling to share with others. 19
  20. 20. Informal communicationInformal communication Also known as “The Grapevine” Communication which is not officially sanction by managers.However it is also important: 1.Facilitate the flow of info. 2.Satisfy employees social needs 20
  21. 21. Types of grapevines ( informal com.)Types of grapevines ( informal com.) 1.Single strand-The least accurate grapevine because info will be altered at each level 2.Gossip –Used to convey interesting but non job related info. 21
  22. 22. Types of grapevines ( informal com.) 3.Probability-also used to convey non job related info. 4.Cluster-The most dominant form of grapevine.Used to convey interesting, job related an up to date info. 22