Chap 3 MGT162


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Chap 3 MGT162

  1. 1. Topic 4 Effective Managerial Decision Making
  2. 2. Decision Making Defined The process through which managers identify and resolve problems and capitalize on opportunities.
  3. 3. Seven Steps in the Decision-Making Process Identifying opportunities and diagnosingIdentifying opportunities and diagnosing problemsproblems Identifying opportunities and diagnosingIdentifying opportunities and diagnosing problemsproblems Identifying objectivesIdentifying objectivesIdentifying objectivesIdentifying objectives Generating alternativesGenerating alternativesGenerating alternativesGenerating alternatives Evaluating alternativesEvaluating alternativesEvaluating alternativesEvaluating alternatives Reaching decisionsReaching decisionsReaching decisionsReaching decisions Choosing implementation strategiesChoosing implementation strategiesChoosing implementation strategiesChoosing implementation strategies Monitoring and evaluatingMonitoring and evaluatingMonitoring and evaluatingMonitoring and evaluating
  4. 4. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 1: Identifying Opportunities and Diagnosing Problems – The first step in the decision making process is the clear identification of opportunities or the diagnosis of problems that require a decision. – An assessment of opportunities and problems will only be as accurate as the information on which it is based.
  5. 5. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 2: Identifying Objectives – Objectives reflect the results the organization wants to attain. – Both the quantity and quality of the desired results should be specified, for these aspects of the objectives will ultimately guide the decision maker in selecting the appropriate course of action.
  6. 6. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 3: Generating Alternatives – Once an opportunity has been identified or a problem diagnosed correctly, a manager develops various ways to solve the problem and achieve objectives. – The alternatives can be standard and obvious as well as innovative and unique.
  7. 7. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 4: Evaluating Alternatives – The fourth step in the decision-making process involves determining the value or adequacy of the alternatives generated. – Predetermined decision criteria such as the quality desired, anticipated costs, benefits, uncertainties, and risks of each alternative may be used in the evaluation process.
  8. 8. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 5: Reaching Decisions – Decision making is commonly associated with making a final choice. – Although choosing an alternative would seem to be a straightforward proposition, in reality the choice is rarely clear-cut.
  9. 9. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 6: Choosing Implementation Strategies – The bridge between reaching a decision and evaluating the results is the implementation phase of the decision-making process. – The keys to effective implementation are: • Sensitivity to those who will be affected by the decision. • Proper planning and consideration of the resources necessary to carry out the decision.
  10. 10. Steps in the Decision-Making Process • Step 7: Monitoring and Evaluating – No decision-making process is complete until the impact of the decision has been evaluated. – Managers must observe the impact of the decision as objectively as possible and take further corrective action if it becomes necessary.
  11. 11. Models of Decision Making • Rational-Economic Model – A prescriptive framework of how a decision should be made that assumes managers have completely accurate information. • Behavioral Decision Model – Unlike the rational-economic model, the behavioral decision-making model acknowledges human limitations that make rational decisions difficult to achieve.
  12. 12. Rational-Economic Model • Concentrates on how decisions should be made, not on how they actually are made • The model is based on the following assumptions: – Managers have “perfect information.” – Managers attempt to accomplish objectives that are known and agreed upon and have an extensive list of alternatives from which to choose.
  13. 13. Rational-Economic Model • Assumptions of Rational-Economic Model (continued) – Managers are rational, systematic, and logical in assessing alternatives and their associated probabilities. – Managers work in the best interests of their organizations. – Ethical decisions do not arise in the decision- making process.
  14. 14. The Rational Model Decision Making Process • The rational model consists of four major stages: • 1.Investigate the situation • 2.Develop alternatives • 3.Evaluate alternatives • 4.Implement and follow up 14
  15. 15. Weaknesses of the rational model • 1.Assume that a manager is like a “perfect man”-knows everything and has no limitations. • 2.Assume that managers are not influenced by prejudice or biases. • 3.Assume that managers always work for the best of their organization. 15
  16. 16. Rational-Economic Model • Conclusion – As these assumptions suggest, the rational- economic model does not address the influences that affect decision environments or describe how managers actually make decisions. – As a consequence, in practice the model may not always be a realistic depiction of managerial behavior.
  17. 17. Behavioral Decision Model • Unlike the rational-economic model, the behavioral decision model acknowledges human limitations. • The behavioral decision model suggests that a person’s cognitive ability to process information is limited.
  18. 18. Behavioral Decision Model Slide 2 of 4 Concepts that are important to understand how we make decisions: Bounded Rationality Intuition Satisficing Escalation of Commitment
  19. 19. Behavioral Decision Model • Bounded Rationality – Recognizes that people are limited by organizational constraints such as time, information, resources, and their own mental capabilities. • Intuition – An unconscious analysis based on past experience.
  20. 20. Behavioral Decision Model • Satisficing – The search and acceptance of something that is satisfactory rather than perfect or optimal. • Escalation of Commitment – The tendency to increase commitment to a previously selected course of action beyond the level that would be expected if the manager followed an effective decision-making process.
  21. 21. What Makes a Quality Decision? Vigilance can make a good decision more likely. Vigilance means being concerned for and attentive to the correct decision-making procedures. Group Considerations in Decision Making Group decision making is becoming more common as organizations focus on improving customer service and push decision making to lower levels.
  22. 22. Participative Models • Vroom and Yetton Model – Helps managers determine when group decision making is appropriate. – The model postulates that there are five decision-making styles arranged along a continuum (shown in Figure 6.1 in the book). – The decision methods become progressively more participative as one moves from the highly autocratic style (AI) to the group style (GII), where the manager allows the group to decide.
  23. 23. Participative Models • Vroom and Jago Model – According to the Vroom and Jago model, the nature of the decision itself determines the appropriate degree of participation, and they provide diagnostic questions to help managers select the appropriate level. • In general, a participative decision style is desirable when subordinates have useful information and share the organization’s goals, when subordinates commitment to the decision is essential, when timeliness is not crucial, and when conflict is unlikely.
  24. 24. Impact of Group Size on Participation in Decision Making Slide 1 of 2 In deciding whether a participative model of decision making is appropriate, a manager must consider the size of the group.
  25. 25. Impact of Group Size on Participation in Decision Making Slide 2 of 2 • In general, as group size increases, the following changes in the decision-making process are likely to be observed: – The leader becomes more psychologically distant from the other members. – The group’s tolerance of direction from the leader is greater, and the team’s decision making becomes more centralized. – The atmosphere is less friendly. – Rules and procedures become more formalized.
  26. 26. Advantages of Group Decision Making • Experience and expertise of several individuals available. • More information, data, and facts accumulated. • Problems viewed from several perspectives. • Higher member satisfaction. • Greater acceptance and commitment to decisions.
  27. 27. Disadvantages of Group Decision Making • Greater time requirement • Minority domination • Compromise • Concern for individual rather than group goals • Social pressure to conform • Groupthink
  28. 28. Programmed decisions 28 • Those that are made in accordance with some habit, rule or procedure. • Example, a decision pertaining to a customer merchandise returns.
  29. 29. Non Programmed decisions 29 • Those that deal with unusual or exceptional problems. • Example, a decision to expand operations in a new region.
  30. 30. Continuum of decision making 30 • Decision making situation can be categorized along a continuum which ranges from: • 1.Certainty • 2.Risks • 3.Uncertainty
  31. 31. Certainty 31 • We know our objective and have accurate, measurable, reliable info.about the outcome of each alternative.( routine decisions e.g purchasing a computer)
  32. 32. Risk • Occurs whenever we cannot predict with certainty but we do have enough information to predict the probability of the outcomes. • E.g Developing a new product • 32
  33. 33. Uncertainty • Little is known about the alternative or their outcomes ( Extensive problem solving) • 33
  34. 34. Groupthink An agreement-at-any-cost mentality that results in ineffective group decision making. • Characteristics of Groupthink – Illusions of invulnerability – Collective rationalization – Belief in the morality of group decisions – Self-censorship – Illusion of unanimity in decision making – Pressure on members who express arguments
  35. 35. Groupthink • Types of Defective Decisions – Incomplete survey of alternatives – Incomplete survey of goals – Failure to examine risks of preferred decisions – Poor information search – Failure to reappraise alternatives – Failure to develop contingency plans
  36. 36. Techniques for Quality in Group Decision Making • Brainstorming • Nominal Group Technique • Delphi Technique • Devil’s Advocacy Approach • Dialectical Inquiry
  37. 37. Brainstorming • A technique used to enhance creativity that encourages group members to generate as many novel ideas as possible on a given topic without evaluating them.
  38. 38. Rules of Brainstorming • Freewheeling is encouraged. • Group members will not criticize ideas as they are being generated. • Quality is encouraged. • The wilder the ideas the better. • Piggyback on previously stated ideas. • No ideas are evaluated until after all alternatives are generated.
  39. 39. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) • A structured process designed to stimulate creative group decision making where agreement is lacking or the members have incomplete knowledge concerning the nature of the problem.
  40. 40. Delphi Technique • Uses experts to make predictions and forecasts about future events without meeting face-to-face.
  41. 41. Devil’s Advocacy & Dialectical Inquiry • Devil’s Advocacy – An individual or subgroup appointed to critique a proposed course of action and identify problems to consider before the decision is final. • Dialectical Inquiry – Approaches a decision from two opposite points and structures a debate between conflicting views.