Umayyad and abbasid caliphates


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Umayyad and abbasid caliphates

  1. 1. • (657-750CE) Umayyad clan starts as a foe to Muhammad. They are defeated at Mecca by Muhammad’s forces but are embraced by Muhammad and become a powerful Muslim clan that will lead the faith after Muhammad.
  2. 2. • After the first three caliphs, The followers of Ali will split away from the faith and form the Shiites (who think caliphs should be related to Muhammad) and the Umayyads will lead the remaining vast majority of Muslims (the Sunnis) who believe the caliphs should be chosen from among all Muslims. Umayyads will conquer much of North Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and parts of Western Europe (Spain) very rapidly. They will be halted from taking more of western Europe at the Battle of Tours in France in 732CE.
  3. 3. In the beginning… • The Banu Umayya clan was named after Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf's adopted son Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Bani Umayyah had been enemies of the Bani Hashim since the time when Hashim banished his half-brother, Umayya ibn Abd Shams, from Mecca.
  4. 4. Then… • Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf (Islamic prophet Muhammad's paternal great-grandfather) and 'Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf were conjoined twins born with Hashim's leg attached to Abd Shams' head. It was said that they had struggled in the womb seeking to be firstborn. • Their birth was remembered for Hashim being born with one of his toes pressed into the younger twin brother, Abd Shams's, forehead.
  5. 5. • Legend says that their father, 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, separated his conjoined sons with a sword and that some priests believed that the blood that had flown between them signified wars between their progeny (confrontations did occur between Abbasid Caliphate and Umayyad Caliphate in the year 750 AH).
  6. 6. The Clash • The enmity and opposition between Bani Umayya and Bani Hashim began before the struggle for rulership and authority had occurred between them and before Islam had gained predominance. • The reasons for this included tribal party spirit, superiority complex, old grudge, desire for vengeance of the murder of kinsmen, political views, personal sentiments, difference in ways of life and manner of thinking.
  7. 7. • Bani Umayya and Bani Hashim were the chiefs of Mecca and held high offices even during the age of ignorance. The chiefdom of Bani Hashim was spiritual, whereas that enjoyed by Bani Umayya was political and they were also tradesmen and possessed enormous wealth.
  8. 8. KEY SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY OF THE UMAYYAD • Agriculture (pertanian)  drainage systems, research to get the best seed. • Commercial (perdagangan)  Cordova's economic and international barter.  Andalusia - for ceramic / decorations of silver and gold, leather or fur processing, weapons.
  9. 9. OTHER SOURCE INCOME OF THE UMAYYAD  Treasury (Baitulamal)  the financial system - the balance of income and expenditure • Kharaj - tax land (cukai tanah) • Jizyah - tax shelter (cukai perlindungan) • Zakat - • Ushur - tax one-tenth of agricultural produce (cukai satu persepuluh daripada hasil pertanian) • Fai’e - • Ghanimah - the spoils of war (rampasan perang)
  10. 10. • Teaching of Islam under Prophet Muhammad; asserted family and the equality of a women. • Women had some freedoms, advantages and higher status. • Divided into three main classes : 1. Muslim Arabs 2. Muslim non-Arabs 3. Non-Muslim free person
  11. 11. 1. Muslim Arabs - Top society ; duty to rule the conquered areas - Did not held themselves in higher esteem than Muslim non- Arabs 2. Muslim non-Arabs - Clients of Muslim Arabs - Many of the Muslim population were consists of non-Arabs
  12. 12. 3. Non- Muslim free person - Included Christian, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Pagan Berbers ; Dhimmis - Were given a legally protected status as a second-class citizens; had to pay Jizyah
  13. 13. • The Umayyad Caliphate ended when the Abbasid family usurped power in AD 750. • In the 8th century, a succession of relatively weak caliphs threatened the Umayyad dynasty. • The Abbasids moved into an open revolt in AD 746. • The last umayyad caliph, Marwan II defeated. • The first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas, became caliph in 750 and moved the capital to Baghdad.
  14. 14. • (750-1258 CE)Umayyad troops, garrisoned on the frontier for years at a time, were becoming increasingly disgusted with the lavish lifestyle of the Umayyad caliphs. • This led to more and more revolts. Abu-al-Abbas led a successful revolt starting around Merv (Marw in Arabic), on the frontier in Northern Iran (former Sassanian Empire) after he, a Sunni, allied himself with many of the Shiites in the northeast of the empire.
  15. 15. • After gaining power by killing many Umayyad family members (the survivors will flee to Spain) he betrays and persecutes his Shiite allies (since their core belief is a bloodline descent from Muhammad being required for all caliphs).
  16. 16. •Named after Abu al-'Abbas‘ •Transformed to multinational Muslim empire. •the capital of the empire removed from Syria to Iraq(Baghdad) surrounded by round walls, near the site of the Sassanid village of city of Baghdad.
  17. 17.  al-Mansur(the second caliph) continued the reorganization of the administration of the empire.  Most of the Abbasid administrations was selected from well-educated Persian civil servants, many of whom came from families that had traditionally served the Sassanid kings. The important office of wazir or vizier, chief counselor, may well have developed from Sassanid models.  development of the Umayyad postal system into an efficient intelligence service( postmasters in outlying provinces were the eyes and ears of the government).  The developments in trade, indeed, are among the achievements of the. Baghdad became a vast emporium of trade linking Asia and the Mediterranean.
  18. 18.  In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army(Mamluks).  This force, created in the reign of al-Ma'mun (813–42 to prevent the further disintegration of the empire and provided the government with a stable force to address domestic and foreign problems.  creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad to Samarra created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule.  The first Abbasid caliph of Cairo was Al-Mustansir and continued to maintain the presence of authority, but it was confined to religious matters.  The Abbasid caliphate of Cairo lasted until the time of Al-Mutawakkil III
  19. 19. Second Abbasid Khalifah Khalifah Abu Bakar Jafar Al-Mansur Capital of the Islamic Empire Damascus in Syria Baghdad in Mesopotamia
  20. 20. Mesopo tamia- The richest province in the empire in tax and agricultural products.
  21. 21. Baghdad's economy relied on taxes, and wealth generated by trade and manufacturing. The empire was rich in gold, silver, copper, and iron and used them in trade. Farmers grew dates, rice, and other grains. In addition, the Abbasids introduced new breeds of livestock. They also spread cotton.
  22. 22. Traders from Scandinavia to Africa came to Baghdad for the products of its industries too. Leather goods, textiles, paper, metalwork, and perfumes were sold in the city. The Abbasids developed something very similar to the banking system. They did not have bank buildings but business people invested in long distance trade and goods were bought on credit.
  23. 23. They also had a postal system. Muslim rule unified the eastern world. They introduced a uniform coinage system that made commerce easier. End Of Sub-topic
  24. 24. Caliph and his households Professionals, traders, merchants, teachers, doctors and landlords dhimmis (protected people) slaves
  25. 25. • The dominant religion in the Abbasid Caliphate was Islam but they accepted and respected other religions • The connection between the social phase are really important because they choose their leader.
  26. 26. • Causes • Rift with the Shia • Abbasids found themselves at odds with the Shia Muslims, most of whom had supported their war against the Umayyads, since the Abbasids and the Shias claimed legitimacy by their familial connection to Muhammad. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. Shortly thereafter, Berber Kharijites set up an independent state in North Africa in 801. Within 50 years the Idrisids in the Maghreb and Aghlabids of Ifriqiya and a little later the Tulunids and Ikshidids of Misr were effectively independent in Africa.
  27. 27. • Conflict of Army Generals • The Abbasid authority began to deteriorate during the reign of al-Radi when their Turkic Army generals, who already had de facto independence, stopped paying the Caliphate. Even provinces close to Baghdad began to seek local dynastic rule. • Also, the Abbasids found themselves to often be at conflict with the Umayyads in Spain.
  28. 28. THANK YOU