• (657-750CE) Umayyad clan starts as a
foe to Muhammad. They are defeated at
Mecca by Muhammad’s forces but are
embraced by Muhammad and become a
powerful Muslim clan that will lead the
faith after Muhammad.
• After the first three caliphs, The
followers of Ali will split away from the
faith and form the Shiites (who think
caliphs should be related to
Muhammad) and the Umayyads will
lead the remaining vast majority of
Muslims (the Sunnis) who believe the
caliphs should be chosen from among
all Muslims. Umayyads will conquer
much of North Africa, the Middle East,
South Asia, and parts of Western
Europe (Spain) very rapidly. They will
be halted from taking more of western
Europe at the Battle of Tours in France
In the beginning…
• The Banu Umayya clan was named after Abd Shams ibn
Abd Manaf's adopted son Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Bani
Umayyah had been enemies of the Bani Hashim since the time
when Hashim banished his half-brother, Umayya ibn Abd
Shams, from Mecca.
• Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf (Islamic prophet Muhammad's
paternal great-grandfather) and 'Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf
were conjoined twins born with Hashim's leg attached to Abd
Shams' head. It was said that they had struggled in the womb
seeking to be firstborn.
• Their birth was remembered for Hashim being born with one of
his toes pressed into the younger twin brother, Abd Shams's,
• Legend says that their father, 'Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, separated
his conjoined sons with a sword and that some priests believed that
the blood that had flown between them signified wars between their
progeny (confrontations did occur between Abbasid Caliphate and
Umayyad Caliphate in the year 750 AH).
• The enmity and opposition between Bani Umayya and Bani
Hashim began before the struggle for rulership and authority had
occurred between them and before Islam had gained predominance.
• The reasons for this included tribal party spirit, superiority complex,
old grudge, desire for vengeance of the murder of kinsmen, political
views, personal sentiments, difference in ways of life and manner of
• Bani Umayya and Bani Hashim were the chiefs of Mecca and
held high offices even during the age of ignorance. The chiefdom
of Bani Hashim was spiritual, whereas that enjoyed by Bani
Umayya was political and they were also tradesmen and
possessed enormous wealth.
KEY SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY OF THE
• Agriculture (pertanian)
drainage systems, research to get the best seed.
• Commercial (perdagangan)
Cordova's economic and international barter.
Andalusia - for ceramic / decorations of silver and gold, leather or fur processing,
OTHER SOURCE INCOME OF THE UMAYYAD
the financial system - the balance of income and expenditure
• Kharaj - tax land (cukai tanah)
• Jizyah - tax shelter (cukai perlindungan)
• Zakat -
• Ushur - tax one-tenth of agricultural produce (cukai satu persepuluh daripada hasil pertanian)
• Fai’e -
• Ghanimah - the spoils of war (rampasan perang)
• Teaching of Islam under
Prophet Muhammad; asserted
family and the equality of a
• Women had some freedoms,
advantages and higher status.
• Divided into three main classes :
1. Muslim Arabs
2. Muslim non-Arabs
3. Non-Muslim free person
1. Muslim Arabs
- Top society ; duty to rule the conquered areas
- Did not held themselves in higher esteem than Muslim non-
2. Muslim non-Arabs
- Clients of Muslim Arabs
- Many of the Muslim population were consists of non-Arabs
3. Non- Muslim free person
- Included Christian, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Pagan Berbers ;
- Were given a legally protected status as a second-class citizens;
had to pay Jizyah
• The Umayyad Caliphate ended when the
Abbasid family usurped power in AD
• In the 8th century, a succession of
relatively weak caliphs threatened the
• The Abbasids moved into an open revolt
in AD 746.
• The last umayyad caliph, Marwan II
• The first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas,
became caliph in 750 and moved the
capital to Baghdad.
• (750-1258 CE)Umayyad troops,
garrisoned on the frontier for
years at a time, were becoming
increasingly disgusted with the
lavish lifestyle of the Umayyad
• This led to more and more
revolts. Abu-al-Abbas led a
successful revolt starting around
Merv (Marw in Arabic), on the
frontier in Northern Iran (former
Sassanian Empire) after he, a
Sunni, allied himself with many
of the Shiites in the northeast of
• After gaining power by
killing many Umayyad
family members (the
survivors will flee to
Spain) he betrays and
persecutes his Shiite
allies (since their core
belief is a bloodline
required for all caliphs).
•Named after Abu al-'Abbas‘
•Transformed to multinational Muslim empire.
•the capital of the empire removed from Syria to Iraq(Baghdad) surrounded by round
walls, near the site of the Sassanid village of city of Baghdad.
al-Mansur(the second caliph) continued the reorganization of the administration of the empire.
Most of the Abbasid administrations was selected from well-educated Persian civil servants, many of
whom came from families that had traditionally served the Sassanid kings. The important office of
wazir or vizier, chief counselor, may well have developed from Sassanid models.
development of the Umayyad postal system into an efficient intelligence service( postmasters in
outlying provinces were the eyes and ears of the government).
The developments in trade, indeed, are among the achievements of the. Baghdad became a vast
emporium of trade linking Asia and the Mediterranean.
In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army(Mamluks).
This force, created in the reign of al-Ma'mun (813–42 to prevent the further disintegration of
the empire and provided the government with a stable force to address domestic and foreign
creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad
to Samarra created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule.
The first Abbasid caliph of Cairo was Al-Mustansir and continued to maintain the presence of
authority, but it was confined to religious matters.
The Abbasid caliphate of Cairo lasted until the time of Al-Mutawakkil III
Second Abbasid Khalifah Khalifah Abu Bakar Jafar Al-Mansur
Capital of the Islamic Empire
tamia- The richest province in the empire in tax and agricultural products.
Baghdad's economy relied on taxes, and wealth generated by trade and
The empire was rich in gold, silver, copper, and iron and used them in
Farmers grew dates, rice, and other grains.
In addition, the Abbasids introduced new breeds of livestock.
They also spread cotton.
Traders from Scandinavia to Africa came to Baghdad for the products of its
Leather goods, textiles, paper, metalwork, and perfumes were sold in the city.
The Abbasids developed something very similar to the banking system.
They did not have bank buildings but business people invested in long
distance trade and goods were bought on credit.
They also had a postal system.
Muslim rule unified the eastern world.
They introduced a uniform coinage system that made commerce easier.
End Of Sub-topic
• The dominant religion in the Abbasid Caliphate was Islam
but they accepted and respected other religions
• The connection between the social phase are really
important because they choose their leader.
• Rift with the Shia
• Abbasids found themselves at odds with
the Shia Muslims, most of whom had
supported their war against the
Umayyads, since the Abbasids and the
Shias claimed legitimacy by their familial
connection to Muhammad. Once in
power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni
Islam and disavowed any support for
Shi'a beliefs. Shortly thereafter, Berber
Kharijites set up an independent state in
North Africa in 801. Within 50 years the
Idrisids in the Maghreb and Aghlabids of
Ifriqiya and a little later the Tulunids and
Ikshidids of Misr were effectively
independent in Africa.
• Conflict of Army Generals
• The Abbasid authority began to
deteriorate during the reign of al-Radi
when their Turkic Army generals,
who already had de facto
independence, stopped paying the
Caliphate. Even provinces close to
Baghdad began to seek local dynastic
• Also, the Abbasids found themselves
to often be at conflict with the
Umayyads in Spain.