EXPLORING the utilization of sustainable development strategies FOR the <br /> <br />new parks IN the municipalities OF th...
EXPLORING the utilization of sustainable development strategies FOR the <br /> <br />new parks IN the municipalities OF th...
PROBLEM STATEMENT<br />“the ‘environment’ is where we all live; and ‘development’ is what we all do in attempting to impro...
RESEARCH GOAL AND OBJECTIVES<br />GOAL<br />To explore if, and why, the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) h...
 To identify the barriers in employing sustainable development strategies in planning, design, construction and management...
PROCESS FLOW CHART<br />LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Evolution of Parks<br />Sustainable Development<br />FORMING INTERVIEW QUES...
LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Evolution of parks in North America<br />The Politics of Park Design (Cranz, 1982)<br />1. Pleasure...
LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Evolution of parks in North America<br />Defining the Sustainable Park: A Fifth Model for Urban Par...
LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Benefits of Urban Parks<br />Environmental<br /><ul><li> wildlife, biodiversity
 urban temperatures and humidity
 pollutants in air and ground water
 recycling of organic materials
 storm water runoff
 natural world</li></ul>Social<br /><ul><li> relaxation, informal recreation, peace, space and beauty
 improve health and personal fitness
 cultural links with the past, a sense of place and identity
 community events, voluntary activity and charitable fundraising.
 educational resource</li></ul>Economical<br /><ul><li> value to the surrounding property
 attracting tourists
 employment and inward investment
 create a favourable image of a place</li></ul>(Source: http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology...
LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Sustainable Development<br />SOCIALLY <br />EQUITABLE<br />Standard of Living<br />Education<br />C...
EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION<br />The Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES)<br /><ul><li>Initiated in 2005
Interdisciplinary effort by:</li></ul>American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA)<br />Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Ce...
EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION<br />The Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES)<br />“any landscape, whether the site of a large...
New construction and major renovations
Pilot stage (June 2010-June 2012), 150 projects
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Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation

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  • Pop growth accompanied by dev growthNew sustainable communities to meet resident expectationsParks are essential, social, economical and environmental benefits Shift from an oil economy to a carbon economyLandscape will have significant valueParks as greening structures for citiesExtent of services depended on sustainability of parksMunicipal government are fundamental since they have sig influence on dev and land-use decisionsas a condition of development or redevelopment or subdivision approval or consent, shall require theConveyance of parkland, or cash in lieuFor residential purposes: 5% of the land being developed or 1 hectare per 300 dwelling units, which ever is greater;
  • Physical form2. Social program3. Promoters4. Intended and actual beneficiaries5. Public reaction
  • Recurring strategies in sustainable design, construction and maintenance practices, plant choices, composting, water harvesting, public-private partnerships and community stewardshipLarger role in solving urban problemsintegration of urban infrastructure into parks. By using parklands to treat city wastewater and stormwaterurban land reclamation, built on military bases, industrial yards, landfillsmight be used to improve and maintain physical and psychological healthincrease social well-being. Direct public participation in the conception, creation and stewardship of Sustainable Parks, reconnects citizens to each other and to the landscape.3.The form of the park, its relationship to the city, its style and management practicesThe use of drought tolerant, low maintenance species, recycled yard waste for soil amendment, wood chips from debris for paths and mulch, recycled plastic lumber for benches, and low maintenance, local, or renewable materials resulted in evolutionary aesthetic and landscape management practices for sustainable parks.
  • Provide habitats for wildlife, aiding biodiversity.Help to stabilise urban temperatures and humidity.Absorb pollutants in air and ground water.Provide opportunities for the recycling of organic materials.Slow storm water runoff and reduce drainage infrastructure.Provide a sense of the seasons and links with the natural world within the urban environment.Add value to the surrounding property, both commercial and residential, consequently increasing tax yield to maintain public services.Contribute to attracting tourists.Encourage employment and inward investment to an area.Help to create a favourable image of a place.
  • conventional methods of development have had huge negative impacts on the natural environment. Humans often underestimate the value of these services when making land-use decisions.Sustainable development is essentially a shift in how we make decisionsintegrating environmental considerations with economic and social valuesAn environmentally sustainable landscape, must engage its users on multiple levels – physical, aesthetic, cultural, spiritual – and its creation and maintenance must be economically feasible.
  • To assist in collecting data from the interviews
  • The rating system works on a 250 point scale, with levels of achievement for obtaining 40, 50, 60 or 80 percent of available pointsrecognized with one through four stars, respectively.
  • To understand the nature of the limitations, when the interviewees indicated that a specific sustainable strategy was not implemented, the researcher presented the following options:
  • Do you require that the consultants develop a site maintenance plan that outlines the long-term strategies and identifies short-term actions to achieve sustainable maintenance goals?
  • By opening up a meaningful discussion about the long-term economical benefits of adopting sustainable strategies in comparison to the conventional methods of development, the budget could be provided.
  • Capital costs include materials and construction work, as well as design and engineering services.BudgetMaintenance costs include all anticipated annual operating expenses, such as routine inspection, seasonal start-up and shutdown, etcReplacement represents overhauls that are not annualSalvage (or resale) is subtracted from money costs, usually allowing 20 percent of the original cost of materials.SupportEngaging the public in conception, creation and stewardship of the projectDuring construction of the site, ensure that the project provides economic or social benefits to the local community.During site use, ensure that the project provides economic or social benefits to the local community.Interpret on-site features and processes to promote understanding of sustainability in ways that positively influence user behavior on site and beyond.
  • Open spaces, local, provincial and national parks, conservation easements, buffer zones, utility corridors, and transportation rights-of-way.Sites with buildings including industrial, retail and office parks, military complexes, airports, botanical gardens, streetscapes and plazas, residential and commercial developments, and public and private campuses.
  • Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation

    1. 1. EXPLORING the utilization of sustainable development strategies FOR the <br /> <br />new parks IN the municipalities OF the Greater Toronto Area<br />BY<br />AMIR ARDESHIR NIKZAD<br />Advisor: Lise Burcher<br />2011<br />
    2. 2. EXPLORING the utilization of sustainable development strategies FOR the <br /> <br />new parks IN the municipalities OF the Greater Toronto Area<br />INTRODUCTION<br /> Problem Statement<br /> Research Goal and Objectives<br />METHODOLOGY<br />Literature Review<br />Study Questionnaire<br />Study Context<br />RESULTS<br />Sustainable Development Strategies<br />Barriers<br />CONCLUSION<br />Research limitations<br />Future research directions<br />
    3. 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT<br />“the ‘environment’ is where we all live; and ‘development’ is what we all do in attempting to improve our lot within that abode. The two are inseparable.” (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)<br />Southern Ontario<br />Population of Canada in 2006: 31.6 million<br />36% of the Population of Canada<br />94% of the Population of Ontario<br />4 million to Greater Golden Horseshoe by 2031<br />(Source: http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    4. 4. RESEARCH GOAL AND OBJECTIVES<br />GOAL<br />To explore if, and why, the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) have or have not adopted sustainable development strategies in planning, design, construction and management of their new parks.<br />OBJECTIVES<br /><ul><li> To identify sustainable development strategies employed in planning, design, construction and management of new parks
    5. 5. To identify the barriers in employing sustainable development strategies in planning, design, construction and management of new parks</li></ul>Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    6. 6. PROCESS FLOW CHART<br />LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Evolution of Parks<br />Sustainable Development<br />FORMING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS<br />2009 version of the Sustainable Sites Initiative<br />STUDY CONTEXT<br />Four Municipalities in the GTA<br />DATA COLLECTION<br />Conducting Interviews at the Municipalities<br />ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS<br />Analysis and Synthesis of the Collected Data<br />CONCLUSION<br />Research Limitations and Future Research Directions<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Evolution of parks in North America<br />The Politics of Park Design (Cranz, 1982)<br />1. Pleasure Ground <br />1850-1900 <br />2. Reform Park <br />1900-1930 <br />3. Recreation Facility<br />1930-1965<br />4. Open Space System<br />1965-?<br />Not self-sufficient<br />Large amounts of energy, water, labour, plants, fertilizers<br />Produce noise, pesticide-laced runoff, wastewater, lawn clippings, garbage <br />Environmental health not considered as one of the social goals<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Evolution of parks in North America<br />Defining the Sustainable Park: A Fifth Model for Urban Parks (Cranz & Boland, 2004)<br />Content analysis of 125 parks 1. Physical form<br />5 Landscape periodicals from 1982-2002 2. Social program<br /> 3. Promoters<br /> 4. Intended and actual beneficiaries<br /> 5. Public reaction<br />5. The Sustainable Park<br />1990-Present<br />2. Can play a role <br />in solving larger urban problems when integrated with surrounding urban fabric<br />3. New aesthetic forms emerge for parks and other urban landscapes<br />1. Self-sufficient<br />With regards to material resources<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Benefits of Urban Parks<br />Environmental<br /><ul><li> wildlife, biodiversity
    11. 11. urban temperatures and humidity
    12. 12. pollutants in air and ground water
    13. 13. recycling of organic materials
    14. 14. storm water runoff
    15. 15. natural world</li></ul>Social<br /><ul><li> relaxation, informal recreation, peace, space and beauty
    16. 16. improve health and personal fitness
    17. 17. cultural links with the past, a sense of place and identity
    18. 18. community events, voluntary activity and charitable fundraising.
    19. 19. educational resource</li></ul>Economical<br /><ul><li> value to the surrounding property
    20. 20. attracting tourists
    21. 21. employment and inward investment
    22. 22. create a favourable image of a place</li></ul>(Source: http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    23. 23. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Sustainable Development<br />SOCIALLY <br />EQUITABLE<br />Standard of Living<br />Education<br />Community<br />Equal Opportunity<br />Design, construction, operations and maintenance practices that is<br />“meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)<br />SUSTAINABILITY<br />ENVIRONMENTALLY<br />SOUND<br />Environmental Management<br />Natural Resource Use<br />Pollution Prevention<br />ECONOMICALLY<br />FEASABLE<br />Profit<br />Cost Saving<br />Economic Growth<br />Research &<br />Development<br />(Source: 2002 University of Michigan Sustainability Assessment)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    24. 24. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION<br />The Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES)<br /><ul><li>Initiated in 2005
    25. 25. Interdisciplinary effort by:</li></ul>American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA)<br />Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Centre (LBJWC)<br />United States Botanic Garden (USBG)<br /><ul><li>Modelled after United States Green Building Council’s </li></ul> Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)<br /> and draws from LEED<br /><ul><li>55 Individuals developing clear criteria for sustainable </li></ul> landscape design, construction, operations and maintenance<br />(Source: http://www.sustainablesites.org)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    26. 26. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION<br />The Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES)<br />“any landscape, whether the site of a large subdivision, <br />a shopping mall, a park, an abandoned rail yard, or a <br />single home, holds the potential both to improve and<br />to regenerate the natural benefits and services provided <br />by ecosystems in their undeveloped state.”<br /><ul><li>233 page report released in Nov. 2009
    27. 27. New construction and major renovations
    28. 28. Pilot stage (June 2010-June 2012), 150 projects
    29. 29. 10 Guiding Principles</li></ul>(Source: http://www.sustainablesites.org)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    30. 30. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION<br />SITES’ PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKS 2009<br />CATEGORIESPOSSIBLE POINTS<br />Site selection 21<br />Pre-design assessment and planning 4<br />Site design – water 44<br />Site design – soil and vegetation 51<br />Site design – material selection 36<br />Site design – human health and well being 32<br />Construction 21<br />Operations and maintenance 23 <br />Monitoring and innovation 18<br /> Total points 250<br /> One star 100 (40%)<br /> Two Stars 125 (50%)<br /> Three Stars 150 (60%)<br /> Four Stars 200 (80%)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    31. 31. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION<br />SITES Prerequisites<br />Site Selection<br />1. Limit development of soils designated as prime farmland, unique farmland, and farmland of state-wide importance<br />2. Protect floodplain functions<br />3. Preserve wetlands<br />4. Preserve threatened or endangered species and their habitats<br />Pre-design Assessment and Planning<br />5. Conduct a pre-design site assessment and explore opportunities for site sustainability<br />6. Use an integrated site development process<br />Site Design – Water <br />7. Reduce potable water use for landscape irrigation by 50 percent<br />Site Design – Soil and Vegetation<br />8. Control and manage known invasive plants found on site<br />9. Use appropriate, non-invasive plants<br />10. Create a soil management plan<br />Site Design – Materials Selection<br />11. Eliminate the use of wood from threatened tree species<br />Construction<br />12. Control and retain construction pollutants<br />13. Restore soils disturbed during construction<br />Operations and Maintenance<br />14. Plan for sustainable site maintenance<br />15. Provide for storage and collection of recyclables<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    32. 32. STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE<br />Sections<br />Municipality Organizational Structure<br />Park Standards and Classification<br />Site Selection<br /><ul><li>Water
    33. 33. Soil and Vegetation
    34. 34. Materials Selection</li></ul>Pre-design Assessment and Planning<br />Site Design<br />Construction<br />Operations and Maintenance<br />General Questions<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    35. 35. STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE<br />Barriers<br />1. Limited budget<br />2. Lack of support from government (local/higher)<br />3. Lack of public support<br />4. The strategy/initiative not sustainable<br />5. Strategy not considered a priority at the moment<br />6. Lack of interest and/or knowledge from the consultants and the contractors<br />7. Other<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    36. 36. STUDY CONTEXT<br />The Greater Toronto Area<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    37. 37. STUDY CONTEXT<br />The Greater Toronto Area<br />(Source: http://mapsof.net/toronto/static-maps/png/greater-toronto-area-map/full-size)<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    38. 38. RESULTS<br />P – Policy<br />Y – Implemented<br />N – Not Implemented<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    39. 39. RESULTS<br />5. Site Design<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    40. 40. RESULTS<br />7. Operations and Maintenance<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    41. 41. RESULTS<br />P – Policy<br />Y – Implemented<br />N – Not Implemented<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    42. 42. RESULTS<br />Barriers<br /><ul><li>Limited budget
    43. 43. Lack of public support
    44. 44. Strategy not being considered a priority</li></ul>Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    45. 45. RESULTS<br />47 Staff in 4 municipalities<br />35 Landscape Architects<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    46. 46. RESULTS<br />Limited Budget<br />Life-cycle Costing LCC = C + M +F + R – S<br />C: Capital<br />M: Maintenance <br />F: Fuel <br />R: Replacement<br />S: Salvage <br />Public Support <br />Equitable Site Development<br />Equitable Site Use<br />Promote Sustainability Awareness and Education<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    47. 47. CONCLUSION<br />Research limitations<br /><ul><li>Study Context
    48. 48. Interviewees
    49. 49. Limited literature on history of urban parks in Ontario</li></ul>Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    50. 50. CONCLUSION<br />Future research directions<br /><ul><li>Verification of responses at ground level
    51. 51. Other municipalities’ park authorities
    52. 52. Other types of landscapes</li></ul>Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />
    53. 53. THANK YOU FOR LISTENNING!<br />Introduction<br />Methodology<br />Results<br />Conclusion<br />

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