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Final Research Proposal

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Final Research Proposal

  1. 1. 1 Research Proposal To Investigate The Effect Of Using Documentary Video With English Subtitle On Students’ Performance In Listening Comprehension Submitted to Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luaran Research Proposal (EDU 702) Prepared by Amirah Bt Mohd Juned 2014370791 ED7701A1 Date of Submission 19th June 2015
  2. 2. 2 Contents CHAPTER 1 1.0 Introduction..............................................................................................................................3 1.1 Background of The Research.................................................................................................4 1.2 Statement of The Problem......................................................................................................5 1.3 Research Objectives................................................................................................................7 1.4 Research Questions .................................................................................................................8 1.5 Operational Definitions ..........................................................................................................8 1.6 Limitations of The Study........................................................................................................9 1.7 Significance of The Study....................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 2 2.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................12 2.1 Theory of Listening Process .................................................................................................12 2.1.1 Bottom-Up Model .......................................................................................................13 2.1.2 Top Down Model ........................................................................................................14 2.1.3 Interactive Model ........................................................................................................16 2.2 Listening Stages.....................................................................................................................17 2.3 Learning Strategies For Listening.......................................................................................18 2.4 The Use of Video As Listening Tool..................................................................................19 2.5 Conceptual Framework.........................................................................................................21 CHAPTER 3 3.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................23 3.1 Research Design ....................................................................................................................23 3.2 Population and Sample .........................................................................................................23 3.3 Instrumentation......................................................................................................................24 3.4 Data Collection ......................................................................................................................25 3.5 Data Analysis.........................................................................................................................27 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................28 Appendix..................................................................................................................................28
  3. 3. 3 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Listening skills is one of the important skills that learners especially second or foreign language learners need to have. It is one of the skills that is quite difficult to teach due to the task that teachers will conduct is time consuming and boring (Ghanimi, Arjmandi, & Rahimy, 2014). It is important for teachers to identify the most suitable learning sources for listening comprehension that suits with students. With the advancement in technology, there are lots of learning sourcers that have been used in improving listening comprehension and the most popular source is video. Choosing the most suitable teaching sources in class will make the learning session more effective and interesting. Thus, teachers take this opportunity to use audio-visual material to teach listening in class in order to make the learning session more active (Hayati & Firooz, 2011). Besides that, many teachers and researchers take this opportunity to display tasks in the classroom to improve learners’ listening ability (Ghanimi, Arjmandi, & Rahimy, 2014) Video is one of the successfull tools that have been used in class. According to Yang, Huang, Tsai, Chung & Wu (2009) as cited in Hsu, Hwang, Chang, & Chang, (2012), video has been successfully applied to various educational applications. Through video learners are able to observe and analyze on the setting of the video. Besides, video provides visual and auditory input that focus on accurate linguistic usage, as well as the extra linguistic and cultural information that is needed for communication (Davidson, 2009). Video is one of the tools that can help learners to improve their listening skill; however video with subtitle may help the learners to improve faster in this skill. This is
  4. 4. 4 because video with the subtitle may help students to increase their attention and improve their learning achievement by linking the story with their prior knowledge (Winke, Gass, Sydorenko, 2010 as cited in Hsu, Hwang & Chang, 2013). The study on the video with caption or subtitle has been conducted since 1980s shows that captioning increase students language comprehension and facilitates language learning by allowing the learners to visualize the language that they are exposed to (Davidson, 2009). This is proved by the study that was carried out by Markham (1989) as cites in Davidson, (2009) where he found that beginner, intermediate and advance learners who watched science video with subtitle perform well in their test. It shows that video with subtitles is really helpful to all students from different level to improve their listening comprehension. 1.1 Background of The Research This research will focuses on the effect of using English documentary video with English subtitles that will help students to improve their listening comprehension. Video is more applicable for the students to improve their listening comprehension because it will help learners to observe the gestures, facial expressions and other aspects of body language that accompany speech (Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011). Meanwhile, video with multilingual captions and multilingual soundtrack also help the learners not only to improve their listening comprehension but it helps the learners to enhance their oral and written language (Li C.-H. , 2013). Video with English subtitles is much more helpful to learners which English is their second language because it helps them to understand the story and at the same time they are able to listen on the pronunciation of the speaker. The study conducted by Markham (1989) as cited in Hayati & Mohmedi (2011), found that
  5. 5. 5 students from beginner, intermediate and advance are able to improve their listening and reading comprehension simultaneously after they watch movie with subtitle. Students’ comprehension was tasted through multiple choice questions based on the language of the video. So, it shows that students are able to improve two skills at one time if they watch video with subtitles. Most of Malaysian students face difficulties when they watch any English movie or documentary without English or Malay subtitles. They do not understand the accent of the speaker especially native speaker’s accent. It is the same case with Persian students who watched English movie without English subtitles. According to Hayati & Mohmedi (2011), movie with Persian subtitles distracted students’ attention and prevented them to concentrate on the spoken language. Thus, it will be difficult for the students to improve their listening comprehension because they are focusing on the subtitles of their mother tongue subtitles. Thus, this paper tends to provide an overview on either English documentary with English subtitles or without subtitles can help Diploma Students in UiTM in improving their listening comprehension. 1.2 Statement of The Problem According to Marta Szczepaniak (2013), listening has many problems that are still uncovered or vague. This is because many people including researchers are paying less attention to this language skills. Due to this, many instructors or teachers are not exposed on the suitbale tools that can be use in class. With the advancement of technology in education, lots of instructional technology has been used in teaching especially in teaching four skills; reading, listening, writing and speaking. As for listening, the most popular tools that teachers used in listening class are video and audio.
  6. 6. 6 Video can be one of the suitable tools for improving listening comprehension. This was supported by early research where they suggested that visual support is a one way to promote L2 listening comprehension was by using pictures (Bransford & Johnson, 1972 as cited in Chung, 1994; Muller, 1980 as cited in Suvorov, 2008). The use of video as a tool in promoting listening comprehension is more authentic in terms of context, discourse, paralinguistic features, and culture (Coniam, 2001 as cited in Suvorov, 2008). Besides that, a widespread view on the use of video in promoting listening comprehension has expended where some researchers stated that both target-language captions and native-language subtitles were anathema to develop listening comprehension, but this popular view has not been well tested (Robin, 2007 as cited in Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011). Other than that, video also helps students to observe the gesture, facial expressions and other aspects of body language that accompany the speech (Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011). In order to assit students to be more comprehend in listening comprehension, most English learning systems provide subtitles or captions on videos (Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, 2013). Learners will gain many advantages from video subtitles system where it could bridge the gap between the students’ ability in reading and listening (Garza, 1991 as cited in Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, 2013). Other than that, according to Chung (1996) as cited in Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, (2013), reported that video with captions will be able to help students to associate the spoken and written form of words more easily and quickly compared to video without captions. However, even though video with subtitle may help students to improve their listening comprehension but if the students are relying too much on the subtitles when watching the video it might not be conducive in improving listening skills (Latifi, Mobalegh, & Mohammadi, 2011 as cited in Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, 2013). Some
  7. 7. 7 researcher also mentioned that videos without subtitles or captions are more beneficial because it may force students to pay more attention to various pronunciations features (Hulstijn, 2003; Field, 2003; Vandergrift, 2007 as cited in Hsu, Hwang, & Chang, 2013). According to Hayati & Mohmedi, (2011) they mentioned that many teachers started to use video in the classes but they are still unsure whether they should use video with or withous subtitles and in what language the subtitle should be in order to improve students’ listening comprehension. Therefore, since there are various results on the use of video as a tool in promoting listening comprehension among second language learners, thus another study should be carried out in order to identify the effect of using English documentary video with English subtitle in improving students’ listening comprehension. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives of this study are as follows: 1.3.1 To investigate the effects of using documentary video with English subtitle to help students in listening comprehension. 1.3.2 To identify the effects of using documentary video without English subtitles to help students in listening comprehension. 1.3.3 To illustrate how video can helps students in listening comprehension.
  8. 8. 8 1.4 Research Questions 1.4.1 Do documentary video with English subtitle can help students to improve their listening comprehension? 1.4.2 Do documentary video without English subtitle can help students to improve their listening comprehension? 1.4.3 How the video can helps students in listening comprehension? 1.5 Operational Definitions 1.5.1 Comprehension Comprehension is described as the ability of someone to understand something (Oxford University Press, 2015). Branching from this definition, for the purpose of this study, comprehension refers to students’ comprehension in listening when using documentary video with English subtitle. 1.5.2 Documentary According to Kanellopoulos, (2012) he stated that documentary is a media work catergory that applied to photography, film and televsion where it use dramatization, observational sequences and various combinations of interview material with images that portray the degrees of referentiality and aesthetic crafting. He also mentioned that documentary can relate data from science where it mix science, narrative and image where all these mixes are from the filmmakers’ point of view. Even though documentary relates data from science, but it is not considered as science report. Kanellopoulos, (2012) illustrate this with the example of a travel documentary. It is a documentary film that describes travel or tourist attractions in a non-commercial way. So here, it explained that this documentary is not a scientific report but it is based on knowledge about tourist
  9. 9. 9 attractions. For the purpose of this study, documentary refers to the type of video that will be use to test students’ understanding in listening comprehension. 1.5.4 Video Video is a recording of moving pictures and sounds, especially as a digital file, DVD, etc (Cambridge University Press, 2015). For the purpose of this study, video refers to the tool that will be use in analyzing students understanding in listening comprehension and analyzing students performance in listening comprehension. 1.6 Limitations of The Study The first limitation is the respondents of the study. The respondents is only limited to Diploma students of UiTM who are taking course ELC120. ELC120 is a listening course which is a compulsory subject that Diploma UiTM students need to take. The respondents will be from semester 1 students who never take this course. Thus, the repeaters of this course will be excluded from being the respondents of this study. The second limitation of this study is the sample size. The sample size of this study is about 150 students which all of them are from 6 different classes and courses. The third limitation is the place that this study will be conducted. The respondents of this research will be diploma students from UiTM from any campuses in Malaysia. The sample of the respondents cannot be the representative of the rest of the population because students from different universities might show different results. Besides that, the study only focuses on the Malaysian context and it focuses only to students who take listening course in UiTM. Therefore, this study cannot be a reference to other researchers who want to look at the effect of documentary video with English subtitles to improve students’ listening comprehension in the worldwide view.
  10. 10. 10 The fourth limitation is the sample of the study. This study will use purposive sample where the researchers will select only semester one diploma students from UiTM who take ELC120 course. Besides that, the researchers will not included repeaters in this study because they have already taken the course in their previous semester. Other than that, the respondents also will be varied in terms of their courses. 1.7 Significance of The Study Firstly, the study of using English subtitle in documentary video in improving students’ listening comprehension is to identify how watching video with English subtitle can help students improve their listening comprehension. The significance of this study is to see how video with and without English subtitle in documentary video can help students in improving their listening comprehension. If the use of English subtitle in documentary video can helps students in improving their listening comprehension, students and teachers can apply this method in the learning session and in the listening test as well. Therefore, it is important to identify whether the use of English subtitle in the documentary video can helps students to improve their listening comprehension. Besides that, this study also would like to identify on how students’ performance is in listening comprehension when using documentary with English subtitle. Video with English subtitle and without English subtitle will be use in this study in order to indentify on students performance in listening comprehension. The documentary video will use in order to see whether students can perform in listening comprehension or not. It is important to conduct this study because many students did not comprehend in their listening comprehension. The video approach is one of the solutions that teachers and educators can use in order to help students in their listening comprehension. There are
  11. 11. 11 various types of videos that can be used and of it by using documentary video with and without English subtitle. Thus, this study will identify whether this approach is doable or not in order to improve students’ listening comprehension.
  12. 12. 12 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This study will explore on the use of video and audio in listening comprehension in order to improve students listening skill. The main objective of this chapter is to analyze and review past studies on the effect of using different tools to improve students listening skills. This chapter divided into three parts. First part will discuss on theory of listening process. Second part will discuss further on students learning strategies. The last section focused on the use of video as listening tool. Thus, this chapter will provide on the information about listening comprehension and types of tools used to improve listening skills. 2.1 Theory of Listening Process As cited by Ghanimi, Arjmandi, & Rahimy (2014), according to Vandergrift, (1999) listening is an active process that is complex where listeners need to differentiate the sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical structures, interprets stress and intonation, retain what has been gathered in previous process and lastly decode it among social-culture context. Besides that S Suvorov, (2008) also stated that listening comprehension is complex process because it involves the process of auditory and visual incoming stimuli in the human brain, activation of different types of knowledge and production of a response. There are three models in explaining the listening process which are bottom-up model, top-down model and integrative model. It is important for the teachers to know about the listening process because it will help them to identify the learners’ problem with listening comprehension. Most of the teachers only focus on the result of students’ listening comprehension where this approach is
  13. 13. 13 not right because they only look at on the outcomes of listening not the on the process of listening. Therefore, the three models of listening process need to be explored by teachers in order for them to know their students’ listening comprehension. 2.1.1 Bottom-Up Model The first model is known as ‘bottom-up’. The model assume that in the listneing process, the listeners are trying to understand what they hear where they need to figure out on small units in listening such as individual sound or phonemes (Szczepaniak, Pathan, & Soomro, 2013). After the listeners have collected small info, they will combine it into words, phrases, clauses and sentences and will decode the ideas that they get from the complete set of sentences to produce message and information that they listen to. The bottom-up model related to being able to recognize the small patterns of the spoken text such as words and sound. Before the listeners are able to get the message of the information that they heard, they need to collect all the items from the audio. That is why this model known as bottom-up because this model explain the process of listening where it goes from bottom to top to finally arrive the message (Vargas & Gonzalez, 2009). This process is hierarchically formed where it start from the most specific at the bottom and to the most general at the top. The sound that the listener received will trigger their schemata hierarchically that is organized in a listener’s mind. The knowledge that the listener have are phonological knowledge, morphological knowledge, lexical and syntactical knowledge which analyze the sentence structure (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). All these knowledge are related to listeners’ linguistic knowledge.
  14. 14. 14 In the listening process, the listeners will be a bit delay a few second behind the speaker in order to get the message because they need to analyse the phonetic signal, identifying words and assembling sentences in parallel (Oxford, 1999). Listeners can be trained to perform this process through activity that requires them to discriminate two sounds or distinguish rising and falling intonation (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). Rising and falling intonations will indicate pauses, questions, stops and it also communicate the emotions of the speaker (Scott, 2014). It is important for the teacher to train their students to distinguish the sounds in order to help the students to go through the listening process easily. Students should know about these intonations in order for them to understand more about the intention and the message of the speaker. From the previous research it shows that bottom-up model is the normal process that the students will go through when they listen to an audio. When students listen to an audio, they not only listen to the voice but they will collect the information and convert the information to the message. Therefore, teachers and students should aware about this model in order for them to be more comprehend in listening. 2.1.2 Top Down Model For the top-down model, it assumes that listeners use their prior knowledge to interprete the utterances that they are exposed to (Szczepaniak, Pathan, & Soomro, 2013). This is also known as schemata where students use their pre-existing knowledge to understand on what they listen to. Using students’ schemata in listening class may help them to improve their listening comprehension (Ghanimi, Arjmandi, & Rahimy, 2014). According to Howard, (1987) as cited by Ghanimi, Arjmandi, &
  15. 15. 15 Rahimy, (2014), the main features in schemata that can help learners in improving their listening comprehension is to have a deep effect on world perception and language understanding. Each of students has their own schemata where the schemata that they have influenced by their background, knowledge, experience and it is perceived in different ways where it depends by the learners. The contextual information comes from different sources such as from speaker or writers’ knowledge, from knowledge of the world, from analogy with a previous situation or from the meaning that they have built previously (Oxford, 1999). Students who already have their own schemata may facilitate their attempt to grasp the incoming information by relating familiar information with the new information and if they are not familiar with the information, it can hamper their effort to comprehend a particular utterance (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). When students or listeners are familiar with the subject that they listen to, it makes their comprehension higher compared to those who have never encountered similar topic or text (Szczepaniak, Pathan, & Soomro, 2013). Thus, the previous knowledge or the schemata that the listeners have help them more familiar with the text that they listen to if the text is related to their knowledge or experience. Top-down model is the suitable model that can represent when it is related to listening process. This is because this model is more active compared to bottom-up model. This model not only collecting small information, but it will process the information which related to listener’s prior knowledge.
  16. 16. 16 2.1.3 Interactive Model Interactive model is another theory used in listening process. According to Flowerdew and Miller (1999) as cited by Szczepaniak et. Al (2013), interactive model is the combination of bottom-up model and top-down model. The combination of bottom-up model and top-down model will produce a complex and simultaneous process of background knowledge information, contextual information and linguistic information which make the comprehension and interpretation become easy (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). But some researchers found that the process did not happen simultaneously. According to Oxford, (1999), based on the study on L1, it shows that the contextual information is invoked before perception which can help readers to anticipate the words. The study also shows that it becomes available during the perceptual process and it is employed after a word has been identified. When students able to adapt interactive model in the listening process, it will help them to use either one of the knowledge that they have; previous knowledge or linguistic knowledge. For example, if the listeners are familiar with the content of the audio, they will use their background knowledge at the same time to make prediction of the new information that they listen to. Meanwhile, if the listeners are not familiar with the content, they can use their linguistic knowledge especially lexical and syntactical knowledge in order to make sense of the information (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). During integrative stage, the listeners will pay attention to input and the sounds are stored in echoic memory. The input that stored in the echoic memory will encode some initial analysis of the language and transform the input into meaningful representations. They stated that integraitve model paid attention to integrative listening learning like pre-listening, while-listening and post listening. These
  17. 17. 17 integrative listening learning will help the teachers to conduct the listening session more effective hence can help the students to improve their listening comprehension. 2.2 Listening Stages According to Bejar, Douglas, Jamieson, Nissan, & Tuners, (2000) as cited in S Suvorov, (2008), there are two stages of listening comprehension which are listening stage and response stage. Listening stage is where the process of an acoustic signal by receptive and cognitive process, the activation of three types of knowledge, and the transformation of the acoustic signal into a set of proposition. According to Gilakjani & Ahmadi (2011), speech perception shows that listening comprehension involves more than decoding of the sounds. According to Rivers (1983) as cited in Gilakjani & Ahmadi (2011), speech perception has identifies three stages of listening comprehension. In the first stage, the listeners must recognize that the sounds that they received are actual message not just the noise. It is important for the listeners to recognize this because the sounds are elements of the language system. In the second stage, the listeners identify the sound along with lexical and syntactic forms by segmenting and grouping them. In third stage, recording process will take place where it will retain the auditory message in long-term storage. While listening is happening, these three stages will take place. From the finding that the researchers have found, it shows that listening comprehension will go through three stages. Each of the stages plays an important role in the listening because the stages will bring the students to the understanding of the audio that they listen to. Therefore, stages in listening comprehension is one of the important aspects that need to take into consideration because if the students have gone through all these stages, it will help the students to be a good listener.
  18. 18. 18 2.3 Learning Strategies For Listening It is important for the learners to identify their preferred learning strategies in order for them to become more effective and independent learners (Al-Qahtani, 2013). Learners preferred learning strategies are normally related with their learning styles where it represent on learners charactertistics which will remain stable and unchange (Kafadar & Tay, 2014). Each individual will experience different learning process depend on their characteristics and the differences have some variances in terms of their learning strategies, learning styles, intelligence fields and study habits (Kafadar & Tay, 2014). It important for the listeners to know the strategies to improve their listening comprehension because the strategy may help them to approach specific method to solve the problem or task, help to identify modes of operation to achieve particular result, and help in manipulating certain information. Besides that, when students know which strategy that they should use, it will help them to verify understanding and overcome their anxiety. There are three types of learning strategies that listeners can use, which are cognitive, metacognitive and social strategies. (O’Malley & Chamot, as cited in Al-Qahtani, 2013). Cognitive strategies are related to comprehending and storing input in working memory or long term-memory for later retrieval (Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). For listening comprehension, cognitive strategy is the most frequent used among students. Cognitive strategy can be categorized as rehearsal where it involve repeating the names of things that students normally hear in the listening process where it allows learner grouping the information to improve comprehension and elaboration where it use prior knowledge as described in top-down model (O’Malley, et al, 1989 as cited in Szczepaniak, Pathan, & Soomro, 2013). Cognitive strategy is the most suitable strategy that can be use for listening
  19. 19. 19 comprehension because it is related with models of the listening process which are bottom-up model and top-down model. Students can adapt cognitive strategy in the bottom-up processing because it refers to the incoming input the will be used as the basis for understanding the message. Meanwhile, for top-down processing it went from meaning to language where learners can predict what will utter by the signal (Richards, 2008 as cited in Gilakjani & Ahmadi , 2011). There are many learning strategies that students can choose in listening comprehension. Cognitive strategy is the most suitable strategy as it is related to the model of listening process. The strategy that is related to listening process is the most suitable strategy because listening process is where the students are able to understand the audio that they listen to. 2.4 The Use of Video As Listening Tool To identify the most suitable tools or approaches to improve students listening comprehension is based on their preferred learning strategies. From students preferred learning strategies, teachers are able to choose the most suitable tools to use for listening class. The most suitable learning strategy for listening task is cognitive strategy (Vandergrift, 1999 as cited by Marta Szczepaniak). This is because cognitive strategy present pictures and words visually as animation and on-screen text give additional load on the learner visual information-processing process (Li C.-H. , 2013). Video or moving picture as the aid for listening will give redundant meaning where it will be useful in helping the learners to understand more in listening passages (Chung & Karl, 1994). Besides that, according to Ur, (1984) as cited by Chung (1994) , her pedagogical text assume that visual information does not distract the learners and it helps the students to correctly interpret the meaning of the
  20. 20. 20 visual data. The use of video as a medium to improve students listening comprehension is a good approache because according to Hayati & Mohmedi, (2011), video allows the students to observe the gestures, facial expressions, and other aspects of body language that come together with the speech. Besides that, video will give the information to the students about the culture of the speaker. It will shows real-life cultural situation where it will create a meaningful classroom environment (D. Ambard, 2010). In using video as a tool for listening, the learners will engage in three major processes which are selecting, organising and integrating (Lwo & Lin, 2012). In selecting process, the listeners must select relevant images to be retained as an image base in the visual working memory. Next in the organisation process, the image will organise into a coherent visual representation. Integrating is the last process where learners need to integrate the visual representations by making one-to-one connections between features of the two representations. As cited Low & Lin, (2012), based on the study conducted by Chun & Plass (1996), on university students, they found that advanced multimedia tool did facilitate overall comprehension and that annotating individual vocabulary items with both visual and verbal information was more useful than providing only verbal information. It has been proven that the use of video will give more benefit to students in understanding listening comprehension because students are able to analyze in details the information that they get from the video.
  21. 21. 21 2.5 Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework for this study is shown in Figure 2.1 and it illustrates how the variables used in this study which is documentary video related with students’ listening comprehension. Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework This study will investigate in dept on the use of documentary video with English subtitle in improving students lsitening comprehension, the use of documentary video without English subtitle in listening comprehension and students’ opinion on the use of documentary video in listening class. These three variables will perceive the role of documentary video with and without English subtitle in improving students’ understanding in listening comprehension. As shown in Figure 2.1, the use of documentary video with and without Students Documentary Video (With English Subtitle) Documentary Video (Without English Subtitle Listening Comprehension use use affects affects
  22. 22. 22 English subtitle will give effect on students’ understanding in listening comprehension. Thus, this study wants to see the use of documentary video with and without English subtitle on students’ understanding in listening comprehension.
  23. 23. 23 Chapter 3 Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction This chapter will discuss the following; Research Design, Population and Sample, Instrumentation, Data Collection and Data Analysis. 3.1 Research Design This is quantitative approach. This study employed experimental design. The design was meant to identify the effect of documentary video with English subtitle in improving students listening comprehension, to identify the effect of documentary video without English subtitle in studens listening comprehension and to analyze on the students understanding in listening comprehension using documentary video. Diploma students from Universiti Teknologi MARA will be chosen as the sample of this study. The pre-test and post test will be conducted for this study in order to identify on students understanding in listening comprehension. Besides that, set of questionnaires will be use as well in order to identify the effect of using documentary video in improving their listening comprehension. 3.2 Population and Sample The population for this study will be all diploma semester one students from Universiti Teknologi MARA from all campuses. This study will use non-random sampling to choose the respondents and purposive sampling will be use as a method in choosing the respondents. Purposive sampling is where the researcher will target certain group of people to
  24. 24. 24 be their respondents and for this study the respondents are from Universiti Teknologi MARA who are taking ELC120 course. ELC120 course is a listening course that is compulsory for diploma semester one students need to take. The sampling technique is chosen based on the objective of this study which is to identify the effect of documentary video with English subtitle in improving their listening comprehension. All of the respondents consist of students from various courses. The size of the sample for this study is 150 respondents. 3.3 Instrumentation The instrument that will be use for this study to collect the data is questionnaire, pre- test and post-test questions, documentary with English subtitle and documentary without English subtitle. Questionnaire will be use in order to identify the effect of using documentary video on students listening comprehension understanding. Pre-test and post-test will be use in order to know students improvement in listening comprehension before and after they watched documentary video with and without English subtitle. Meanwhile, documentary video with and without English subtitle will be the main instrument to identify its effect in students’ listening comprehension. Questionnaire is adapted from S Suvorov, 2008. It consist both open ended and close- ended questions. Open ended questions will be use as in the researcher wants to know students’ personal opinion about the use of video documentary in listening comprehension. Meanwhile, close ended questions will use likert scale in which five-item scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The questionnaire will distribute to the students who have watched the documentary video in order to answer the research question of this study. Pre-test and post-test will be use as well in this study in order to identify students’ level understanding in listening comprehension. Pre-test will be use before the students watch
  25. 25. 25 documentary video with and without English subtitle. Meanwhile, post-test will distribute after they have watched the documentary video. Both pre-test and post-test questions will use open-ended questions because the researcher needs to analyze on the students understanding in listening comprehension using documentary video with and without English subtitle. The pre-test questions will consist of the questions about students’ background and experience in learning listening comprehension in class. As for the post-test questions, it will ask about students experience and opinion in using documentary video with and without English subtitle. 3.4 Data Collection The respondents of this study are diploma semester one students from Universiti Teknologi MARA and all of them are students who are taking ELC120 course which is a listening course in UiTM. The students will be given a pre-test question before they watch the documentary video. Documentary video with English subtitle will be given to them first and after they watched the video they need to answer the post-test questions. Few weeks later, the students will be given documentary video without English subtitle. After they watched the video, the post-test will distribute to them. The students need to answer the post-test questions twice because they will watch two different types of documentary video. After the respondents have done the pre-test, post-test and have watched the video, the questionnaire will distribute to them in order to know students most preferred documentary video; with English subtitle or without English subtitle.
  26. 26. 26 Figure 3.1: Summary of data collection procedure The data collection for this research is shown in Figure 3.1 where it shows the process on how the researcher will collect the data from the respondents. The process shows in Figure 3.1 is for documentary video with and without English subtitle. Set of pre-test questionnaire will be given to the students. Documentary video with English subtitle will be given to students. Set of post-test questionnaire will be given to the students. Questionnaire will be given to the students.
  27. 27. 27 3.5 Data Analysis All the data collected from the post-test, pre-test and questionnaire will be analyzed to answer three research questions of this study. Table 3.2: Summary Of Data Analysis Research Objective Instrument Analysis i) To investigate the effects of using documentary video with English subtitle to help students in listening comprehension Pre-test Video Post-test To analyze students’ performance in listening comprehension before and after they watch documentary video with English subtitle. ii) To identify the effects of using documentary video without English subtitles to help students in listening comprehension. Pre-test Video Post-test To analyze students’ performance in listening comprehension before and after they watch documentary video without English subtitle. iii) To illustrate how documentary video with and without subtitle can helps students in listening comprehension. Questionnaire To analyze the effect of using documentary video with and without English subtitle in improving students’ listening comprehension.
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  30. 30. 30 APPENDIX

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