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4517 anti viral drugs1


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antiviral drugs

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4517 anti viral drugs1

  1. 1. Anti-viral drugs  Viruses have no cell wall and made up of nucleic acid components  Viruses containing envelope – antigenic in nature  Viruses are obligate intracellular parasite  They do not have a metabolic machinery of their own – uses host enzymes
  2. 2. Anti-viral drugs  Certain viruses multiply in the cytoplasm but others do in the nucleus  Most multiplication take place before diagnosis is made
  3. 3. Anti-Viral drugs  Many antiviral drugs are Purine or Pyrimidine analogs.  Many antiviral drugs are Prodrugs. They must be phosphorylated by viral or cellular enzymes in order to become active.  Anti-viral agents inhibits active replication so the viral growth resumes after drug removal.
  4. 4. Anti-viral drugs  Current anti-viral agents do not eliminate non-replicating or latent virus  Effective host immune response remains essential for the recovery from the viral infection  Clinical efficacy depends on achieving inhibitory concentration at the site of infection within the infected cells
  5. 5. Anti-viral drugs Stages of viral replication  Cell entry – attachment - penetration  Uncoating  Transcription of viral genome  Translation  Assembly of virion components  Release
  6. 6. Anti-viral drugs Anti-herpes virus agents  Acyclovir / Valacyclovir  Famciclovir / Penciclovir  Ganciclovir / Cidofovir  Foscarnet  Trifluridine / Idoxuridine / Vidarabine
  7. 7. Anti-viral drugs Acyclovir & Congeners :  Valacyclovir is a prodrug of Acyclovir with better bioavailability.  Famciclovir is hydrolyzed to Penciclovir and has greatest bioavailability.  Penciclovir is used only topically whereas Famciclovir can be administered orally.
  8. 8. Anti-Viral drugs PHARMACOLOGY OF ACYCLOVIR AND CONGENERS  Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Ganciclovir, Famciclovir, Penciclovir all are guanine nucleoside analogs.
  9. 9. Anti-viral drugs Mechanism of action of Acyclovir and congeners :  All drugs are phosphorylated by a viral thymidine-kinase, then metabolized by host cell kinases to nucleotide analogs.  The analog inhibits viral DNA-polymerase  Only actively replicating viruses are inhibited
  10. 10. Anti-viral drugs  Acyclovir is thus selectively activated in cells infected with herpes virus.  Uninfected cells do not phosphorylate acyclovir.
  11. 11. Resistance:  Altered or deficient thymidine kinase and DNA polymerases have been found in some resistant viral  strains and are most commonly isolated from immunocompromised patients. Cross- resistance to the other
  12. 12. Anti-Viral drugs Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir :  Oral bioavailability ~ 20-30%  Distribution in all body tissues including CNS  Renal excretion: > 80%  Half lives: 2-5 hours  Administration: Topical, Oral , IV
  13. 13. Anti-viral drugs Adverse effects of Acyclovir / Ganciclovir  Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea  Nephrotoxicity - crystalluria, haematuria, renal insufficiency  Myelosuppression Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia – Ganciclovir  Note: Combined treatment with zidovudine, azathioprine, or mycophenolate mofetil can result in additive neutropenia.–
  14. 14. Anti-viral drugs Therapeutic uses : Acyclovir is the drug of choice for:  HSV Genital infections  HSV encephalitis  HSV infections in immunocompromised patient Ganciclovir is the drug of choice for:  CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patient  Prevention of CMV disease in transplant patients
  15. 15. Anti-viral drugs Cidofovir :  It is approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients  It is a nucleotide analog of cytosine – no phosphorylation required.  It inhibits viral DNA synthesis  Available for IV, Intravitreal inj, topical  Nephrotoxicity is a major disadvantage.
  16. 16. Anti-viral drugs PHARMACOLOGY OF VIDARABINE  Vidarabine is a nucleoside analog. (adenosine)  is converted to its triphosphate analog which inhibits viral DNA-polymerase.  Oral bioavailability ~ 2%  Administration: Ophthalmic ointment Antiviral spectrum of Vidarabine : HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV. Its use is limited to HSV keratitis only
  17. 17. Anti-viral drugs Vidarabine  The drug is converted to its triphosphate analog which inhibits viral DNA-polymerase.  Oral bioavailability ~ 2%  Administration: Ophthalmic ointment  Used in HSV keratoconjunctivitis in immunocompromised patient.  Anemia and SIADH are adverse effects.
  18. 18. Anti-viral drugs PHARMACOLOGY OF FOSCARNET  Foscarnet is an inorganic pyrophosphate analog (not a purine or pyrimidine analog)   It directly inhibits viral DNA and RNA -polymerase and viral inverse transcriptase (it does not require phosphorylation for antiviral activity)
  19. 19. Anti-viral drugs Foscarnet  HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HIV.  Oral bioavailability ~ 10-20%  Distribution to all tissues including CNS  Administration: IV  Mutation of the polymerase structure is responsible for resistant viruses. [Note: Cross-resistance between foscarnet and ganciclovir or acyclovir is uncommon.
  20. 20. Anti-viral drugs Adverse effects of Foscarnet  Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia (due to chelation of the drug with divalent cations) are common.  Neurotoxicity (headache, hallucinations, seizures)  Nephrotoxicity (acute tubular nephrosis, interstitial nephritis)
  21. 21. Anti-viral drugs Therapeutic uses of Foscarnet It is an alternative drug for  HSV infections (acyclovir resistant / immunocompromised patient )  CMV retinitis (ganciclovir resistant / immunocompromised patient )
  22. 22. Trifluridine  a fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analog. It is structurally very similar to thymidine.  Once converted to the triphosphate, the agent is believed to competitively inhibit the incorporation of thymidine triphosphate into viral DNA and, to a lesser extent, to be incorporated into viral DNA, leading to the synthesis of a defective DNA that renders the virus unable to reproduce.  Trifluridine monophosphate is an irreversible inhibitor of viral thymidine synthase.
  23. 23.  Trifluridine is active against HSV-1, HSV-2, and vaccina virus.  It is generally considered to be the drug of choice for treatment of HSV keratoconconjunctivitis.  Because the triphosphate form of trifluridine can also incorporate to some degree into cellular DNA, the drug is considered to be too toxic for systemic use; therefore, the use of trifluridine is restricted to topical application as a solution to the eye.
  24. 24. Anti-Viral drugs Antiviral spectrum :  Acyclovir: HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV,  Ganciclovir / Cidofovir : CMV  Famciclovir : Herpes genitalis  Foscarnet : HSV, VZV, CMV, HIV  Penciclovir : Herpes labialis  trifluridine : Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis
  25. 25. Anti-viral drugs Respiratory viral infections Influenza –  Amantadine / Rimantadine  Oseltamivir / Zanamavir (Neuraminidase inhibitors) RSV (SYNTHETIAL) bronchiolitis –  Ribavirin
  26. 26. Anti-viral drugs Amantadine and Rimantadine : Influenza  Prevention & Treatment of influenza A  Inhibition of viral uncoating by inhibiting the viral membrane protein M2, which functions as a channel for hydrogen ion.  This channel is required for the fusion of the viral membrane with the cell membrane that ultimately forms the endosome (created when the virus is internalized by endocytosis).
  27. 27.  [Note: The acidic environment of the endosome is required for viral uncoating.  These drugs may also interfere with the release of new virions.  Amantadine has anti-parkinsonian effects.
  28. 28. Anti-viral drugs Pharmacokinetics of Amantadine  Oral bioavailability ~ 50-90%  Amantadine cross extensively BBB whereas Rimantadine does not cross extensively .  Administration: Oral
  29. 29.  Resistance: Resistance can develop rapidly in up to 50 percent of treated individuals, and resistant strains can be readily transmitted to close contacts.  Resistance has been shown to result from a change in one amino acid of the M2 matrix protein. Cross-resistance occurs between the two drugs.
  30. 30. Anti-viral drugs Neuraminidase inhibitors : Influenza Oseltamivir / Zanamavir  Influenza contains an enzyme neuraminidase which is essential for the replication of the virus.  Influenza viruses employ a specific neuraminidase that is inserted into the host cell membrane  for the purpose of releasing newly formed virions.
  31. 31. Anti-viral drugs Neuraminidase inhibitors : Influenza Oseltamivir / Zanamavir  Neuraminidase inhibitors prevent the release of new virions and their spread from cell to cell.  These are effective against both types of influenza A and B.  Do not interfere with immune response to influenza A vaccine.  Can be used for both prophylaxis and acute treatment.
  32. 32. Anti-viral drugs
  33. 33. Anti-viral drugs Neuraminidase inhibitors : Influenza Oseltamivir / Zanamavir  Oseltamivir is orally administered.  Zanamavir is given intranasal.  Risk of bronchospasm with zanamavir  Zanamivir should be avoided in individuals with severe reactive asthma or chronic obstructive respiratory disease, because bronchospasm may occur with the risk of fatality
  34. 34. Anti-viral drugs  Ribavirin PHARMACOLOGY OF RIBAVIRIN  Ribavirin is a guanosine analog.  Inhibition of RNA polymerase Antiviral spectrum : DNA and RNA viruses are susceptible, including influenza, parainfluenza viruses, RSV, Lassa virus
  35. 35. Anti-viral drugs Ribavirin : RSV  Distribution in all body tissues, except CNS  Administration : Oral, IV, Inhalational in RSV.  Anemia and jaundice are adverse effects  Not advised in pregnancy.
  36. 36. Anti-viral drugs Therapeutic uses of Ribavirin Ribavirin is the drug of choice for:  RSV bronchiolitis and pneumonia in hospitalized children (given by aerosol)  Lassa fever Ribavirin is an alternative drug for:  Influenza, parainfluenza, measles virus infection in immunocompromised patients
  37. 37. Anti-viral drugs  Hepatic Viral infections :  Interferons  Lamivudine – cytosine analog – HBV  Entecavir – guanosine analog – HBV – lamivudine resistance strains  Adefovir  Telbivudine----------Thymidine ANALOUG  Ribavirin – Hepatitis C (with interferons)
  38. 38. Anti-viral drugs Interferons Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune systems in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells.  Antiviral, immune modulating and anti-proliferative actions  Three classes of interferons – α , β, γ
  39. 39. Anti-viral drugs Interferons  α and β interferons are produced by all the cells in response to viral infections  γ interferons are produced only by T lymphocyte and NK cells in response to cytokines – immune regulating effects  γ has less anti-viral activity compared to α and β interferons
  40. 40. Anti-viral drugs Mechanism of action of Interferons :  Induction of the following enzymes: 1) a protein kinase which inhibits protein synthesis 2) an oligo-adenylate synthase which leads to degradation of viral mRNA 3) a phosphodiesterase which inhibit t-RNA The action of these enzymes leads to an inhibition of translation
  41. 41. Anti-viral drugs Antiviral spectrum : Interferon α  Includes HBV, HCV and HPV.  Anti-proliferative actions may inhibit the growth of certain cancers - like Kaposi sarcoma and hairy cell leukemia.
  42. 42. Anti-viral drugs Pharmacokinetics : Interferons  Oral bioavailability: < 1%  Administered Intralesionally, S.C, and I.V  Distribution in all body tissues, except CNS and eye.  Half lives: 1-4 hours
  43. 43. Anti-viral drugs Adverse effects of Interferons  Acute flu-like syndrome (fever, headache)  Bone marrow suppression (granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia)  Neurotoxicity (confusion, seizures)  Cardiotoxicity - arrhythmia  Impairment of fertility
  44. 44. Anti-viral drugs Therapeutic uses of Interferons  Chronic hepatitis B and C (complete disappearance is seen in 30%).  HZV infection in cancer patients (to prevent the dissemination of the infection)  CMV infections in renal transplant patients  Condylomata acuminata (given by intralesional injection). Complete clearance is seen ~ 50%.  Hairy cell leukemia (in combination with zidovudine)  AIDS related Kaposi’s sarcoma
  45. 45. Overview of the Treatment for HIV Infection  Prior to approval of zidovudine in 1987, treatment of HIV infections focused on decreasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections that caused a high degree of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients rather than on inhibiting HIV itself.  Today, the viral life cycle is understood, and a highly active regimen is employed that uses combinations of drugs to suppress replication of HIV and restore the immunocompetency to the host.
  46. 46.  This multi drug regimen is commonly referred to as highly active antiretroviral Therapy HAART. .
  47. 47.  There are five classes of antiretroviral drugs, each of which targets one of four viral processes. 1. nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) 2. non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) 3. protease inhibitors 4. entry inhibitors 5. the integrase inhibitors. The current recommendation for primary therapy is to administer: two NRTIs with either a protease inhibitor or an NNRTI
  48. 48.  Selection of the appropriate combination is based on 1) avoiding the use of two agents of the same nucleoside analog 2) avoiding overlapping toxicities 3) patient factors such as disease symptoms and concurrent illnesses, 4) impact of drug interactions 5) ease of adherence to a frequently complex administration regimen.
  49. 49.  The goals of therapy are to maximally and durably suppress viral load replication, to restore and preserve immunologic function, to reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality, and to improve quality of life.
  50. 50. I-Overview of NRTIs  Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are analogs of native ribosides, which all lack a 3'- hydroxyl group.
  51. 51.  Many of the toxicities of the NRTIs are believed to be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase in certain tissues.  As a general rule, the dideoxynucleosides, such as zalcitabine, didanosine, and stavudine, have a greater affinity for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, leading to such toxicities as peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, and lipoatrophy.  When more than one NRTI is given, care is taken not to have overlapping toxicities.  All the NRTIs have been associated with a potentially fatal liver toxicity.
  52. 52. Zidovudine (AZT)  AZT is approved for use in children and adults and to prevent prenatal infection in pregnancy.  It is also recommended for prophylaxis in individuals exposed to HIV infection.  The toxicity of AZT is potentiated if coadministration of drugs like probenecid, acetaminophen, lorazepam, indomethacin, and cimetidine.
  53. 53.  Both stavudine and ribavirin are activated by the same intracellular pathways and should not be given with AZT.
  54. 54. II- NNRTIs Used to Treat AIDS  highly selective, noncompetitive inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase.
  55. 55.  They bind to HIV reverse transcriptase at a site adjacent to the active site, inducing a conformational change that results in enzyme inhibition.  They do not require activation by cellular enzymes.  Their major advantage is their lack of effect on the host blood-forming elements and their lack of cross-resistance with NRTIs.  These drugs, however, have cross-resistance within the NNRTI class, and a high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions, including rash.
  56. 56. III. HIV Protease Inhibitors  Inhibitors of HIV protease have significantly altered the course of this devastating viral disease. Within a year of their introduction in 1995, the number of deaths in the United States due to AIDS declined  reversible inhibitors of the HIV aspartyl protease”the viral enzyme responsible for cleavage of the viral polyprotein into a number of essential enzymes (reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase) and several structural proteins.
  57. 57.  The protease inhibitors exhibit at least a thousand-fold greater affinity for HIV-1 and HIV-2 enzymes than they have for comparable human proteases.
  58. 58.  Side effects
  59. 59. To be used with caution with:
  60. 60. IV- Entry Inhibitors  Enfuvirtide is the first of new class of antiretroviral drugs known as entry inhibitors.  Enfuvirtide is a fusion inhibitor. For HIV to gain entry into the host cell, it must fuse its membrane with that of the host cell.  This is accomplished by changes in the conformation of the viral transmembrane glycoprotein gp41, which occurs when HIV binds to the host cell surface..
  61. 61.  Enfuvirtide is a 36-amino-acid peptide that binds to gp41, preventing the conformational change.  Enfuvirtide, in combination with other antiretrovirals, is approved for therapy of treatment-experienced patients with evidence of viral replication despite ongoing antiretroviral drug therapy.  As a peptide, it must be given subcutaneously  Maraviroc is also an entry inhibitor.
  62. 62. Integrase Inhibitors  Raltegravir is the first of new class of antiretroviral drugs known as integrase inhibitors.  Ragtegravir specifically inhibits the final step in integration of stand transfer of the viral DNA into our own host cell DNA.
  63. 63.   Viru s       Diseases Drug(s) of choice Alternative drugs FLU A   Influenza   Amantadine Rimantadine   RSV Pneumonia, bronchiolitis Ribavirin (aerosol)     HSV   Genital herpes    Acyclovir   Foscarnet       Keratitis Conjunctivitis   Trifluridine Idoxuridine Vidarabine       Encephalitis   Acyclovir          Neonatal HSV infection   Acyclovir   Vidarabine     Herpes infections in immuno- compromised host   Acyclovir   Foscarnet
  64. 64.     VZV       In normal host   No therapy     In immunocompro- mised host, or during pregnancy   Acyclovir   Foscarnet   CMV   Retinitis   Ganciclovir   Foscarnet     HIV   AIDS HIV antibody positive with CD4 count < 500/mm3   Zidovudine ± protease inhibitors   Didanosine, Stavudine   HBV HCV   Hepatitis B, C   Interferons