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Research Overview

  1. RESEARCH Professor Syed Amin Tabish FRCP (London), FRCP (Edin.), FAMS, MD (AIIMS) Postdoc Fellowship, Bristol University (England) Doctorate in Educational Leadership (USA)
  2. Research Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS
  3. Research - II SYSTEMATIC  Because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you will follow.  There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results.
  4. Research - III ORGANIZED  in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research.  It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope.
  5. Research - IV FINDING ANSWERS  is the end of all research.  Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers  Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer.
  6. Research - V QUESTIONS  Are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use  Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions  Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose.
  7. Research - VI It is an attempt by careful enquiry, experimentation, study, observation, analysis and recording to:  discover new facts, knowledge and information,  develop new interpretations of facts, knowledge or information, or discover new means of applying existing knowledge.
  8. Types of Research  Disciplinary research (focus on Theory)  Biomedical Research (focus on Organisms)  Clinical Research (focus on Individuals)  Health Services Research (focus on Systems)  Public Health Research (focus on Community)
  9. Basic (Primary) Research  A theoretical or experimental investigation to advance scientific knowledge where immediate practical application is not a direct objective.
  10. Secondary Research An experimental investigation to advance scientific knowledge where immediate practical application is a direct objective
  11. Applied Research An experimental investigation which makes use of existing knowledge for new applications or to significantly improve existing applications
  12. Quality Research  Quality of any research study depends on how well both design and execution phases of the project are accomplished.  There is a positive relationship between the research protocol and overall quality and acceptance of the resulting research study
  13. Components of a Research Protocol  A descriptive title  The name, titles, degrees, addresses and affiliations of the investigators and co-investigators  Introduction & Background  Literature review  Justification/ Rationale  Study objective and /or research questions
  14. The Components of Protocol-II Study Methodology Study population and its recruitment Study design Study setting Study duration
  15. Components (contd.) Sample size determination Sampling strategy Variable list Methods of data collection Data collection tools Plan of Analysis
  16. The components (contd.)  Ethical considerations & humane subject protection  Quality control  Expected benefits from the study  Operational plan & budgeting  Plan of dissemination of results  References  Biographical information on investigator and institution
  17. Study Title  It should be brief and explanatory.  Better to include type of study and setting.  Like `A case-control study of risk factors of acute hepatitis B in Al-Qassim`.
  18. Introduction & Background Relevant details about the problem. The pathophysiology of the disease, global burden, similar settings and then local (if available)
  19. Literature Review  A description about what other in this field in other countries and in your country has done.  Literature review should be in depth to identify potential cofounders and effect modifiers and to determine the areas in which knowledge is needed.
  20. Justification/Rationale It should tell that why you want to do this study. Is there any gap in the existing knowledge that you want to fill?
  21. Study Objective/Research Question  It should identify the immediate purpose of study and be very clear.  Objective always start with `to` (word of accomplishment)  Like `To identify the risk factors of acute Hepatitis B in Qassim`
  22. Research Question  The Research Question is expressed in ideas & concepts  Research Design is the plan of how the research will be carried out  Hypothesis: sets of ideas or concepts  Question comes as a flash of inspiration; or may arise from routine observed events
  23. Exploring the Question  Having identified a Question  Investigate the Background of question  Has someone else had a go at answering it  Is the answer known  Has someone formulated it in a better way
  24. Sample Questions  Do Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory agents cause cancer  Are patients who complain of dizziness likely to suffer from a serious disease  Is Asthma more common in only children  Is there an association between H. Pylori and Coronary artery disease
  25. Methodology It should include the detail description of methods with reasoning.
  26. Design What you want to do, how you are going to recruit subject, & how to follow :  Randomized controlled clinical trial  Cohort Study  Case Control Study  Cross-sectional Study  Case series  Case reports
  27. Study population & its recruitment  Description of study population  Inclusion and exclusion criteria (Exclusion criteria apply after those who are included in study).
  28. Study Setting  Description of the setting whether it is a community or a hospital  In case of hospital what are the important characteristic of this/these hospital which type of patient visit this; what is its catchment area, how big it is and what diagnostic and treatment facilities it have. Is it a special centre for some specific disease.
  29. Study Duration If you are mentioning the field work duration specify it
  30. Sampling strategy How sampling will be done; whether is random (type of random sampling) or convenient sampling. How cases and controls will be identified.
  31. Variables List What variables you want to measure.
  32. Methods of Data Collection  What method you are going to apply as records, questionnaire and in person interview, mailed questionnaire etc  What test you are applying and what is reason for applying this test.  Specificity & sensitivity of the test, if some new test is to be applied.
  33. Plan of analysis  How you are going to analyze your data. For what you are looking for and which statistical method will apply.  Whether you run descriptive analysis or go for hypothesis testing and may be multivariate analysis.  It is better to get help from biostatistician for sample size and data analysis.
  34. Other Considerations  Expected benefits from the study  Who will and how benefit from the study  Operational plan & budgeting  Detail time line and budget for the study  Plan of dissemination of results  How the findings will be shared with others: presentations, publishing results in journal etc.
  35. Dissemination of Results How the findings will be shared with others presentations, publishing results in journal etc.
  37. STEP 1  Statement of :  What is bothering you or what are you interested in  An idea that needs to be verified  A problem that needs to be solved  A technique that needs improvement  A hypothesis that needs to be proved  A solution that needs to be bettered  A gap in knowledge that needs to be filled
  38. STEP 2  Review of literature  What has been written or done on the subject  Helps you understand your concern / questions better  Tells you how other people have done the study  Also tells you what the results of other studies were  If review already answers your question (s) then you may not need to do the study on this subject
  39. STEP 3 Defining the objectives precisely and concisely in the light of what has been done or what is known (literature review)
  40. STEP 4 How to achieve the objectives The methodology
  41. STEP 5  What is the hypothesis (statement of belief)?  Are you seeking a hypothesis by trying to find a relationship between many variables or are you testing a hypothesis?  Your study question or hypothesis will determine the methodology including the study design
  42. STEP 6  Determine the importance of the study  Rationale of the study….why do you want to do the study How will your study benefit New discovery? Add to existing knowledge? Improve services?
  43. STEP 7  Develop a detail methodology in consultation with a statistician and other disciplines you plan to use  Where……site of study  What…… subjects  When…….Sequence of work  How  Study design  Data collection instrument  Data collection methods  Data analysis method  Quality check of data collected
  44. STEP 8  Can valid conclusions be drawn by the methods you plan to use?  In other words, what is the validity of the measuring instruments/methods?  Is the number of subjects, observations statistically adequate and is the method of sampling used correct  Has all the possible effort been made to remove / reduce bias in the designing and sampling of the study?
  45. STEP 9 Determine the feasibility of the study Can the study be done In the time available In the resources available Will it require help from other disciplines (laboratory, radiology, medical records dept etc)…..will this help be available Will you require help to gain permission from other sources….will permission be given etc etc
  46. Thank you very much