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Management & Leadership

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Leadership  sameh mousa
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Management & Leadership

  1. 1. 1 Prof. S. A. Tabish
  2. 2. Leadership I. Leadership is the creation of positive, non-incremental change through meticulous planning, vision, and strategy. Workforce empowerment and adaptive decision-making also add up to the crucial attributes of leadership. A leader is someone who always takes the initiative and invests a great effort to accomplish the company’s vision. That is the only reason why people around start following them. 2
  3. 3. Leadership – The Definition  Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve the organizational goals.  Leadership is an interaction between the leader, the followers, and the situation. 3 Boss says “Go!”, leader says “Let’s go!” Leader knows the way, shows the way, & goes the way. LEADERSHIP V I S I O N A C H I E V E COMMUNICATE CREDIBILITY
  4. 4. Leadership vs Management  The role of management is to control a group or group of individuals in order to achieve a specified objective. Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the organization's success.  Management is responsible for controlling an organization, a group, or a set of entities to achieve a particular objective. Managing is about making sure the day-to-day operations are being performed as expected. A leader communicates in order to set direction, inspire, and motivate their team.
  5. 5. Leadership vs Management A leader is someone who always takes the initiative and invests a great effort to accomplish the company’s vision. Management is all about performing pre-planned tasks on a regular basis with the help of subordinates. A manager is completely responsible for carrying out the four important functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Managers can only become leaders if they adequately carry out leadership responsibilities, including communication of good and bad, providing inspiration and guidance, and encouraging employees to rise to a higher level of productivity.
  6. 6. Leadership & Management  Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the organization's success.  Management is responsible for controlling an organization, a group, or a set of entities to achieve a particular objective.
  7. 7. Leader vs Manager Traits of a Leader  1. Vision  2. Honesty and Integrity  3. Inspiration  4. Communication Skills  5. Ability to Challenge Traits of a Manager  1. The ability to execute a Vision  2. The ability to Direct  3. Process Management  4. People Focused
  8. 8. Leader Vs. Manager Leader Manager - Innovate - Administer - Develop - Maintain - Inspire - Control - Have long-term view - Have short-term view - Ask what and why - Ask how and when - Originate - Imitate - Challenge statues quo - Accept the status quo - Do the right things - Do things right 11
  9. 9. Quality of a Perfect Leader  Creative and disciplined  Visionary and detailed  Motivational and commanding  Directing and empowering  Ambitious and humble  Reliable and risk-taking  Intuitive and logical  Intellectual and ethical  Coaching and controlling  Inspiring and mentoring Be not a perfect leader, only an effective one! 13
  10. 10. Leadership Styles  Leadership Style: the patterns of how a leader interacts with his/her followers. “Leadership style impacts the motivations of employees, either positive or negative.”  The 6 leadership styles: 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative 3. Affiliative 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting 6. Coaching 14
  11. 11. Coercive Style  Why:  Obtaining immediate compliance from employees.  How:  Provides clear directives – no empathy  Tightly control situations  Use occasional attention-getting strategies  Emphasizes the negative  Focus on getting the job done  Slogan: “Do what I tell you!” “You must do this NOW!” 15
  12. 12. Authoritative Style  Why:  Mobilizing people toward a vision.  How:  Develop a clear vision  Obtain employee’s perspective  Empower and delegate  Set standards & monitor performance  Use balance of positive & negative feedbacks  Slogan: “This is where we’re going & why.” “Come with me.” 16
  13. 13. Affiliative Style  Why:  Promoting harmony and collaboration among employees.  How:  Promote friendly interactions among employees  Put people first & tasks second  Try to meet employee’s emotional needs  Identifies opportunities for positive feedback  Provide job security & work/life balance  Slogan: “People come first.” “Everyone must get along.” 17
  14. 14. Democratic Style  Why:  Building group consensus & commitment through group- management in making decisions.  How:  Give employees full participation  Emphasize the importance of consensus  Include all view in the decision-making  Listen to employees for ideas  Reward group rather than individual  Slogan: “What do you think” “Let’s see what the group wants to do” 18
  15. 15. Pacesetting Style  Why:  Setting high performance standards and getting quick results from a highly motivated & competent team.  How:  Lead by example  Allow employee work independently  Delegates demanding tasks to only outstanding performers  Exert tight control over poor performers  Promote individual effort rather than teamwork  Slogan: “Do as I do.” “This is how it must be done! WATCH ME!” 19
  16. 16. Coaching Style  Why:  Developing people for future performance.  How:  Help employees identify their performance strengths & weaknesses  Work with employees to establish long-range goals  Encourage employees to solve their own work problem  Treat mistakes as learning opportunities  Slogan: “Try this!” “Let’s see how can I support you!” 20
  17. 17. Using the Right Style  “There is no certain guideline to be an effective leader.”  “There is no a fixed way to fit all situations.”  Effective leaders consider  The skill level and experience of the team  The work involved  The organizational environment  Your own preferred or natural style 21 A good leader will find him- or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with.
  18. 18. Power and Influence Tactics  Power – the definition  The capacity to produce effects on others in terms of behavior and attitudes. P = f (L, F, S)  The motivation to lead:  Maintain good relationships with authority figure  Eager to compete for recognition and improvement  Be active and assertive  Want to exercise influence over the others  Be visibly different from followers  Be willing to do routine and administrative tasks 22
  19. 19. Sources of Leader’s Power  Expert Power: power of knowledge or expertise. Ability to use influence to build others; and supply needed info & skills.  Reward Power: ability to deliver something of value to others (tangible / intangible) due to control over desired outcomes.  Coercive Power: ability to administer punishment or to give negative sanctions or removal of positive reinforcements.  Referent Power: ability to influence others that arises when one person admires another.  Legitimate Power: ability to use rights to prescribe behavior with specified parameters due to organizational role or formal or official authority. 23
  20. 20. Influence Tactics  Influence tactics – the definition  One person’s actual behaviours designed to change another person’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviours.  Types of influence tactics:  Rational persuasion tactic: when an agent uses logical arguments or factual evidence to influence others.  Inspirational tactic: when people make a request or proposal designed to arouse enthusiasm or emotions in targets.  Consultation tactic: when agent ask targets to participate in planning and activities.  Ingratiation tactic: when agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request. 24
  21. 21. Influence Tactics (cont.)  Personal tactic: asking another to do a favor out of friendship.  Coalition tactic: seeking the aid or support of others to influence the target.  Pressure tactic: when mistakes occur.  Legitimizing tactic: making requests based on their position or authority. 25 “You’ve got to give loyalty down, if you want loyalty up.” “When we think we lead, we are most led”
  22. 22. Motivation  Motivation: A sort of shorthand that provides direction, intensity, and persistence. 26 Key Elements 1. Direction: guidance for beneficial goal 2. Intensity: how hard a person tries 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
  23. 23. Motivation (cont.) “Leaders who are knowledgeable about different motivational theories are more likely to choose the right theory for a particular follower and situation, and often have higher-performing and more satisfied employees as a result.”  Factors for motivating followers (1). Need theories (2). Individual difference (3). Cognitive (4). Situational (5). Intrinsic 27
  24. 24. 1. Need Theories 28 Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Existence: provision of basic material requirements.  Relatedness: desire for relationships.  Growth: desire for personal development. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  25. 25. Cognitive Theories 29 Goal Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Process of Expectancy Theory
  26. 26. Cognitive Theories (cont.) 30 Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of other and then response to eliminate any inequities. Self-efficacy The individual belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
  27. 27. Situational Approaches 31 Operant approach The motivation by which leaders substitute reward and punishment to change followers’ behaviors. Empowerment The delegation by which people are provided autonomy and latitude in order to increase their motivation for work. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the org are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
  28. 28. Intrinsic Motivation 32 Choice – the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. Competence – the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. Meaningfulness – pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. Progress – the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose. Performance Dimensions
  29. 29. Why Motivation?  Direct behavior toward particular goals.  Lead to increased effort and energy.  Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities.  Enhance cognitive processing.  Determine what consequences are reinforcing  Lead to improved performance.  Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job.  Motivated employees are more quality oriented.  Motivated workers are more productive. 33
  30. 30. V. Leadership Traits – Bright Side 34
  31. 31. V. Leadership Traits – Bright… (cont.) 35
  32. 32. Emotional Intelligence Goleman et al’s model of EQ  Self-Awareness – Our ability to read & understand our emotions & recognize their impact on work performance & relationships.  Self-Regulation – Our ability to maintain self-control while remaining flexible, honest, optimistic, & sustain behaviors to improve performance.  Motivation – A passion to work for reasons beyond money or status, & propensity to pursue goals with energy & persistence.  Empathy – Our ability to empathize with others & understand the social dynamics in our organizations & with our clients.  Social Skill – Our ability to find common ground & build rapport. 36
  33. 33. Leadership’s Learning Styles 37 Action Experience Experience Experience Observation Reflection Spiral of Experience Single-Loop Learning The learning between the individual and the environment in which learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions. Double-Loop Learning The willingness to confront one’s own views and others’. Learner opens to info. and power sharing with others to improve communication’s effectiveness and decision making.
  34. 34. Leader-Follower Relationship 38 Leader Situation Followers Leadership Personality, Position, Expertise, … Values, Norms, Cohesiveness, … Task, Stress, Environment, …
  35. 35. Delegation  Why:  Free time for other activities  Develop followers  Strengthen the organization  Why not:  Delegation takes too much time  Delegation is risky  The job will not be done as well  The task is a desirable one  Other are already too busy 39
  36. 36. Principles for Effective Delegation  Combined principles of effective delegation  Decide what to delegate  Decide whom to delegate  Make the assignment clear and specific  Assign an objective, not a procedure  Allow autonomy, but monitor performance  Match the amount of responsibility and authority  Provide adequate support  Avoid “upward delegation”  Give credit, not blame 40
  37. 37. Group and Team Development 41
  38. 38. Why People Join Group? 42 • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement
  39. 39. Group Processes 43
  40. 40. Team Vs. Group 44
  41. 41. Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams 45
  42. 42. 46 A Team- Effectiveness Model
  43. 43. 7. Being a Good Team Player  Ten Qualities of effective team player:  Demonstrate reliability  Communicate constructively  Listen actively  Function as an active participant  Share openly and willingly  Cooperate and pitches in to help  Exhibit flexibility  Show commitment to the team  Work as a problem-solver  Treat others in a respectful and supportive manner 47
  44. 44. Conflict Management  Conflict – the definition  The opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings, ideas, or interests.  Benefits of conflicts  Increased understanding  Increased group cohesion  Improved self-knowledge  Drawbacks of conflicts  Personal dislike  Disengagement from work  Downward spiral of negativity and recrimination 48
  45. 45. 1. Conflict Resolution Techniques 49 Competitive Assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. Collaborative Work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. Compromising Find a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied. Avoiding Avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc. Accommodating Surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party. unassertive assertive uncooperative cooperative
  46. 46. Leadership  Leadership requires a vision to guide change. Whereas managers focus on achieving organizational goals through process implementation, such as budgeting, organizational structure, and staffing, leaders are more concerned with thinking ahead and seizing opportunities.  Leaders are considered as visionaries. They set the pathways to excel the organizational growth. They always examine where their organization stands, where they want to go, and how they can reach there by involving the team.
  47. 47. Managers  Managers set out to achieve organizational goals by implementing processes, such as budgeting, organizational structuring, and staffing. Managers' vision is bound to the implementation strategies, planning, and organizing tasks to reach the objectives set out by leaders. However, both of these roles are equally important in the context of business environments and necessitate associative efforts.
  48. 48. Leader vs Manager  Managers achieve their goals by using coordinated activities and tactical processes. They break down long-time goals into tiny segments and organize available resources to reach the desired outcome.  Leaders are more concerned with how to align and influence people than how to assign work to them. They achieve this by assisting individuals in envisioning their function in a wider context and the possibility for future growth that their efforts may give.
  49. 49. Management & Leadership The primary difference between management and leadership is that leaders don’t necessarily hold or occupy a management position. Simply put, a leader doesn’t have to be an authority figure in the organization; a leader can be anyone.
  50. 50. Summary  Leadership is the process, not the position.  Use the combination of transactional and transformational.  Use the styles appropriately.  Combine the power and influence into process of work.  Keep the bright-side of yours and improve the dark ones  Enhance your skills in perceiving, managing, using, & understanding emotions.  Leadership and learnership is indispensable.  Keep followers close to the heart & improve them through effective delegation.  Establish effective groups and teams to help you achieve the overall goals.  Understand the pros and cons conflicts, and apply the appropriate techniques to resolve them. “Leadership is based on inspiration, not domination; on cooperation, not intimidation” 54

Editor's Notes

  • 2 – 1: provide clear directives: it’s an order. Set for employees without soliciting their input or listening to their reactions
    2 – 3: mentioned the negative over the positive when providing feedback. Clearly indicates the negative consequences of an employee’s failure to comply.
  • 2 – 2: Obtains employee perspective on the vision & how to achieve it, without leaving doubt as to who is in charge.
  • 2 – 1: give employee full participation in setting the direction of the work & establishing the plans to achieve it
  • 2 – 4: Exerts tight control over poor performers by explicit task instruction or removing work when performance is not adequate
    2 – 5: Promote the individual effort rather than teamwork
  • 1 – 1: A leader using this style likes to manage the growth of all employees by focusing on their strengths & weaknesses & developing action plans to support career goals.
  • 3-1: routine or new and creative
    3-2: stable, radically changing, conservative or adventurous, in-crisis
  • - “Motivation to lead” is extracted from Leadership – Enhancing the Lessons of Experience – 6th Edition, Chapter 5 Power and Influence, Pg. 153
  • Influence: (i) the change in a target agent’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors and (ii) degree of actual change.
  • The basic (lower-level needs) must be fulfilled first so that followers will strive for the higher levels.
    However, in Alderfer’s ERG Theory, it demonstrates that more than one need may motivate at the same time. A lower motivator need not be substantially satisfied before one can move onto higher motivators.
    The ERG theory also accounts for differences in need preferences between cultures better than Maslow's Need Hierarchy; the order of needs can be different for different people. This flexibility accounts for a wider range of observed behaviors. For example, it can explain the "starving artist" who may place growth needs above those of existence.
    The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual may regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need which appears easier to satisfy. This is known as the frustration-regression principle.
    “quoted from:”
  • Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an employee gets from work result from: (the four factors above)
  • Self-awareness: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, self confidence
    Self-regulation: self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, innovation
    Motivation: achievement, commitment, initiative, optimism
    Empathy: understanding others, developing others, service orientation, diversity, political awareness
    Social skills: influence, communication, conflict management, leadership, change catalyst, building bonds, collaboration/cooperation, team capabilities.
  • Action: What did I do?
    Reflection: How do you look at it now? How do you feel about it now?
    Observation: What happened? Results, impact on others.
  • The “delegation” part is extracted from leadership textbook, Part 3. Pg. 493-498; and from “”
  • This part quoted from “”. Leadership Skills  Conflict Resolutions
    Ask about the traditional view of conflict, interactional view of conflict…
  • In the 1970s Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann identified five main styles of dealing with conflict that vary in their degrees of cooperativeness and assertiveness.
    1: It can be useful when achieving one's objectives outweighs one's concern for the relationship.
    2: Collaboration involves an attempt to work with the other person to find some solution which fully satisfies the concerns of both persons. It includes identifying the underlying concerns of the two individuals and finding an alternative which meets both sets of concerns.
  • - 8: keep them close to the heart: mean the heart of leadership, not you! Try to understand your followers. Maintain good relation with the followers.