Perfume:• Perfume is a mixture of fragrant aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body , animals, objects and living spaces “a pleasant scent”.• The aroma compounds are volatile substances generally having a molecular weight under 300 Da & hydrophobic in nature.• According to the origin fragrant molecules can be classified as Natural, Nature – identical & Artificial.
Perfume Constituents1. Vehicles: Functions: Acts as solvents for blending & holding perfume materials. Being volatile helps to project the scent it carries. Desired qualities: Fairly inert to the solutes. Should not contribute to the olfaction. Example: Ethyl alcohol mixed with more or less water. However neutral – smelling oils such as liquid waxes are also used.
2. Fixatives: Functions: Retarding the rate of evaporation of various odorous constituents. Pre-fixation of the solvent i.e. removing its slight natural odour. Desired qualities: Higher boiling point, fairly inert & don’t contribute to olfaction. If they do, they must blend with & complement the main fragrance. Example:Animal fixative: Musk; Resinous: Ambrein; Essential oil: SandalwoodSynthetic: Vanillin, Benzophenone.
3. Odorous Substances:Categorized under three headings:a) Essential Oils: Volatile, odoriferous oils of vegetable origin. Compounds occurring are phenols, ketones, terpenes, lactones etc. Extracted by distillation, expression etc processes.b) Isolates: Pure chemical compounds whose source is an essential oil or other perfume material. E.g. eugenol from clove oil.c) Synthetic & semi-synthetic materials: These are synthesized by chemical reaction processes like condensation, esterification, nitration, oxidation etc. E.g. vanillin from eugenol.
Fragrance “Notes”• Top : Sensed immediately after application. E.g. Violet. also called “Head” note.• Middle: Emerges just prior to when the top notes dissipate. E.g. Floral. Other name – “Heart” note.• Base: Scent that appears after 30 mins of application. E.g. Musk, Vanilla. Other name – “Soul” note.
Stability:Factors which play major roles:1. pH range of different cosmetic formulations.2. Degradation due to aging.3. Poor stability due to the presence of reactive functional groups like aldehyde.4. Improper packaging materials allowing oxygen penetration and results in rancidity. Imine formation
Additives are added to increase stabilityExamples UV absorbers improve stability towards light. E.g.Benzophenone – 2 Chelating agents prevent discolouring reactions. E.g. EDTA & its salts. Antioxidants helps to prevent rancidity. E.g. citric acid, tartaric acid.
Accountable Physical Properties1. Perfume Ingredient Volatility: Relative molecular mass, boiling point, saturated vapour pressure are checked.2. Perfume Polarity: Measuring activity coefficient γ along with equilibrium headspace profile.3. Retention & Substantivity: Measure longevity of perfume materials.
Measuring Odour Odour Intensity & Threshold Value
Major Players of World Market Company Market Share 2010 % Market Share 2011 % Givaudan 20.6 19.1 Firmenich 13.5 12.9 IFF 11.9 12.8 Symrise 9.6 9.4 Takasago 6.4 6.8 Mane SA 2.9 3.4S Technologies 2.6 2.8 T Hasegawa 2.5 2.6 Frutarom 2.2 2.4 Robertet 2.1 2.2
Conclusion• Future Aspects: Improvement in understanding of “Physiological Mechanism of Olfaction” & Pharmaceutical industry alike “Synthetic Fragrant Design & Development”.“ Smell is a potent wizard that transports you across thousands of miles & all the years you have lived ” Helen Keller
• References:• David H Pybus & Charles S Sell; Chemistry of Fragrances – second edition, RSC Paperbacks.• David Rowe; Chemistry & Technology of Flavors & Fragrances – Blackwell Publishing.• Horst Surburg & Johannes Panten; Common Fragrance & Flavour Materials – Preparation,Properties & Uses; 5th edition Wiley-VCH.• Robert R Calkin & J. Stephan Jellinek; Perfumary – Practice & Principles; 1994 Wiley.• Stig E Friberg & Zhiqiang ZhangStability factors & vapor pressures in a model fragrance emultion system. J . Cosmet Sci 50, 203- 219, (July/August 1999).• Shrieve’s Industrial Chemistry. 10th Edition.• www.wikipedia.com
AcknowledgementI like to convey my regards to my respected teachers Dr. Arup Mukherjee, Dr. Achintya Saha & Dr. Sriparna Dutta for guiding & helping me to enrich my knowledge with proper vision. Thanks to all my classmates for helping me out with resources.