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QoS for Media Networks

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This presentation was given at the doctoral days at ENSIAS Morocco. The goal was to show how the innovation process goes and a particular example through what Cisco is doing for the media networks.

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QoS for Media Networks

  1. 1. Cisco Confidential 1© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Amine Choukir, Abderrahim Maroufi June 2013
  2. 2. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  3. 3. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4 Worldwide leader in networking that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate 70,000 partners 90% of world’s internet data travels on Cisco gear 63,000+ employees 470+ offices $40+ Billion sales 165+ countries 12,000 patents 22,000 CCIE’s $5.8 Billion Annual R&D budget
  4. 4. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  5. 5. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6 Innovation Customer Driven Market Transitions
  6. 6. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16% Area under the curve is number of customers
  7. 7. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  8. 8. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9 R&D: $ 5-ish B 24,000 employees Partner w/ Other Companies Microsoft, SAP, Citrix VMWare, PacketAction … Design New Products CRS-1, IOS XR, Nexus, UCS Spin in Investments Andiamo Nuova Impresa Pursue Acquisitions 180+ Acquisitions Start New Business Models WebEX Cloud Wireless for SMB Wireless SP wholesale Develop New Technology TelePresence, IP Telephony Converged Wireline/Wireless Medianet Cisco ONE
  9. 9. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  10. 10. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11 CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate
  11. 11. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12 Coding Transmission Decode
  12. 12. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13 15 fps 30 fps I Frame 1024–1518 Bytes I Frame 1024–1518 Bytes P and B Frames 128–256 Bytes 600 Kbps 32 Kbps Variability of Video Coders I Frame Complete Frame Encoded P Frame Ball Encoded with Motion Vector from I frame B Frame Only Motion Encoded Ball Bi-directionally from I & P
  13. 13. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14 •  A compressed video is a series of bytes, so the first step is to split it into packets. •  A video stream is then often coupled with audio that has to be synchronized (and sometimes subtitles and other info are added). •  Typical streaming techniques are: IP/UDP/TS IP/UDP/RTP IP/UDP/SRTP IP/UDP/TS/RTP •  But you can come across something like that: IP/TCP/RTP IP/TCP/HTTPS/RTP… •  Recently ABR is getting traction (http) •  NAT, buffering, real-time vs. recorded
  14. 14. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15 Traffic Profiles and Requirements Voice §  Smooth §  Benign §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  UDP priority Video-Conf §  Bursty §  Greedy §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  UDP priority Surveillance §  Bursty §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  Jitter sensitive Media Streaming §  Bursty §  Drop sensitive §  Delay and Jitter insensitive Data §  Smooth/bursty §  Benign/greedy §  Drop insensitive §  Delay insensitive §  TCP retransmits TelePresence §  Bursty §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  Jitter sensitive §  UDP priority
  15. 15. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16 •  Massive (exclusive) use of IP protocol also for voice and video! •  IP was not designed for multimedia •  Examples of challenges and real problems for multimedia networks: IPTV §  Audio/Video sync (lip sync) §  Channel change time §  Latency §  Scale Enterprise networks §  Quality of Service §  Bandwidth Reservation §  Authentication §  Security
  16. 16. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  17. 17. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18 •  Service quality •  Ability to provide different priorities to different applications, users, or data flows •  Guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow. E.g. bit rate, delay, jitter… •  QoS refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to selected network traffic Resource Reservation DSCP Control over resources Access Control QoE Most of the rest of the talk will focus on solutions for improved QoS on media networks
  18. 18. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19 Video Solutions Optimize User Experience Video Monitoring Media Optimization Media Aware Routing Auto-configuration Enable Video Solutions Video Demand Acceleration § Collaboration, security, information § Any device, anywhere § Optimized experience IT Efficiency § Multiple applications § Network optimization § Resource control § Visibility and management Medianet Service Interface APIs
  19. 19. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20 Identify Media Classify Schedule Provision/ Resource Control Monitor, Troubleshoot, Optimize Network Management WAN Flow metadata Media Monitoring EF AF41 Current Medianet Features
  20. 20. Metadata
  21. 21. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22 •  Metadata is set of attributes, describes the properties of traffic flow. Example: application identification (e.g. the flow is a webex-meeting stream) codec information (e.g. the flow is an RTP video with 90KHz clock frequency) •  Metadata can be produced by: Application Network Proxies •  Once produced, Metadata is transported via flow path towards destination •  Metadata is then consumed by various services in the network.
  22. 22. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23 1. Operator configures QoS policy on router Define a traffic class “telepresence” (class-­‐map with match  applica,on  telepresence)   Configure preferential treatment for this class (policy-­‐map  with DSCP setting or queuing) 2. Application signals metadata through MSI [flow = <e1,p1,e2,p2,  udp> , application-name = ”telepresence”] 3. Metadata arrives at the router Program the data plane: flow <e1,p1,e2,p2,  udp> is telepresence class 4. Application starts sending media traffic Media flow receives preferential treatment at the router 1. 2. 3. 4.
  23. 23. Media Monitoring
  24. 24. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25 •  Hard to pinpoint root cause •  What path? •  Quantify quality (what is good/bad video quality?) Quality Issues: Resolution Artifacts Frozen Frame … CTMS ISP B ISP A Firewall Router Router L3Switch Router Router L3Switch L2Switch L3Switch L3Switch Router Router L2Switch WAAS L3Switch
  25. 25. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 CTMS ISP B ISP A Firewall Router Router L3Switch Router Router L3Switch L2Switch L3Switch L3Switch Router Router L2Switch WAAS L3Switch §  For TCP, RTP provides: Fault-isolation, problem ownership assignment Accelerated troubleshooting SLA validation §  Identifies and measures user traffic on routers, switches and endpoints network contribution (loss, jitter) to media stream Applied on interface: inbound and/or outbound
  26. 26. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27 Media Flow Mediatrace Initiator & local Responder Mediatrace Responder Mediatrace Responder Mediatrace Responder PM PM PM PM 1. Configure 2. Pull 3. Clean-up 4. Teardown
  27. 27. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  28. 28. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29 •  Main Goal: Improve QoE of media delivery •  Initial focus: Multiparty video conference (more later) •  Map Network Metric to QoE •  Inference and resource estimation Effective use of feedback from network (PerfMon, Mediatrace) •  Multipath streaming Based on network feedback, choose the appropriate path for media (Metadata) Other forms of coding (e.g., SVC) to be considered •  Network processing Network nodes can help coders (typically at endpoint) with basic tasks E.g., combining flows (network coding)
  29. 29. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30 Preliminary ideas: •  Switching is more scalable, but how to adjust the sending rates? •  Several “helpers”, not only one server. Interesting problem: how are packets relayed •  SVC relevant for switching. Metadata can save effort at measuring. PfR could help, e.g., to relay traffic among helpers •  Can helpers do network coding? •  How can network feedback (Perfmon, MT) be used here? Conference Server <active speaker> Conference Server <active speaker> Transcoding Switching
  30. 30. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31 Sending Rate Congestion Feedback
  31. 31. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  32. 32. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33 •  Android •  ABR streaming (http streaming) •  WebRTC
  33. 33. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34 What are your ideas?
  34. 34. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35 •  Medianet: www.cisco.com/go/medianet •  IoE: http://www.cisco.com/web/tomorrow-starts-here/index.html •  Videos: http://youtu.be/nWqzn2Eri7U http://youtu.be/TcDkDoQSrVA http://youtu.be/5FSmkKXNxq8 http://youtu.be/BJSjbttGaVM
  35. 35. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  36. 36. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 COLLABORATION •  Connect people not endpoints •  Conversations not calls •  Familiar, intuitive, natural •  Seamless software & hardware integration •  Any media, any device to anyone at any time
  37. 37. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38 Wave 2: COLLABORATION Wave 3: BUSINESS INTEGRATION Wave 1: COMMUNICATION VIDEO INTEGRATED INTO THE WAY WE WORK Video A Business Critical Application Video Over IP Networks Moving Video to Mainstream
  38. 38. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39 Mobile Executive Contact Center Desk-lessInfoWorker Cisco Unified Communications ManagerCOLLABORATION
  39. 39. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40 SCHEDULE Voice, Video and Content From within Email Click to Join, One Button to Push LAUNCH MEET End-to-End Security 1 2 3 Ease of Scheduling Launch from Anywhere Two-way video and content
  40. 40. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41 •  Automatically identifies, prioritizes and protects •  Vastly expanded portfolio of supported endpoints •  New metadata and media monitoring capabilities •  Now supported in flagship switching and routing platforms •  Using network intelligence to put a “crystal ball” for video in the hands of IT managers globally Available Q1 CY13
  41. 41. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42 Medianet Environments End User Business and CustomerIT Administrator Platform Services Activity Stream and Social Graph Content Management IM and Presence Directory and Identity Scheduling and Calendaring Voice and Video Delivery Model Cisco HostedOn Premises Partner Hosted Experience
  42. 42. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43 •  Cisco & Innovation •  Medianet: Architecture for pervasive media experience •  Problem Statement •  Today (What are we executing on) •  Tomorrow •  Academia •  Prototype •  Product status •  Conclusion
  43. 43. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
  44. 44. Thank you.
  45. 45. C97-666590-00 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4646
  46. 46. C97-666590-00 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47 1995 First Office in Switzerland 2009 First Server Shipped 1993 First Acquisition Crescendo 2006 TelePresence Launched 1999 First IP Phone 150+ Since 2010 ‘Cool IT’ ranking Top 3 2011/12 Cisco Switzerland Ranked #1 2007 WebEx Acquisition 2002 Andiamo Acquisition – developer of intelligent storage, switching products 2003 Acquisition 2012 Swisscom sustainability award to Cisco Acquisitions over 19 years 1984 Company Founded 1984 1993 1995 1999 2002 2003 2006 2007 2009 2010 2012
  47. 47. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48 170 Years Ago: Invention of the Telegraph 100 Years Ago: Invention of the Radio 70 Years Ago: First general purpose electronic computer 40 Years Ago: First Internet connection 20 Years Ago: World Wide Web TodayIntelligently Connecting People, Process, Data, and Things 2003: 0.5B Connected Devices 2005: IP Traffic: 29 exabytes 2005: First Smartphone 2008: Video Traffic: 21 exabytes 2010: 7B Connected Devices 2010: 0.5B Smartphones 2012: 50M Connected Ca 2011: 90M Smartmeters
  48. 48. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49 Internet of Everything Digitize the World Connecting: •  People •  Process •  Data •  Things Intelligent Connections Connectivity Digitize Access to Information •  Email •  Web Browser •  Search Immersive Experiences Digitize Interactions (Business & Social) •  Social •  Mobility •  Cloud •  Video Networked Economy Digitize Business Process •  E-commerce •  Digital Supply Chain •  Collaboration Business and Societal Impact
  49. 49. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50 Our Focus on Integration Provides our Customers with a Competitive Advantage Our Diverse Product Portfolio Means We’re Here for the Long-Term Breadth and Depth of Technology Portfolio 62% #1 Routing: Edge/Core/Access 50% #1 TelePresence 55% #1 Wireless LAN 68% #1 Switching: Modular/Fixed 40% #1 Voice 41% #1 Web Conferencing 17% #3 x86 Blade Servers 44% #2 Storage: Area Networks 32% #1 Security
  50. 50. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51 Mobile | Social | Visual | Virtual Video Collaboration Data Center/ Virtualization/ Cloud Architectures for Business Transformation Intelligent Network •  Routing •  Switching •  Services Leadership in the Core… Strategic Building Blocks Mobility | Security | Any to Any
  51. 51. © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52 Find Filter Business Unit Formed Graduate Eliminate Accelerate Ideas Incubate Initiate Customers New Customers Employees Corporate All Business Functions Fixed time Startup-like team Adoption focus Market focus Structured BU Idea è Prototype Market trial Incubate/Initiate Accelerated path
  52. 52. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53 REVENUEGROWTH TIME INCUBATE/INITIATE GROWTH MATURITY Patents, Pre-standard Standardization groups Round A/B funding Standardization Competitive position Best practice Testimonials Customers or Industry requirements Demo, Prototype Market share Vertical market solutions Cust Sat (quality) Market share Churn/Roadmap Cust Sat (quality) Service attach rate Differentiated margins Growth (units & revenue) Standard margins Top/Bottom line Standard margins Top/Bottom line Cost optimization Next business?
  53. 53. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54 Encoder Packetiser Encoder Packetiser Video Audio M U L T I P LE XE R Transport Stream PES PES ES MPEG Compression Layer MPEG Systems Layer+ DVB/ATSC Programme Specific Information(PSI) or Service Information (SI) M O D U L A T O R DVB ATSC Data ES Timing DTS/ PTS System Time Clock (STC) PacketiserData PES Packetiser PES ? An example for TS streaming
  54. 54. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55 *Note: Latency Here Is Referring to Network Latency Traffic Profiles and Requirements •  Latency ≤ 150 ms •  Jitter ≤ 30 ms •  Loss ≤ 1% One-Way Requirements Voice Bandwidth per Call Depends on Codec, Sampling-Rate, and Layer 2 Media Video-Conf §  Latency ≤ 150 ms §  Jitter ≤ 30 ms §  Loss ≤ 1% One-Way Requirements IP/VC Has the Same Requirements as VoIP, but Has Radically Different Traffic Patterns (BW Varies Greatly) Data Data Classes: Mission-Critical Apps Transactional/Interactive Apps Bulk Data Apps Best Effort Apps (Default) Traffic Patterns for Data Vary Among Applications TelePresence Telepresence bandwidth varies based on the resolutions and has Radically Different Traffic Patterns §  Latency* ≤ 200ms §  Jitter ≤ 10 ms §  Loss ≤ 0.05% §  Bandwidth (5 Mbps per screen @1080P) One-Way Requirements §  Smooth §  Benign §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  UDP priority §  Bursty §  Greedy §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  UDP priority §  Smooth/bursty §  Benign/greedy §  Drop insensitive §  Delay insensitive §  TCP retransmits §  Bursty §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  Jitter sensitive §  UDP priority
  55. 55. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56 Traffic Profiles and Requirements •  Streaming  with  some  additional  needs   •  Camera  feed  is  approx  1  –  3Mbps  (UDP)   •  Uni-­‐cast    or,  optionally,  multi-­‐cast   •  Storage  uses  iSCSI  (TCP)   •  Total  Bandwidth  depends  on  simultaneous  viewings   •  Latency*  ≤  150ms;    Jitter  ≤  10  ms;    Loss  ≤  0.05%   •  Bandwidth  (200K  bps  to  3.5M  bps)   One-­‐Way  Requirements   •  TrafHic  patterns  could  be  engineered   •  Uni-­‐cast    or,  optionally,  multi-­‐cast   •  Could  leverage  content  networking   •  Total  Bandwidth  depends  on  simultaneous  viewings   •  Latency.  No  real  constraints  could  impact  experience  (i.e.  channel  change)   •  Jitter  ≤  1s  (player  will  leverage  buffering);    Loss  ≤  0.05%  (for  HD);    Bandwidth  (250Kbps   to  4M  bps)   One-­‐Way  Requirements   Surveillance §  Bursty §  Drop sensitive §  Delay sensitive §  Jitter sensitive Media Streaming §  Bursty §  Drop sensitive §  Delay and Jitter insensitive
  56. 56. Cisco Confidential© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 57 Performance Routing High Packet Loss over this link, let’s see if I can find a better path
  57. 57. Cisco Confidential© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 58 Performance Routing Let’s move Telepresence Traffic to other link
  58. 58. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59

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