What is trust?
Why is “trust” important?
Are there potential negative
consequences to trust?
AMINE AYAD – DM 2
Different authors define trust differently
Assured reliance on the character, ability, strength, or truth of someone or
something (Source: merriam-webster.com).
An expectancy held by an individual or a group that the word, promise, verbal or
written statement of another individual or group can be relied upon (Rotter, 1967:
A personality trait of people interacting within an organization (Farris, Senner, &
Butterfield ; 1973: 145).
AMINE AYAD - DM 3
Numerous theories attempted to explain trust
Classic theory of management: Workers are motivated by external factors i.e. rewards &
punishment. They would slack without supervision
Economists: Humans are self-benefiting in an opportunistic way
Agency theory: Trust is a product of negotiations i.e. contractual
Anthropologists: Trust is cultural i.e. in certain cultures actions are done for the benefit of the
collective not the individual
Social identity theory: Individual identity tied to the organization i.e. mutual success necessitates
AMINE AYAD - DM 4
Calculated and uncalculated methods of trust provide clarity to
I trust you because you will be held
accountable if you don’t fulfill my trust. It is
in your best self-interest. It is contractual.
I trust you because you will have my best
interest in mind regardless of external
factors such as rewards & punishments and
/ or contractual obligations.
AMINE AYAD - DM 5
Seven dangerous factors that lead to bad team performance
Lack of TrustWeak
AMINE AYAD - DM 6
Absence of trust among team members hampers team’s
Don’t ask for
Don’t offer to
Don’t tap into
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Employee’s trust is shaped by 4 key influencers
Leader or CEO Other Employees
Direct Supervisor Company
AMINE AYAD - DM 8
There is a relationship between trust and performance
Davis et al. (2000) found that trust was significantly related to sales, profit and
turnover, and to employees' perceptions of their managers' integrity and competence.
Observation: Trust without verification process opens the door for risks and
AMINE AYAD - DM 9
Trust building is about managing the task, self, and
Openness in communication was seen as highly important, because gate-keeping of
information or keeping employees in ignorance, creates uncertainty, fear and distrust.
Essentially, supervisors were most likely to be trusted if they were seen to take a
caring, mentoring approach with their supervisees while still being regarded as
competent and deserving of authority. By contrast, managers perceived as
untrustworthy were seen as self-serving, failing to give recognition, stifling the
employee's potential, quick to blame and criticize, and perceived as incompetent. It
can be concluded that a trusted supervisor not only manages the task responsibilities
of his or her role, but manages the relationship and power differences positively at the
same time (Evans, 1996)
AMINE AYAD - DM 10
Mentorship builds trust
Not all supervisors are mentors; however, Bell (1996) argues that, when supervisors
take on a mentoring role (formally or informally), the individuals as well as the
organization benefit. House (1981) identified four dimensions of mentoring: emotional
support (e.g. trust, concern, listening and esteem); appraisal support (e.g. affirmation,
feedback); informational support (e.g., advice, suggestions, directives and
information); and instrumental support (e.g. resources, labor and time). These factors
are clearly related to issues of trust in supervisor-supervisee relationships.
AMINE AYAD - DM 11
Integrity & Sincerity are key elements to building trust &
Efficiency leading to
AMINE AYAD - DM 12
POA to build trust
Create a Plan of Action (POA) to build trust:
Sincere self-reflection on trust-relationships (Transparency, Competency, Reliability, Consistency, Fairness,
Trust assessment (360 surveys)
Employees who report directly to you
Other employees in your business
AMINE AYAD - DM 13