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What happens in the barzakh? (Hereafter, Islamic belief, afterlife)

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According to Islamic belief, the afterlife commences with the barzakh. After death, souls move on to the barzakh, where they experience many things, until the blow of the trumpet and the subsequent arrival of the Day of Judgment. This PowerPoint presentation examines what happens in that time in the barzakh according to Qur'an and hadith (especially from the Shi'i school of thought). Large file size is due to embedded video clips.

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What happens in the barzakh? (Hereafter, Islamic belief, afterlife)

  1. 1. What happens in the barzakh? Amina Inloes Blackburn, UK 25 September 2016 We will intercede on your behalf on the Day of Judgement; but by Allah, I am worried about you in the barzakh”. – Imam al-Sadiq (A)
  2. 2. َ‫ل‬ ِ‫ون‬ُ‫ع‬ ِ‫ج‬ْ‫ار‬ ِ‫ب‬َ‫ر‬ َ‫ال‬َ‫ق‬ ُ‫ت‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫د‬َ‫َح‬‫أ‬ ‫اء‬َ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ى‬‫َّت‬َ‫ح‬َ‫ر‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬َ‫يم‬ِ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ً ِ‫اِل‬َ‫ص‬ ُ‫ل‬َ‫م‬ْ‫َع‬‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬‫ا‬َ‫ه‬‫ى‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ى‬‫َّل‬َ‫ك‬ ُ‫ت‬ْ‫ك‬ ِ‫م‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ي‬ َ‫َل‬ِ‫إ‬ ٌ‫خ‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫ر‬َ‫ب‬ ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ائ‬َ‫ر‬َ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ُ‫ل‬ِ‫ائ‬َ‫ق‬ َ‫و‬ُ‫ه‬ ٌ‫ة‬َ‫م‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ك‬َ‫ن‬‫و‬َُُ‫ع‬ُْْ‫ي‬ When death comes to one of them, they say, ‘My Lord! Take me back, that I may act righteously in what I have left behind.’ ‘By no means! These are mere words that he says.’ And ahead of them is a barrier until the day they will be resurrected. (23:99- 100)
  3. 3. Why think about the next life?
  4. 4. How do you feel about the next life?
  5. 5. Brainstorming Name 1 thing that happens after death
  6. 6. What is the barzakh?
  7. 7. What is it like to die? Imam Zain al-’Abidin (A) was asked about death. He replied, “It is for the believer like removing dirty clothes, or like removing heavy shackles and chains, and changing to the finest and best clothes, or the finest horses and most lovely abode. And for an unbeliever it is like changing fine dresses and cosy abodes for the dirtiest and roughest clothes, and worst and most unspacious abode, and greatest punishment”. “Patience…death is nothing but a bridge which takes you from difficulties and troubles to the vast Paradise and everlasting bliss. So, who among you would not like to go from the prison of the world to the palace of the Paradise? But these enemies of yours will go from a palace to a prison and ever-lasting punishment. My father said that the Messenger of Allah said, ‘Verily the world is the prison for the believers and paradise for the unbelievers’. And death is the bridge for these (believers) to their Gardens, and for those (unbelievers) to their Hell. I do not tell lies, nor was I told lies”. - Imam Husain (A) on Ashura
  8. 8. Opening the eyes
  9. 9. َ‫ح‬ َ‫و‬َ‫هل‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ي‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُّ‫ق‬ِ‫ي‬ Indeed this is the certain truth (56:95)
  10. 10. Who do we see? “One day when Ibrahim (A) returned home he saw an individual whose beauty and countenance was the like that he had never encountered before. He asked, “Who are you?” “I am the angel of death”, he replied. He said, “Glory be to God! How can someone who sees you dislike you, when you are so beautiful?” The angel replied, “O Friend of the all-Merciful! When God desires goodness for an individual He sends me in this form to him. But when He desires to punish him He sends me in a different form.” – Imam al-Sadiq (A) “O Ali, verily who love you will be glad in three places: at the time of death, because you will be there visiting them; at the questioning in the grave as you will be there teaching them; and at the time of coming before Allah, because you will be there introducing them” – the Prophet (S)
  11. 11. Three groups… ِِْ‫ي‬َ‫ط‬ ُ‫ة‬َ‫ك‬ِ‫آلئ‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫م‬ُ‫اه‬‫ى‬‫ف‬َ‫و‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ْ‫اد‬ ُ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ٌ‫َّلم‬َ‫س‬ َ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ق‬َ‫ي‬ َ‫ي‬‫ا‬َِ‫ِب‬ َ‫ة‬‫ى‬‫ن‬َْ‫اْل‬ ْ‫ا‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬ُ‫خ‬ َ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ت‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫نت‬ُ‫ك‬ Those whom the angels take away while they are pure – they say [to them], 'Peace be to you! Enter paradise because of what you used to do.' (16:32)
  12. 12. Three groups… Those whom the angels take away while they are wronging themselves. Thereat they submit: 'We were not doing any evil!‘ Yes, indeed Allah knows the best what you used to do! Enter the gates of hell to remain in it [forever]. Evil is the [final] abode of the arrogant.' (16:28-29) Were you to see when the wrongdoers are in the throes of death, and the angels extend their hands [saying]: 'Give up your souls! Today you shall be requited with a humiliating punishment because of what you used to attribute to Allah untruly, and for your being disdainful towards His signs.’ (6:93)
  13. 13. The third group?
  14. 14. When is it too late?
  15. 15. We carried the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh and his troops followed them out of defiance and aggression. When drowning overtook him, he said, “I believe that there is no God except Him in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of those who submit [to God]!” [It will be said] “Now?! When you were disobedient before, and you were among the agents of corruption? So today We shall save your body so that you may be a sign for those after you.” And many people are oblivious to Our signs. (10:90-92)
  16. 16. ِ‫ي‬‫ى‬‫س‬‫ال‬ َ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬ َ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬ِ‫ل‬ ُ‫ة‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ىو‬‫الت‬ ِ‫ت‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫و‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫د‬َ‫َح‬‫أ‬ َ‫ر‬َ‫ض‬َ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ى‬‫َّت‬َ‫ح‬ ِ‫ات‬َ‫ئ‬ُ‫ت‬ُْْ‫ت‬ ِ‫ّن‬ِ‫إ‬ َ‫ال‬َ‫ق‬ ُ‫ت‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬ َ‫ك‬ِ‫ئ‬َ‫ل‬ْ‫ُو‬‫أ‬ ٌ‫ار‬‫ى‬‫ف‬ُ‫ك‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫و‬ َ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ت‬‫و‬َُ‫َي‬ َ‫ين‬ِ‫ذ‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ َ‫ال‬َ‫و‬ َ‫ن‬‫اآل‬‫ا‬ً‫يم‬ِ‫َل‬‫أ‬ ًً‫ا‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ع‬ ْ‫م‬َُ‫هل‬ ََْ‫د‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫َع‬‫أ‬ Repentance is not for those who persist in committing misdeeds. when death approaches any of them, they say, “I repent now.” Nor is it for those who die while they are faithless. For such We have prepared a painful punishment. (4:18)
  17. 17. How late is too late? "Whoever repents one year before his death, Allah will turn (mercifully) to him." Then he said: "Surely, a year is too long; whoever repents one month before his death, Allah will turn (mercifully) to him." Then he said: "Surely a month is too long; whoever repents one day before his death, Allah will turn (mercifully) to him." Then he said: "Surely a day is too long; whoever repents one hour before his death, Allah will turn (mercifully) to him. Then he said: "Surely an hour is too long; whoever repents while his soul has reached here" - and he pointed with his hand to his throat - "Allah will turn (mercifully) to him." - the Prophet (S) in his final sermon "When the soul reaches here“ – he pointed to his larynx – “there is no repentance for the knower; but there is repentance for the ignorant.” - Imam al- Baqir (A) Have you had any warnings of death in this life?
  18. 18. What happens in the barzakh? • Squeezing of the grave • Questioning in the grave – Munkar and Nakir, or Mubashshir and Bashir • Loneliness and adjustment • Reliving one’s life; writing and closing the book of deeds
  19. 19. The talqin: What can you deduce from it? Listen and understand, listen and understand, listen and understand, O______ son/daughter of_____. Are you on the same covenant (‘ahd) on which you were when you parted from us? That covenant is the testimony of the fact that there is no God but Allah, Who is only One and Who has no partner. And the testimony that – without doubt – Muhammad, may the peace of Allah be on him and his descendants –is the slave and prophet of Allah and is the master of all the prophets and is the last of them. And that Ali is the chief of the believers and the leader of all the successors, and he is an Imam whose obedience has been made obligatory on the whole world. And that Hasan and Husain, and Ali son of Husain, and Muhammad son of ‘Ali, and Ja’far son of Muhammad, and Musa son of Ja‘far, and ‘Ali son of Musa, and Muhammad son of ‘Ali, and ‘Ali son of Muhammad, and Hasan son of Ali, and Muhammad, the awaited one, son of Hasan – may the peace of Allah be on them all – are the Imams of all believers and are the authorities on the whole world, and all these Imams are guides for the pious persons. O______son/daughter of______, when the two favourite angels sent by Allah to approach you and inquire from you about your God, your prophet, your religion, your book, your qiblah and your Imams, do not be afraid or grieved or worried, but say in reply…
  20. 20. Can the deceased understand? The Companions of the Garden will call out to the Companions of the Fire: "We have indeed found the promises of our Lord to us true: Have you also found Your Lord's promises true?" They shall say, "Yes"; but a crier shall proclaim between them: "The curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers.” (7:44)
  21. 21. What happens next? • Meeting with familiar souls • Separation from the grave • Travelling to other parts of the barzakh (including wadi al-salam and wadi al-barahut) “Souls occupy forms that resemble human bodies and live in gardens of paradise; they recognize and communicate with one another. And when a new arrival joins them, they leave him alone for a while to recover after his difficult experience. Then they ask him about different individuals; if he says that they were alive when he died they become hopeful that he may join them, but if he says that they had died, they cry out, “he has fallen, fallen.” – Imam al-Sadiq (A)
  22. 22. Imam ‘Ali (A) and the deceased
  23. 23. Then what? • Reward and punishment • Growth • Sleeping and the raj‘ah • The next phase
  24. 24. A deeper discussion of the nature of the barzakh
  25. 25. What do we bring to the barzakh? • Embodiment of deeds • Righteous children • Copies of the Qur’an which s/he used to read • A public well or canals • Trees • Charity that continues • A good practice • An evil practice • Books and students
  26. 26. Other questions • What do we look like in the barzakh? • What can we do for people in the barzakh? • Can people in the barzakh interact with us?
  27. 27. َُ‫ت‬ َْ‫َل‬ ِ‫ِت‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ ‫ا‬َِ‫ِت‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬ َ‫ي‬ِ‫ح‬ َ‫س‬ُ‫ف‬‫َن‬ْ‫اْل‬ ‫ى‬‫َّف‬َ‫و‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ي‬ ُ‫ى‬‫اَّلل‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ض‬َ‫ق‬ ِ‫ِت‬‫ى‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ُ‫ك‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫م‬ُ‫ي‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ِ‫ام‬َ‫ن‬َ‫م‬ ِ‫ِف‬ ْ‫ت‬َ‫ت‬ْ‫و‬َ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬‫ى‬َ‫ر‬ْ‫ُخ‬ْ‫اْل‬ ُ‫ل‬ِ‫س‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫ي‬َ‫و‬ ‫ى‬‫ك‬َ‫ف‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ي‬ ٍ‫م‬ْ‫و‬َ‫ق‬ِ‫ل‬ ٍ‫ت‬َ‫َي‬ َ‫آل‬ َ‫ك‬ِ‫ل‬َ‫ذ‬ ِ‫ِف‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ى‬ًّ‫م‬َ‫س‬ُ‫م‬ ٍ‫ل‬َ‫َج‬‫أ‬ َ‫َل‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ن‬‫و‬ُ‫ر‬ Allah takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that have not died in their sleep. Then He holds on to those whom He has ordained death for, and sends back the others until a specified time. There are signs in that for a people who reflect. (39:42) Preparing for the journey: Sleep, the partner of death…

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