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  1. 1. 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM1,Bangalore
  2. 2. Introduction Alkaloid –containing plants constitute an extremely varied group both taxonomically and chemically, a basic nitrogen being the only unifying factor for the various classes. Alkaloids are a group of nitrogen- containing bases. But few of them are derived from purines or pyrimidines, while the majority of them are produced from amino acids . 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM2,Bangalore
  3. 3. Alkaloid is term defined from alkali-like , but this could not be defined well as these were derivatives from complex amins , typical alkaloid is derived from plant source They are basic They contain one or more nitrogen atoms. Have a marked physiological action either on man or on animal.09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM3,Bangalore
  4. 4. The name prototype-alkaloid or amino alkaloid are applied to compounds such as hordenine, ephedrine and colchine which lack one or more properties of typical alkaloids. Others which contain synthetic compounds but are closely related09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM4,Bangalore
  5. 5. Position The position of the nitrogen atom in the carbon ring varies with different alkaloids and with different plant families. In some alkaloids, such as mescaline, the nitrogen atom is not in a carbon ring. Nitrogen09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM5,Bangalore
  6. 6. Graphical representation09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM6,Bangalore
  7. 7. History The first isolations of alkaloids were in the nineteenth centuary.Prior to approximately 300 years ago the first onewas NICOTINE .Malaria was the scourge ofEurope, likely having been introduced through theMiddle East. To over come the disease cinchonawas used , this was the first breakthrough where inan alkaloid was isolated from the bark of cinchonathe “QUININE” which is one among the 31alkaloids obtained from the cinchona bark. 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM7,Bangalore
  8. 8. Earliest alkaloids 1. Narcotine-1803 ----Tobacco 2. Morphine-1806 & 816—Opium 3. Strychnin-1817—Strychous 4. Emetine—1817-- 5. Brucine-1819---Strychous 6. Piperine– 1819-- 7. Caffine 1819--Coffee 8. Quinine 1820--Cinchona 9. Colchine 1820-- 10. Coniine -1826-Hemlock 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM8,Bangalore
  9. 9. ConiineConiine - 1826 wasthe first to have itsstructureestablished .It wasdone by Schiff in1870 andsynthesized byLadenburg in 188909/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM9,Bangalore
  10. 10. Distribution The alkaloid chemistry starts about 150 yrs back, by the mid 1940s there were about 800 Alkaloids isolated, with the new technologies by the next 50 yrs we have about 10,000 alkaloids isolated at present, there is more and more demand of the isolated alkaloids leading to the discovery of about 10 alkaloids per year. There is rare occurece in the lower plants like fungi but among the pteridophytes and gymnosperms the ephedra and taxus alkaloids have medicinal value. 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM10 ,Bangalore
  11. 11. Commonly found in the orders of: • Centrospermae –(Chenopodiaceae) • Magnoliales (Lauraceae Magnoliaceae) • Ranuculales (Berberidaceae) • Papaverales (Papeverace) • Rosales (Leguminosae) • Rutales (Rutaceae) • Gentales (Apocynaceace) • Tubiflorae (Boraginaceae, Solanceae) • Campanulales (Campanulaceae) 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM11 ,Bangalore
  12. 12. Centrospermae –(Chenopodiaceae) aaaa Chenopodium ficifolium - Fig-leaved Goosefoot09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM12 ,Bangalore
  13. 13. Magnoliales (Lauraceae Magnoliaceae) Magnoliales09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM13 ,Bangalore
  14. 14. Ranuculales (Berberidaceae) Berberis trifoliolata09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM14 ,Bangalore
  15. 15. Properties • Well defined crystalline substances. • Unite to acids to form salts • They may exist in free state or as N-oxides. • Consists of elements carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen . • Most of them contain oxygen. But a few of them are oxygen free , hence they are liquids .They are coniine from hemlock (Shukraan) and nicotine from tobacco (Tambaaku)09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM15 ,Bangalore
  16. 16. Properties Apart from these there are a few of exception of colored alkaloids like. •Berberine-Yellow •Sanguinarine-Copper red09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM16 ,Bangalore
  17. 17. Properties Solubility •The alkolidal salts are have good solubility in water than in a organic solvent. •Free bases are more frequently soluble in organic solvent than water. •They have their unique solubility property like—Quinine sulphate is only soluble in 1: 1000 parts of water.09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM17 ,Bangalore
  18. 18. Structure and classification Based on the chemical structures there are two broad classifications. Heterocyclic or Non heterocyclic typical alkaloids or There are 14 types atypical alkaloids according to their Protal kaloids Ring structure. Biological amines 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM18 ,Bangalore
  19. 19. Types 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM19 ,Bangalore
  20. 20. Nonhetrocyclic Alkaloids  Hordenine—germinating barley Mesoline --- Lophophora williamssi (Cateacea) Ephedrine-Ephedra spp (Ephedraceae) Cholachine—Colchium spp (Liliaceae) Erythromycin –Streptomyces erytreus (Bacteriophyta) 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM20 ,Bangalore
  21. 21. Nonhetrocyclic Alkaloids 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM21 ,Bangalore
  22. 22. Heterocyclic alkaloids Pyrrole and pyrolidine –coca spp (Erythroxylaceae) Hygrines---Solanceace Stachydrine- soya bean and other leguminosae 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM22 ,Bangalore
  23. 23. Pyrrolizidine Symphitine, echimidine-----Symphytum spp Senecionine , seneciphylline , etc/---Senecio spp 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM23 ,Bangalore
  24. 24. Pyridine and piperidine  Trigonella----Fenugreek  Coniine—Conium maculatum  Arecoline----Araca catechu  Lobeline---Lobeliaceae  Pelletierine---Punica grantum  Nicotine—Nicotiana tabacum  Anabasine—Nicotiana glauca  Pipernine---Piper spp  Ricinine—Ricinus comunis 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM24 ,Bangalore
  25. 25. Pyridine and piperidine 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM25 ,Bangalore
  26. 26. Tropane  Hyoscyamina,atropine---Dhatura  Calystegines—convolvulus spp, Morus spp  Cocaine—Cocoa species  Pseudo pelletierine—Punica grantum 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM26 ,Bangalore
  27. 27. Quinoline  Quinine----Cinchona Cusparine----Angostura or cusparia 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM27 ,Bangalore
  28. 28. Isoquinoline  Papaverine,narcenia,narcotine—Papavera spp  Corydaline--Corydalis  Hydrastine , berberine—Numerous genera  Emetine---Cephaaelis spp  Tubocurarine—Curare  Morphine—Papavera spp  Erythraline—Erythrine spp  Galanthamine—Leucojum aestivum 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM28 ,Bangalore
  29. 29. Isoquinoline 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM29 ,Bangalore
  30. 30. Aporphine  Boldine---Peumus boldus 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM30 ,Bangalore
  31. 31. Norlupinane  Sparteine—Lupine alkaloids Cystine Lupanine Laburnine 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM31 ,Bangalore
  32. 32. Indole or benzopyrrole  Ergometrine---Claviceps  Lysergic acid amine—Rivea corymbosa  Physostigmine--Physstigma  Ajmalina,serpentine , reserpine-Rauwolfia spp  Yohimbine, as pidospermine—Aspidosperma spp  Vimblastine –Catharanthus roseus  Calabash---Strychnos spp  Strychnine , brucin-- Strychnos spp 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM32 ,Bangalore
  33. 33. Indole or benzopyrrole 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM33 ,Bangalore
  34. 34. Indolizidine  Castanospermine-castanspermum Swainsonine—swainsona spp 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM34 ,Bangalore
  35. 35. Indazole Pilocarpine—Pilocarpus spp 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM35 ,Bangalore
  36. 36. Purine  Caffine—coca spp 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM36 ,Bangalore
  37. 37. Theobromine Striodal  Solanidine---Shoots of potato. Spp  Veratrum alkamina –Veratrum spp Conessine—Holarrhea spp Funtumine—Funtumia spp 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM37 ,Bangalore
  38. 38. Theobromine --Terpinod  Aconite—Aconitum spp Atisine—Delphinium spp Lyctonie 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM38 ,Bangalore
  39. 39. Pseudo alkaloids These are those alkaloids which are not derived from regular amines. 09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM39 ,Bangalore
  40. 40. Extraction of Alkaloids There are two major methods for the extraction of alkaloids. 80 70 60 50 Alkaloids 40 Water 30 Mineral 20 10 009/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM40 1st Qtr ,Bangalore
  41. 41. Extraction of AlkaloidsProcess A Powdered material wa te r Alkaloids Lime09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM41 ,Bangalore
  42. 42. Extraction of AlkaloidsProcess B Powdered material Water or aqueous alcohol containing dilute acid Chloroform Alkaloids Or other Organic solvents09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM42 ,Bangalore
  43. 43. Tests for alkaloids Precipitation tests with reagents •Mayer’s-potassiomecric iodide •Hager’s –saturated solution of picric acid •Wager’s- solution-iodine in potassium iodide •Dragendroff ’s-solution of potassium bismuth iodide A few like caffine (a purine derivative ) does not precipitate with above reagents , hence it is detected by mixing the alkaloid material with small amount of Potassium chlorate and a drop of hydrochloric acid Purple color is obtained after evaporation of ammonia09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM43 ,Bangalore
  44. 44. Functions of Alkaloids 1. Act as good potassium intake media. 2. Transport vehicle 3. Enzyme inhibition 4. To produce alkaloid free drug. 5. Foreign alkaloid 6. Plant metabolism 7. To reduce tissue damage.09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM44 ,Bangalore
  45. 45. Alkaloids Dr. Hakim Ajmal Khan (1863–December 29, 1927) was a noted Indian freedom fighter, renowned physician and educationalist.Hakim Ajmal Khan and opened a dawakhana in lahore which has its branches throughout Pakistan. It was opened under the name of Dawakhana Hakim Ajmal Khan Private Ltd and is running ever since. Dr. Khans descendants still live in Lahore. During his reign the alkaloids were discovered and isolated and as a tribute named after him by the then director Dr Salimuzaman Siddique (who was the director of research council). They were Ajmalinine and Ajmaline These were used for the treatment of aliments of nerves and brain , especially was a good Medicine for blood pressure.09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM45 Amina Ather Dr ,Bangalore
  46. 46. Alkaloids Ajmalinine Ajmaline09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM46 Amina Ather Dr ,Bangalore
  47. 47. Thank You Dr Aamina Ather09/10/12 Dept of Ilmul Advia, NIUM47 ,Bangalore