1914-1918: The World at War Susan Pojer
Differing Viewpoints <ul><li>“ Family Feud” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fall of the Eagles” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The War to End All...
Causes of the War
<ul><li>There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>But…….. </li></ul>
CAUSES <ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the nation’s buddy system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When one country ...
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance :
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers : Central Powers :
The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II  [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers : Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm ...
Europe in 1914
CAUSES <ul><li>Militerism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalry between Britian and Germany – both sides build up military </li></...
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.]  in millions of...
CAUSES <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations competed with one another for colonies and raw materials </li></u...
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
CAUSES <ul><li>Nationalism  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense feelings of pride for one’s country/nationality </li></ul></ul><...
4. Aggressive Nationalism
BALKANS <ul><li>Powder Keg of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This infuriate...
Pan-Slavism:  The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The “Spark”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
The Assassination:  Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
WWI BEGINS <ul><li>Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war </li></ul><ul><li>Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because t...
Who’s To Blame?
WWI BEGINS <ul><li>Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Ru...
SCHLIEFFEN PLAN <ul><li>Germany’s grand plan to avoid a 2 front war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack France fast before Russi...
The Schlieffen Plan
German Atrocities in Belgium
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I kno...
Recruitment Posters
A Young Australian Recruit
Recruits of the  Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
 
Women and the War Effort
Financing the War
For Recruitment
Munitions Workers
French Women Factory Workers
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Red Cross Nurses
Women in the Army Auxiliary
Russian Women Soldiers
Spies <ul><li>“ Mata Hari” </li></ul><ul><li>Real Name:   Margareetha   Geertruide   Zelle </li></ul><ul><li>German Spy! <...
Posters: Wartime Propaganda
Australian Poster
American Poster
Financing the War
German Poster
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front:   A “War of    Attrition ”
WESTERN FRONT <ul><li>3 year stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge casualities  </li></ul>...
The Western Front
Trench Warfare
Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 <ul><li>German offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side had 500,000 casualties. </li></ul>
The Somme – July, 1916 <ul><li>60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 mon...
War Is   HELL  !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Eastern Front
EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Millions died </li></ul><ul><li...
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
T. E. Lawrence  & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
The Tsar with General Brusilov
The “Colonial” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh  Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German  Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd  British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. </li><...
America Joins the Allies
US NUETRALITY <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson want to reamain neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson secrectly gives aide to Brits </...
LUSITANNIA <ul><li>Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americ...
The Sinking  of the Lusitania
ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM <ul><li>Secret message from Germany to Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Mexico allies with the Central P...
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming!
Americans in the Trenches
The War of the Industrial  Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
U-Boats
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, ...
Curtis-Martin  U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
The Zeppelin
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
“ Art” of World War I
“ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
“ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
“ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
1918 Flu Pandemic:  Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
END OF WAR <ul><li>Germans lost millions of soldiers – running out of reserves </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of American...
END OF WAR <ul><li>1918 – Arabs fight against the Turks/Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Italy changes sides and defeats A...
11 a.m., November 11, 1918
9,000,000   Dead
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) 387,800 2,133,190 Total 15,000 73,390 Trapi...
AFTERMATH AND PEACE <ul><li>Wilson comes up with plan called 14 points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No secret treaties </li></ul>...
AFTERMATH AND PEACE <ul><li>Europe accepts but the US denies and does not join the League of Nations </li></ul>
VERSAILLES TREATY
VERSILLE TREATY <ul><li>Conference of leaders – Big four </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US, Britain, France and Italy </li></ul></u...
TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Reduce size of German army </li></ul><ul><li>Germany to return Alsace Lorraine to France </li...
TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Troops would occupy Rhineland (German border) for 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Poland became in...
TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Became countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia <...
TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>**Huge problems with treaty – no one truly happy </li></ul><ul><li>**Germany could not pay </...
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W W1

  1. 1. 1914-1918: The World at War Susan Pojer
  2. 2. Differing Viewpoints <ul><li>“ Family Feud” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fall of the Eagles” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The War to End All Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of the War
  4. 4. <ul><li>There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>But…….. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CAUSES <ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the nation’s buddy system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When one country goes to war then many countries become involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Triple Alliance/Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Changes sides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Triple Entente/Allied Powers – France, Russia, Britain, Serbia, Belgium and USA </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance :
  7. 7. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers : Central Powers :
  8. 8. The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers : Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers : Enver Pasha [Turkey]
  9. 9. Europe in 1914
  10. 10. CAUSES <ul><li>Militerism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalry between Britian and Germany – both sides build up military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia doubles size of army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***When countries build up their militaries war is inevitable!!! </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 398 289 268 154 130 94 1914 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France
  12. 12. CAUSES <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations competed with one another for colonies and raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain and France VS Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***This constant competeing caused tension and unrest. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
  14. 14. CAUSES <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense feelings of pride for one’s country/nationality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some wanted lands back where they had a lot of people living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some wanted independence from countries that engulfed their culture </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 4. Aggressive Nationalism
  16. 16. BALKANS <ul><li>Powder Keg of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This infuriated the Serbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
  18. 18. The “Spark”
  19. 19. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
  20. 20. The Assassination: Sarajevo
  21. 21. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  22. 22. WWI BEGINS <ul><li>Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war </li></ul><ul><li>Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because they are allied with Serbia (Czar Nicholas does not believe that Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (cousin of the Czarina) will declare war on Russia. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Who’s To Blame?
  24. 24. WWI BEGINS <ul><li>Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to get to France Germany invades Belgium which causes Britain to declare war on Germany </li></ul>
  25. 25. SCHLIEFFEN PLAN <ul><li>Germany’s grand plan to avoid a 2 front war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack France fast before Russia has time to mobalize </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Schlieffen Plan
  27. 27. German Atrocities in Belgium
  28. 28. Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! <ul><li>Home by Christmas! </li></ul><ul><li>No major war in 50 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Recruitment Posters
  30. 30. A Young Australian Recruit
  31. 31. Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
  32. 32. New French Recruits
  33. 33. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  34. 35. Women and the War Effort
  35. 36. Financing the War
  36. 37. For Recruitment
  37. 38. Munitions Workers
  38. 39. French Women Factory Workers
  39. 40. German Women Factory Workers
  40. 41. Working in the Fields
  41. 42. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  42. 43. Red Cross Nurses
  43. 44. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  44. 45. Russian Women Soldiers
  45. 46. Spies <ul><li>“ Mata Hari” </li></ul><ul><li>Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle </li></ul><ul><li>German Spy! </li></ul>
  46. 47. Posters: Wartime Propaganda
  47. 48. Australian Poster
  48. 49. American Poster
  49. 50. Financing the War
  50. 51. German Poster
  51. 52. A Multi-Front War
  52. 53. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
  53. 54. WESTERN FRONT <ul><li>3 year stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge casualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1916 there were 2 million casualities </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. The Western Front
  55. 56. Trench Warfare
  56. 57. Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
  57. 58. Verdun – February, 1916 <ul><li>German offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side had 500,000 casualties. </li></ul>
  58. 59. The Somme – July, 1916 <ul><li>60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. </li></ul>
  59. 60. War Is HELL !!
  60. 61. Sacrifices in War
  61. 62. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  62. 63. The Eastern Front
  63. 64. EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Millions died </li></ul><ul><li>Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia Pulls out because of Revolution </li></ul>
  64. 65. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  65. 66. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  66. 67. T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  67. 68. T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  68. 69. The Tsar with General Brusilov
  69. 70. The “Colonial” Fronts
  70. 71. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  71. 72. Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  72. 73. Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  73. 74. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  74. 75. COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies. </li></ul>
  75. 76. America Joins the Allies
  76. 77. US NUETRALITY <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson want to reamain neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson secrectly gives aide to Brits </li></ul></ul>
  77. 78. LUSITANNIA <ul><li>Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americans – 1000 dead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans say the passenger ship is carrying munitions – Brits deny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ship sinks in under 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans also sink the Sussex </li></ul></ul>
  78. 79. The Sinking of the Lusitania
  79. 80. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM <ul><li>Secret message from Germany to Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Mexico allies with the Central Powers it could gain New Mexico, Arizona and Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land lost in 1848 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>**Telegram intercepted – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany to “Make the World Safe for Democracy” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 81. The Zimmerman Telegram
  81. 82. The Yanks Are Coming!
  82. 83. Americans in the Trenches
  83. 84. The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
  84. 85. French Renault Tank
  85. 86. British Tank at Ypres
  86. 87. U-Boats
  87. 88. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  88. 89. The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  89. 90. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  90. 91. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  91. 92. Looking for the “Red Baron?”
  92. 93. The Zeppelin
  93. 94. Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
  94. 95. Poison Gas Machine Gun
  95. 96. “ Art” of World War I
  96. 97. “ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
  97. 98. “ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  98. 99. “ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  99. 100. “ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  100. 101. “ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  101. 102. German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
  102. 103. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
  103. 104. END OF WAR <ul><li>Germans lost millions of soldiers – running out of reserves </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of Americans – allies have many reserves </li></ul>
  104. 105. END OF WAR <ul><li>1918 – Arabs fight against the Turks/Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Italy changes sides and defeats Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>November 1918 – Germany signs armistice (agreement to end fighting) </li></ul>
  105. 106. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
  106. 107. 9,000,000 Dead
  107. 108. The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
  108. 109. World War I Casualties
  109. 110. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
  110. 111. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) 387,800 2,133,190 Total 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European Turkey 70,000 309,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 27,000 371,800 Western Anatolia     Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey       16,800 225,000 Sivas 56,000 220,000 Bitlis 3,000 124,000 Diarbekir 35,000 204,000 Kharbert 500 197,000 Van 1,500 215,000 Erzerum 1922 1914 Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey
  111. 112. AFTERMATH AND PEACE <ul><li>Wilson comes up with plan called 14 points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No secret treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of the seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries need to reduce arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial powers should consider feelings of the people living there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***League of Nations </li></ul></ul>
  112. 113. AFTERMATH AND PEACE <ul><li>Europe accepts but the US denies and does not join the League of Nations </li></ul>
  113. 114. VERSAILLES TREATY
  114. 115. VERSILLE TREATY <ul><li>Conference of leaders – Big four </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US, Britain, France and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Powers not invited </li></ul>
  115. 116. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Reduce size of German army </li></ul><ul><li>Germany to return Alsace Lorraine to France </li></ul>
  116. 117. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Troops would occupy Rhineland (German border) for 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Poland became independent </li></ul><ul><li>War guilt clause – Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to the allies </li></ul><ul><li>Other Boundry changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary broke apart </li></ul></ul>
  117. 118. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Became countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithuania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latvia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire broke apart – Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon </li></ul></ul>
  118. 119. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>**Huge problems with treaty – no one truly happy </li></ul><ul><li>**Germany could not pay </li></ul><ul><li>**World wide depression </li></ul><ul><li>**Treaty of Versailles leads to WWII </li></ul>

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