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Audio feedback design models and tips

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These slides are part of the Audio Feedback Toolkit. You are free to use these resources.
Further ideas, guidance and information is available in the toolkit and elsewhere on the MELSIG site.

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Audio feedback design models and tips

  1. 1. Audio Feedback design, models, benefits and tips MELSIG: Audio Feedback Toolkit http://melsig.shu.ac.uk/?page_id=1196 Andrew Middleton, NTF Head of Academic Practice & Learning Innovation, Sheffield Hallam University @andrewmid With thanks to Anne Nortcliffe, Michelle Blackburn and innovators everywhere
  2. 2. Introduction We will find out about audio feedback  Consider many models for designing and using audio feedback  Understand when and why to use it within a feedback strategy  Hear what academics and students think about audio feedback  Consider the benefits of using audio feedback  Look at tips for giving audio feedback, technically and pedagogically
  3. 3. Definitions and descriptions What do we mean by audio feedback? What is audio feedback?  the recording and distribution of spoken feedback given on a student's work using diverse media
  4. 4. Definitions and descriptions What do we mean by audio feedback?  each academic devises a model of feedback that works for them and their students Audio feedback  takes many forms  needs to be fit for purpose  needs to be designed
  5. 5. Definitions and descriptions What do we mean by form or model of audio feedback? Forms and models Media TechnologyContext Pedagogy Academic designers will need to consider each of these dimensions
  6. 6. Audio – an adaptable space When to use audio feedback Audio feedback is spoken …it has different properties to written feedback  Some studies ask – “is audio better than written feedback?” (Fawcett & Oldfield, 2016; Nemec & Dintzner, 2015; Voelkel & Mello, 2014)  Audio is a powerful part of your feedback toolkit  Ask,  How does audio fit into your assessment strategy?  How does it combine with other methods? Which peg will fit the round hole?
  7. 7. When to use audio feedback Audio – an adaptable space Micro Basic technical matters of writing, e.g. spelling, grammar and referencing conventions Middle Supporting student’s ability to produce quality ideas and support these with evidence Global Overall structure, academic argument and organisation (Hatziapostolou & Paraskikis, 2010; Ice et al., 2010; Stern & Solomon, 2006) Correction Detailed Constructive Criticism
  8. 8. Why use audio feedback Is it really effective? What is audio feedback? Effective and fit for purpose  Quick to turnaround and manageable  Timely  Clear  Personal and meaningful Audio feedback is effective when designed for context
  9. 9. Analyse the context Be clear about what you are trying to achieve When is the feedback needed and when exactly will the feedback have most effect? What do your students need to think about at this point? How can this connect to learning in other modules, now and later? What, if nothing else, do they need to hear? Motivation - why will the students want to listen and learn and what can you do make their use of the feedback more likely? A designed space We are designers of experience that leads to learning It is what we make it Analyse ADDIE
  10. 10. Design for context Design specification - know specifically how you will give the feedback and how it will be used Usage – what impact, when? How will it be accessed and where? Will it be reused? Why and when? Detail – decide what to include and what to leave out “Voice”, tone, intimacy – the special personal ingredient How you will refer to the student's work in the feedback How you will relate it to other feedback or teaching activity A designed space We are designers of experience that leads to learning It is what we make it Design Analyse ADDIE Ask – if I could have just five minutes with this person, what would I say?
  11. 11. Develop for context Think about your context as tutor-producer Time-based media are simple – saying is making Assume a simple “Press the red button” mindset Keep the message brief, clear, focussed and manageable Remember: voice is rich and personal Be direct, be close, let them know you care… How can voice promote their sense of belonging and becoming? A designed space We are designers of experience that leads to learning It is what we make it Design Develop Analyse ADDIE
  12. 12. Implement – the feedback model (technical) Decide how the feedback will be made and distributed Find support, involve students and trial it Tools  people use audio recorders, smart phones and tablets, PCs, USB headsets  VLE, standalone audio  software, apps A designed space We are designers of experience that leads to learning It is what we make it Design DevelopImplement Analyse ADDIE
  13. 13. A designed space We are designers of experience that leads to learning It is what we make it Design DevelopImplement Evaluate Analyse ADDIE Evaluate – the feedback model Did this achieve what you set out to do?  Ask your students, check access data, measure impact on engagement and impact on learning  Ask yourself – did this feel right?  Evaluate… and improve
  14. 14. Reflectionmoment A designed space Feedback is..? Why do you give feedback..?  Because I have to  Justify my marking  Bring my module to a suitable close  Correct student mistakes  Explain and clarify knowledge  Reiterate what is important  Expand upon key ideas  (Re-)orientate, motivate and challenge my students  Develop self-directed learning and self-esteem  Feed-forward learning and content knowledge for future engagement  Because I have to  Justify my marking  Bring my module to a suitable close  Correct student mistakes  Explain and clarify knowledge  Reiterate what is important  Expand upon key ideas  (Re-)orientate, motivate and challenge my students  Develop self-directed learning and self-esteem  Feed-forward learning and content knowledge for future engagement
  15. 15. 2 4 6 8 10 ANOTHERMODULE “Good assessment engages students with the curriculum; it creates opportunities for dialogue and ultimately stimulates learning.” see ESCAPE Project Russell & Bygate 2010 2 4 6 8 10 AMODULE Assessment & Feedback Strategies Formative low stakes Summative high stakes Feedback How can we position feedback? e.g… A designed space Understanding feedback in the context of learning, teaching and assessment From: Russell, M. & Bygate, D. (2010). Assessment for learning: An introduction to the ESCAPE project. Blended Learning in Practice, March 2010, pp. 38-48. How do we connect feedback across and through the course?
  16. 16. Why we use it Academics say The feedback is fresh. It's feedback that is alive rather than something that is dead on paper. You can get some of the kindness that we intend ...into how you talk about it." [It's] easier to more clearly indicate what has been good or bad about their work It's ever so easy to record. I've done it with my little MP3 audio recorder but actually my mobile phone is a very good MP3 recorder and I've always got it with me. from research conducted by Andrew Middleton and Anne Nortcliffe
  17. 17. Why we use it Students say I listen more when someone is talking to me than if I'm reading it. [A few] weeks later, I'm sitting down to do a bit more work on this assignment project. I'm thinking "What did she say?" ... It's right there. Press it. Brilliant!" Everything she'd said, all the suggestions she made, were right there. It's just there on your computer - at home, at university. Anywhere, any time. We got the feedback back really quick – I was surprised by that. More later from students... from research conducted by Andrew Middleton and Anne Nortcliffe
  18. 18. Question: Where do we learn? How do we learn? Where and how will we listen?  Everywhere.  Anywhere.  In between and across locations…  Lecture theatres, classrooms, corridors, outside, pub, home office, student rooms, workplace, placements, professional settings, international settings, online, on the move… Learning Space – places for learning Home Formal Informal Work Design for learning context Audio feedback is part of a mobile pedagogy… Learning context can be significant Reflectionmoment
  19. 19. Preparing students for feedback Do you talk to your students about how to use the feedback you give them? …About reading places and listening places? Learning Space – places for learning
  20. 20. Where do we teach? How do we teach? Where will we record?  Everywhere.  Anywhere.  In between and across locations…  Lecture theatres, classrooms, corridors, outside, pub, home office, workplace, placements, professional settings, international settings, online, on the move… Design for teaching context Feedback is often produced in spaces and situations that work for you, where you feel right Learning Space – places for learning Home Formal Informal Work
  21. 21. Your teaching context Feedback is often produced in spaces and situations that work for you Tutorial conversations – offices, cafes, quiet corners Marking scripts – office, home, waiting to pick the kids up… Assessing studio-based learning – in front of the work with images or video Processes and activity – observational video commentary e.g. Coaches Eye app Screencasts - usually at the PC incorporating student’s work Authentic situations - WBL or field-based study, etc Learning Space – places for learning Home Formal Informal Work Teacher's Context SMARTPC Quiet Authentici Immediate Live and active Calm Focused Structure QuietScale Situated Systematic On task Convenient Expedient
  22. 22. Media-Enhanced Assessment Digital media-enhanced Assessment for Learning Extending the opportunities for personal engagement and clarification See MELSIG website: http://melsig.shu.ac.uk Digital and social media can be used to enhance assessment for learning in many ways  Course - orientation, support, challenge, motivation, reflection  Audio Briefing - clarity, emphasis, meaning, perspective, engagement  Audio FAQs - one to many, clarification, belt and braces, continuous engagement  Assessment Objects - case studies, diagrams, real world artefacts  Audio Summaries & Revision Notes - succinct and manageable, peer reviewed, communal, multiple purposes over time  Screencast Moderation – modelling and managing consistent team marking  Media-Enhanced Feedback - audio, screencast, smartphone, video, web-based media, audio annotation
  23. 23. Commonly audio feedback is given by the academic to a student by recording at a PC with a headset using software such as Audacity (see Personal tutor monologue later).  Staff enjoy personally engaging students - showing they care  Getting close - the 'radio voice'  Quick to do (never edit - just start again or enjoy the rough edges)  It can be used to complement other objective methods, like assessment grids  Often distributed through the VLE Audio feedback models Technical overview Audio feedback
  24. 24.  Mostly audio feedback, but personal devices and apps create potential for many flexible methods.  Some academics use MP3 recorders.  Tutorials, informal 'corridor' tutorials and field-based activities can be recorded and shared with participants immediately.  Personal and portable devices can make it easier to manage give and turn around feedback while marking.  The mobile technology can help to capture previously ephemeral formative conversations  Easy, immediate distribution via apps to online services Audio feedback models Technical overview Smartphone and tablet feedback e.g. Voice Record app or GarageBand
  25. 25.  A talk through recording of the PC screen showing student's work  Essay scripts, project reports, posters, photographs, wikis and websites... anything that can be displayed on screen.  Shows the academic giving due consideration to the students work.  Feedback on outputs of project group work can be returned for review by groups e.g. on group project plans - "cinema feedback" Audio feedback models Technical overview Screencast feedback - 'talk throughs' Open Screencast-o-Matic.com to make a screencast
  26. 26.  Using small cameras with video options or web cams  Commentaries on action, performance analysis  Easy to do  Using web cams, academics at Reading and Plymouth liked 'being in the picture’ (see Jisc ASSET project)  Video feedback of:  workshops  labs or studio 'crits'  location specific work/ engagement  portfolios Audio feedback models Technical overview Video feedback Use web cams, video camera apps e.g. Coaches Eye
  27. 27.  Some Office tools (e.g. Powerpoint) have options for audio annotation or screen recording  Apps like iAnnotate allow you to add audio annotations to PDF documents  Be careful, this can be time consuming. Consider producing a screencast as a more efficient way of producing audio feedback on work or use your word processor’s review and commenting tools. Audio feedback models Technical overview Audio annotation
  28. 28.  Skype  Google Hangouts  Webinar environments, e.g. Blackboard Collaborate, BigBlueButton, Zoom, etc.  All allow visual artefacts (pictures, diagrams, videos, charts) to be reviewed by one or more people. Audio feedback models Technical overview Web-based media discussion boards
  29. 29.  Works well as part of a marking approach  Tutor works through many submitted assignments  Can be used in combination with other methods, e.g. assessment rubrics, annotated scripts or generic feedback  Allows for a reflective and supportive voice that can help to challenge the student about to improve  Tone of voice can help to clarify marks and marginalia, adding meaning and encouragement  Usually, selected significant points are usually identified for each student in a 3-6 minutes audio file…  …though some commentators (e.g. Ribchester et al., 2007) believe that feedback should be extensive. Audio feedback models Pedagogical model Personal tutor monologue Use the Pause button  Tip: Mark commentary numbers on the student's text and reference these in the audio commentary (Rust, 2001).
  30. 30.  More than formal tutorials.  Tutor-student conversations can be timely, rich and formative.  Conversations can be daunting to students who feel anxious about discussing their work and the formative opportunity can get lost.  Capture conversations between student and tutor, e.g. where the tutor is offering feedback on work-in-progress.  Students can focus on the live conversation in situ and together agree actions - and then review it later.  Recorded by either student or tutor as a summary conversation to highlight the points raised in a discussion about a student’s work. Audio feedback models Pedagogical model Personal feedback conversations e.g. studio, lab, or field conversations Tip! - Ask the student to record and then send you a list of agreed action points.
  31. 31.  Broadcast or generic feedback considers cohort performance  It is quick to turn around, e.g. use an early sample of marking  Tutor records a single summary message focused on strengths, weaknesses and clarification.  Members of the class are not singled out but encouraged to compare their own performance against points raised.  It can be distributed without concern over privacy.  Can be reused to prepare subsequent cohorts.  However, listeners must see relevance to them, so structuring feedback against criteria is useful.  Best when combined with personal feedback e.g. rubrics or self- assessment tools, and action planning activities Audio feedback models Pedagogical model Broadcast or generic feedback Tip! - Ask students to self- assess and then send three agreed action points based on how they estimate their performance.
  32. 32.  Students give each other feedback, 1 - 1 or team-team  Giving constructive feedback is challenging (Gibbs, 1999)  Need to introduce students to how giving good feedback  Valuable as much for the person giving it as it is for the recipient. Benefits  Promotes co-operation and shares knowledge and methods.  Encourages student professionalism and develops communications skills.  Knowing how to give feedback is a valuable skill. Audio feedback models Pedagogical model Peer review audio feedback Be aware:  Quality and consistency of the feedback may be disputed  May be rivalries within the cohort  So, award some marks for quality of feedback given
  33. 33. Tutors record tutor group conversations as,  Generic feedback – “How did the cohort do?”, or  Personal feedback – co-marking assignments, or  Modelling exemplary arguments Two examples informed this model: 1. First, demonstrating consistent marking and thinking across the teaching team; 2. Second, generating feedback given during a field trip where the excitement and authenticity of the trip was not only evident in the student’s work, but also in the tutor’s reflection upon it. Audio feedback models Pedagogical model Tutor conversations Tip! – Good academic CPD promoting consistent tutor team thinking across module and course
  34. 34.  a broadcast stem is produced and this is appended with a message targeted at individuals (Ribchester et al., 2007) Tutor,  summarises cohort performance and clarifies general misconceptions  Copies the generic stem and appends personal feedback  (Copy & Paste in Audacity) Audio feedback models Pedagogical model Generic+Personal
  35. 35. Audio feedback research What do we mean by audio feedback? Research on audio feedback  Audio feedback is designed for context  Case studies tend to be used  Caution: Even with large data sets, difficult to generalise and extrapolate findings from one context to another.  Often confusion about causality, e.g. assumption that engagement causes learning  Lack of context including experience of academic innovator However,  many common issues  much agreement about the benefits and principles
  36. 36. Audio feedback research Student experience of audio feedback What some students* say Nearly all (92.6% of 78) indicated a preference for audio feedback Several intersecting reasons: 1. Accessible - easier for them to listen to feedback than read it 2. Explaining - found audio more focused, clearer and more helpful 3. Interactive - tone of voice heightened comprehension 4. Supportive and personally engaging and sense of care • From a data set collected by Anne Nortcliffe, SHU, 2013. • Anne Nortcliffe is experienced at designing and using audio feedback. • Her students in this case were engineers “There was more room for explanation with the audio” “Hearing an actual voice explaining in detail an evaluation of my paper is much more effective than reading short little comments here and there on a paper.” “a lot easier to understand exactly what I needed to do” “…you were able to elaborate…” "I can understand better through your tone” "It makes more sense" “It’s like your in class” "It showed me what you thought of my paper"
  37. 37. Audio feedback research Literature Audio feedback benefits (1)  Timely – received when useful and available when needed (Nortcliffe & Middleton 2008)  Clear and comprehensible - tone, nuance, and personal input add layers of meaning for the recipient, better than illegible handwritten (Carruthers et al., 2015; Laughton, 2013; Gould & Day 2013; Olesova & Richardson, 2011; Middleton et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2009; Davis & Ryder, 2009; Nortcliffe & Middleton 2008; Walker)  Formative - it reinforces the construction of knowledge and leads to ‘feedforward’ actions (Nortcliffe & Middleton 2008)  Personalised - the use of voice powerfully connects the tutor to the student, emphasising a sense of care and direct interest in the student’s work (Chalmers et al., 2014; Lunt & Curran, 2010; Dixon, 2009; Merry & Orsmond, 2008; Nortcliffe & Middleton, 2008; Ice et al., 2007; Rotherham, 2007)  Richer and more authentic - the giving of feedback is more easily situated in meaningful real world situations and activities (King, McGugan and Bunyan, 2008)
  38. 38. Audio feedback research Literature Audio feedback benefits (2)  Promoting a dialogic relationship - the capture of spoken feedback emphasise the value of conversation and interpersonal interaction to learning (Orsmond et al., 2013)  Time efficient - recorded feedback is often quicker to produce than written feedback (Lunt & Curran, 2010; Dixon, 2009; Rotherham, 2009; Ice et al., 2007; Nortcliffe & Middleton, 2007)  Engaging and replayable - students like to pause, rewind and listen again (Rotheram, 2007)  High quality and great quantity - providing detailed explanations to clarify concepts and processes (Voelkel & Mello, 2014 ;Merry & Orsmond, 2008; Rotheram, 2009)
  39. 39. Tips! Audio Feedback Checklist Preparation 1. Decide on the best method for your context. 2. Be realistic. 3. Do a non-critical dry run and involve your students if possible. 4. Prepare students: rationale, learning enhancement benefits, check it works technically, discuss how you expect them to use feedback. 5. Identify the right space and put a ‘Quiet Recording’ sign up if necessary! Recording 6. Keep close to the microphone to reduce background. 7. Monitor or test the recording level – is it clear and loud enough? 8. Use the Pause button for thinking time. 9. Never ever edit! Just start again. 10. Get used to the sound of your own voice! Content 11.Include the student's name, assignment title, and date at the start of each recording. Name the recording systematically so you can browse the recordings to organise them. 12.Use the medium for its strengths – be sensitive, personal, clear and direct. Be interested in the student and their work. 13.Conclude with a summary of actions you expect them to take 14.Evaluate and develop the approach. 15.Remind the student to store, revisit and review the feedback.
  40. 40. Visit the Audio Feedback Toolkit http://melsig.shu.ac.uk/?page_id=1196 Particular thanks to Anne Nortcliffe and to academic innovators everywhere

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