Critical Media Analysis : A Manifesto for Turbulent Times Graham Murdock Communications Research Centre Loughborough Unive...
Critical Media Analysis <ul><li>Focuses on the economic, political ,social and cultural formations that allocate resources...
Competing characterisations of contemporary change <ul><li>Information society, e-Society </li></ul><ul><li>Risk society, ...
Critical analysis starts with the persistence of capitalism and its globalisation
The global market ‘turn’ <ul><li>Push Factors </li></ul><ul><li>The militant promotion of ‘free’ market ideology </li></ul...
Marketisation is a double process <ul><li>Structural shifts  enlarging the scale and scope of capitalist enterprise  </li>...
Marx on contradiction <ul><li>Capitalism as the magician’s apprentice  </li></ul><ul><li>Unleashing forces it cannot contr...
Marx’s blindspots <ul><li>The consolidation of consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the nation state as the key polit...
Three competing ideological movements <ul><li>The globalisation of consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>The resurgence of fundame...
Everyday life and thinking has become progressively colonised by consumerism <ul><li>Media  retail  disposition </li></ul>...
From the local high street to the cybermall
Consumerism has become progressively globalised <ul><li>The rise of the new middle class in emerging economies - from livi...
The new colonialism? From territorial occupation to imaginative annexation ?
The localisation of consumerism
Key shifts <ul><li>From workers to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>The market as the key arena of action and identity </li></u...
From workers to citizens citizens v patriots <ul><li>The rise of the nation state as the key unit of political organisatio...
The problematic legacies of empire <ul><li>Nations v states-  contested borders and partitions-demands for secession and a...
The revival of fundamentalisms <ul><li>Fundamentalisms defend purity against hybridity </li></ul><ul><li>The revival of na...
The globalisation of risk <ul><li>The dark side of ‘progress’ </li></ul><ul><li>The unanticipated consequences of technolo...
Negative dialectics <ul><li>Western capitalism’s refusal to surrender its current life style </li></ul><ul><li>Demands by ...
Networked communications <ul><li>From analogue to digital- from separation to convergence </li></ul><ul><li>multiple platf...
‘ Ghost hunting’ from binaries to trinities <ul><li>Missing third terms </li></ul><ul><li>The Critical political economy o...
Contested digital economies <ul><li>commodities  public goods  gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Personal  shared  collaborative </l...
Three trends <ul><li>the expansion of digital gift economies </li></ul><ul><li>the extended commercialisation and commodif...
The new gift economies <ul><li>Pooled expertise  – open source software, Wikipedia, social recommendation sites </li></ul>...
problems <ul><li>Persistent global and national inequalities in access and use </li></ul><ul><li>The intensification of st...
Extended commercialisation <ul><li>The extension of copyright in time and space and to new cultural forms </li></ul><ul><l...
The revivification of public goods <ul><li>From place to space- from positional goods to open access </li></ul><ul><li>Fro...
The ‘Second Life’ of public institutions
Networked contradictions <ul><li>Emerging digital media provide resources for reinforcing </li></ul><ul><li>capitalist rel...
The struggle for cosmopolitan citizenship <ul><li>Is the key struggle of our time </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential to add...
Challenging consumerism From products to commodity chains
Reconstructing shared fate <ul><li>The Asian Tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>The New Orleans flood </li></ul>
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Critical Communications Inquiry: A Manifesto for Uncertain Times

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Critical Communications Inquiry: A Manifesto for Uncertain Times

  1. 1. Critical Media Analysis : A Manifesto for Turbulent Times Graham Murdock Communications Research Centre Loughborough University
  2. 2. Critical Media Analysis <ul><li>Focuses on the economic, political ,social and cultural formations that allocate resources for reflexive action </li></ul><ul><li>Examines their transformations over time </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the dynamic connections between innovations in media and broader currents of change </li></ul><ul><li>Judges outcomes by their impacts on liberty, equality and solidarity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Competing characterisations of contemporary change <ul><li>Information society, e-Society </li></ul><ul><li>Risk society, global society </li></ul><ul><li>Late modernity, liquid modernity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Critical analysis starts with the persistence of capitalism and its globalisation
  5. 5. The global market ‘turn’ <ul><li>Push Factors </li></ul><ul><li>The militant promotion of ‘free’ market ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Its adoption by key US led global institutions- The World Bank, the WTO </li></ul><ul><li>Pull Factors </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>The market turn in India and China </li></ul><ul><li>The crisis of developmental states </li></ul><ul><li>The move from welfare states to market states in western capitalism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marketisation is a double process <ul><li>Structural shifts enlarging the scale and scope of capitalist enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>privatisation / liberalisation/ re-ordering regulation/ corporatisation </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Cementing consumerism as the master legitimating ideology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marx on contradiction <ul><li>Capitalism as the magician’s apprentice </li></ul><ul><li>Unleashing forces it cannot control </li></ul>
  8. 8. Marx’s blindspots <ul><li>The consolidation of consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the nation state as the key political unit / the centrality of nationalism as a legitimating ideology </li></ul><ul><li>The problematic legacies of the end of empire </li></ul><ul><li>The escalating risks of technological ‘progress’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Three competing ideological movements <ul><li>The globalisation of consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>The resurgence of fundamentalisms </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of cosmopolitan citizenship </li></ul>
  10. 10. Everyday life and thinking has become progressively colonised by consumerism <ul><li>Media retail disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Press dedicated shops separation </li></ul><ul><li>Movies department stores display </li></ul><ul><li>Network TV supermarkets flow </li></ul><ul><li>Multichannel TV malls immersion </li></ul><ul><li>Digital platforms on line shopping integration </li></ul>
  11. 11. From the local high street to the cybermall
  12. 12. Consumerism has become progressively globalised <ul><li>The rise of the new middle class in emerging economies - from living standards to life styles </li></ul><ul><li>Large cohorts of young people who have grown up in a consumer landscape </li></ul><ul><li>The increased availability of credit </li></ul><ul><li>The explosion of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Media tabloidisation and the rise of celebrities as investment advisors in the stock exchange of styles </li></ul>
  13. 13. The new colonialism? From territorial occupation to imaginative annexation ?
  14. 14. The localisation of consumerism
  15. 15. Key shifts <ul><li>From workers to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>The market as the key arena of action and identity </li></ul><ul><li>From collective fate to personal advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Private solutions to public problems </li></ul>
  16. 16. From workers to citizens citizens v patriots <ul><li>The rise of the nation state as the key unit of political organisation </li></ul><ul><li>The struggle for democratisation and full citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of nations as ‘imagined communities’ </li></ul><ul><li>The centrality of nationalism and appeals to patriotism </li></ul>
  17. 17. The problematic legacies of empire <ul><li>Nations v states- contested borders and partitions-demands for secession and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>The legacy of humiliation- demands for restoration and redress </li></ul>
  18. 18. The revival of fundamentalisms <ul><li>Fundamentalisms defend purity against hybridity </li></ul><ul><li>The revival of nationalism-redefine shared histories, essences, and destinies </li></ul><ul><li>The resurgence of fundamentalist movements in the world’s major religions </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced borders and exclusions </li></ul>
  19. 19. The globalisation of risk <ul><li>The dark side of ‘progress’ </li></ul><ul><li>The unanticipated consequences of technological innovation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Negative dialectics <ul><li>Western capitalism’s refusal to surrender its current life style </li></ul><ul><li>Demands by emerging economies for comparable levels of consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels- accelerated loss of forests and expansion of desserts –increased carbon emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Land taken out of agricultural production- increased food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>GM crops- unknown and unrecallable impacts on ecological diverisity </li></ul>
  21. 21. Networked communications <ul><li>From analogue to digital- from separation to convergence </li></ul><ul><li>multiple platforms- PC, TVs, mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media -text,images,data,sound </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper linked-networked </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive- vertical and horizontal pathways </li></ul>
  22. 22. ‘ Ghost hunting’ from binaries to trinities <ul><li>Missing third terms </li></ul><ul><li>The Critical political economy of communications focuses on capital-state relations- commodities v public goods- ignores gift economies </li></ul><ul><li>The romantic narrative of internet development pitches the gift economy of the open source movement against commercially driven development – Linus Torvald v Bill Gates </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores public goods </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contested digital economies <ul><li>commodities public goods gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Personal shared collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Possession use production </li></ul><ul><li>Prices taxes reciprocities </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers citizens communards </li></ul><ul><li>Markets nations networks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Three trends <ul><li>the expansion of digital gift economies </li></ul><ul><li>the extended commercialisation and commodification of the Web </li></ul><ul><li>The revivification of public cultural institutions </li></ul>
  25. 25. The new gift economies <ul><li>Pooled expertise – open source software, Wikipedia, social recommendation sites </li></ul><ul><li>Shared experience and commentary- blogging, bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>Non money exchange- book sharing, goods and services exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular archives- video and photo sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative production - OhMyNews </li></ul>
  26. 26. problems <ul><li>Persistent global and national inequalities in access and use </li></ul><ul><li>The intensification of state and commercial surveillance-tracking and classifying </li></ul><ul><li>The move from mass to personalised media inncreasessegmentation and self selection- the erosion of shared space </li></ul>
  27. 27. Extended commercialisation <ul><li>The extension of copyright in time and space and to new cultural forms </li></ul><ul><li>The commodification of public goods- the Google digital library project </li></ul><ul><li>The corporate capture of interactivity and P2P exchange- viral marketing </li></ul><ul><li>The commodification of vernacular production- Second Life </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial challenges to Net Neutrality </li></ul>
  28. 28. The revivification of public goods <ul><li>From place to space- from positional goods to open access </li></ul><ul><li>From intellectual property to the Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>From professional monopolies to co-production </li></ul><ul><li>From events to gateways </li></ul>
  29. 29. The ‘Second Life’ of public institutions
  30. 30. Networked contradictions <ul><li>Emerging digital media provide resources for reinforcing </li></ul><ul><li>capitalist relations and the globalisation of consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalisms and the insistence on strengthening imaginative separations and physical borders </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing global co-operation and the ethos of cosmopolitan citizenship </li></ul>
  31. 31. The struggle for cosmopolitan citizenship <ul><li>Is the key struggle of our time </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential to addressing the globalisation of risk in ways that guarantee transnational and generational justice </li></ul><ul><li>the future organisation of digitalised media are central to this struggle </li></ul><ul><li>critical inquiry has a vital role to play in identifying barriers and contributing to debates about how they might be overcome </li></ul><ul><li>key question- how do we build the global digital commons ? </li></ul><ul><li>how can we combine the non commercial resources presented by the revivification of public cultural goods and the emergence of new communicative gift economies ? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Challenging consumerism From products to commodity chains
  33. 33. Reconstructing shared fate <ul><li>The Asian Tsunami </li></ul><ul><li>The New Orleans flood </li></ul>

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