NCATE definition of diversity“Differences among groups of people andindividuals based on ethnicity, race,socioeconomic status, gender,exceptionalities, language, religion, sexualorientation, and geographical area.”
There are over 5 million English languagelearners in the United StatesThe numbers have risen more than 57%during the past ten yearsEnglish Language Learners are the fastestGrowing populationin American schools
Increasing Percentage of ELL Students Total PK-12 ELL1009080 70605040 3020 10 0 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09
Percent Change from 2000 to 2010 Asian Black Hispanic Mixed Race White Total250200150100 50 0 Missouri Franklin County Jefferson County St. Charles County St. Francois County St. Louis County St. Louis City-50
Areas of Concern • Nearly 60% qualify for free or reduced lunch • 8th grade ELL students’ scores are less than half those of English proficient students on the NAEP • ELLs lag 20 points behind in high school graduation rates
Eighth-Grade Students Proficient on the NAEP Limited English Proficient English Proficient1009080 70605040 3020 10 0 Reading Math
Mainstream Teachers of ELLs • Most mainstream teachers have at least one English language learner in their classroom • Only 29% of mainstream teachers with ELLs have the training to teach them effectively
• 57% of teachers say they need more training• Missouri does not require training in working with ELLs
NCATE Standards Applied to ELLs1. Teachers should acquire pedagogical content knowledge which addresses ELLs2. Assessment and evaluation data should measure teachers’ preparedness to work with ELLs
3. Field experiences should provide practice and opportunities to see successful teachers model effective techniques in working with ELLs4. This standard explicitly requires that candidates work with ELLs during clinical practice and that candidates understand the range of diversity among ELLs
5. & 6. The unit should provide qualified faculty and sufficient resources to support teachers’ learning about ELLs
1. My newcomer should be referred to the child study team. He is often disruptive in the classroom and kicks and hits others. There is something wrong with him aside from not knowing the language.2. The more time students spend soaking up English in the mainstream classroom, the faster they will learn the language.
3. English language learners will acquire English faster if their parents speak English at home.4. Once students can speak English, they are ready to undertake the academic tasks of the mainstream classroom.
5. Students from other countries should learn to read in their native language first because this helps them succeed in U.S. schools.6. Students should be strongly encouraged to speak English immediately.
Answers1. False. Newcomers who act out in the classroom are most likely suffering from culture shock.
Four stages of culture shock beforereaching acceptance: 1. Euphoric or honeymoon stage 2. Rejection stage 3. Regression stage 4. Integration stage
2. False. Students do not simply “soak up” language. They need comprehensible input. They need to understand the communication.3. False. When parents use their native language, their speech is richer and more complex which improves the child’s literacy skills.
4. False. Children can speak and socialize before they can use language for academic purposes.5. True.6. False. Many students go through a silent period and should not be forced to speak.
How long does it take students tolearn English?Students who have strong literacyskills in their native language learnEnglish faster.
• Students ages 8-11 with two or three years of native language education took 5 to 7 years to test at grade level.• Students younger than 8 who arrived in the U.S. with little or no native language education took 7 to 10 years to reach grade-level.
Stages of Second Language Acquisition 1. Preproduction 2. Early Production 3. Speech Emergence 4. Intermediate Fluency 5. Advanced Fluency
Differentiating Instruction for ELLs• View ELLs as a resource; draw on personal experience• Use concrete objects/visuals to reinforce verbal content (hands-on demonstration)• Focus on a limited number of vocabulary words and concepts in each lesson• Limit the amount of information an ELL student needs to learn
• Use graphic organizers• Teach reading strategies• Use both oral & written modalities frequently• Use cooperative learning techniques• Substitute alternative texts• Substitute alternative assignments
• Test students in concrete terms• Allow brief answers instead of full sentences• Modify assessment tools as necessary• Use think-alouds• Allow use of a bilingual dictionary or English dictionary