S. S. & L. S. PATKAR COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE
V. P. VARDE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS
Amey Ashok Ranavade
Roll NO :- 310
(real time) Operating system
It gives us a great pleasure to present
this presentation of Modern Operating
System on QNX(real time O.s) to the
students and Teachers of S.y-B.Sc.IT class
We would like to acknowledge our
Professor: Priya Desai
who patiently guided us to design this
project and gave us such a strong support.
Special thanks to all our co-students, who
are and who will be our inspiration always.
What Is QNX?
Operating systems,developmenttools, and professionalservices
for connected embedded systems
QNX is a real time operating system designed forcritical tasks.
a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system,aimed primarily at
the embedded systemsmarket.
Developedby Canadian company, QNX Software Systems,which
was later acquired by Canadian BlackBerry-producerResearchIn
The operating system based on the Neutrino microkernel
QNX is based on the idea of running most of the OS in
the form of a number of small tasks, known as servers
allows users (developers)to turn off any functionality they
do not require without having to change the OS itself;
instead, those servers are simply not run.
QNX is used in industrial, network, telecommunications,medical,and
In today's entry in our Alternative OS Contest,James Ingraham takes
a close look at QNX, the operating system based on the Neutrino
microkernel. He concludes that "While you can probably find solutions for
just about all of your desktop computing needs using the QNX RTOS,that
is not QNX's strong suit. Its focus is real-time, embedded,and mission
What is QNX?
That seems like an easy enough question, but the answer is fairly
complicated.QNX is a company, a microkernel, a real-time operating
system, and a developmentplatform.To stay consistent,here's the QNX
nomenclature this article will follow, though it is not official:
QNX Software Systems is an Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, based
company. From here on out, we'll call the company QSS.
QNX 2.x and 4.x are older versions of the operating system,from
microkernel up to developmenttools.This review will essentially
QNX Neutrino is the microkernel itself.
QNX by itself,QNX 6.x, the QNX RTOS,and the QNX Neutrino
RTOS will refer to the complete real-time operating system,not
counting the developmentplatform.
QNX Momentics is the complete developmentplatform.
What's an RTOS?
Again, a simple question without a particularly good answer. The
abbreviation "RTOS" stands for real-time operating system... but
unfortunately no one can agree on what "real-time" means, or even
"operating system," for that matter. The raging debate about "what is real-
time?" doesn'tparticularly impact a review of any given OS, but I'll outline a
few points about people generally mean by it.
1. Predictability. The time to complete a task must be bounded.
2. Priorities. There has to be a way to interrupt a lower priority task to
make sure that high priority tasks aren't starved.
3. Scalability. Usually, when you think of scalability in computing it starts
small and goes upward toward massive buildings chock full of IT
people.In the case of RTOSes,scalability means stripping down the
OS to the bare minimum required.If the RTOS is controlling a jet
fighter, you don't need or want MSN Messenger,Real Player, or
Solitaire. Some RTOSes needonly a few kilobytes of storage and
RAM to work.
4. Robustness.There is no known way to prevent an electronic system
from crashing. However, there are methods forboth minimizing the
chance of crashes and for graceful recovery from crashes.
The QNX Neutrino RTOS
QSS's crown jewel is the QNX Neutrino message passing
microkernel. What's a message passing microkernel? The executive
summary is that it is a specificsolution to the problems of creating a Real-
time Operating System.Skipping the technical details on how this works,
for now think of QNX as "just another OS." In fact, to users and developers,
QNX looks like any other POSIX-compliantsystem, e.g. Linux or Solaris.
The underlying architecture may be vastly different,but type ls at a prompt
and you'll see the familiar /usr, /bin, /home, and /root directories.
Supported architectures are ARM, MIPS, PowerPC,SH-4, StrongARM,
XScale�, and x86. Currently, there is no 64-bit support. The Neutrino is a
true multi-threaded, multi-tasking system, with several differentmodes of
multi-processing.QSS refers to these as Symmetric, Asymmetric,and
Bounded Multi-Processing.(SMP, AMP, and BMP, respectively). Again
ignoring the technical details of these terms, the differentmodes allow
developers to fine-tune the behavior of their applications for real-time tasks.
BMP, for example, forces tasks to run on a specific processor.
File systems are not part of the microkernel,making it easy to load
and unload as needed.QNX defaults to the qnx4 file system, a proprietary
fs similar to other POSIX file systems.It includes supportfor images for use
in ROM, NAND flash, and NOR flash, with Execute-in-place capabilities.
There is also a RAM-disk utility. Recently, QNX released ETFS,or the
Embedded TransactionalFile System. Essentially, this uses atomic
transactions to ensure there are no file corruptions as a result of power-
outages or a crashing program. ext2, DOS / FAT12,FAT16,FAT32 ,
ISO9660,and Joliet are also supported.Notably missing are ext3, JFS,
XFS, ZFS,and ReiserFS.Of course,NTFS is not supported.Sharing with
other systems is still fairly easy; both CIFS (client) and NFS (client and
server) work fine. Briefly, QNX used a Package File System that was more
of a hassle than a help; support remains but it is no longer a mainstream
QNX has IPv4 and IPv6, plus its own proprietary network protocol.
Message passing extends to the QNX network seamlessly,so that
distributed computing is transparent. As a simple example, a drive on a
remote machine could be mounted locally, whether or not the remote
machine has it mounted. Since mostadvanced users think nothing of
remote-mounting a drive, a more impressive example might be
transparently accessing a remote serial port.
USB supportis okay, but since mostcompanies do not offerQNX
drivers for their devices you are mostly limited to generic devices such as
keyboards, mice,and storage devices.USB flash storage works like any
other drive. There are a handful of printers that work on USB. Don't get
your hopes up for much else.
Video card support is similarly essentially limited to nVidia, ATI,or
Matrox. Even then, QNX has trouble keeping up with the fast pace of the
Hardware support in general is a weakness when it comes to
"standard" devices.The emphasis is on embeddedhardware, such as
Board Support Packages (BSPs)to allow QNX to boot on systems that
don't have a BIOS.Writing or porting device drivers is fairly straightforward,
provided with documentation for a given device. QNX has several Device
Driver Kits (DDKs) to ease development,as well as POSIX conventions for
direct access of hardware through port I/O and dual-port memory.
QNX® Neutrino® RTOS
• Input drivers
• File systems
• Graphics drivers
• HMI (Human Machine Interface)
• User applications
Different ways QNX touches your life
People encounter QNX technology every
day when they:
Use Twitter,Facebook,or YouTube —
QNX technologyprovides the software foundation for the
world’s highest-capacity routers, which handle the data, voice, and
video traffic for hundreds of millions of Internet users every day.
Flip a light switch —
QNX technologycontrols thousands of power-generation
systems worldwide, from wind turbines to nuclear stations to
Call for help —
By leveraging the unmatched reliability of QNX technology, 9 1
1 dispatchsystems deliver emergencyassistance 24/7, nonstop.
Call for help on the road —
The QNX-based OnStar system, deployed in dozens of car
models,automatically calls for help in a crash and can even provide
emergencyresponders with the car's exact location.
Use green energy—
QNX-based power-grid simulators help utilities integrate
electricity from solar panels, wind farms, and other renewable energy
Save gas —
QNX-based traffic control systems reduce fuel consumptionby
optimizing traffic flow, minimizing traffic jams, and reducing waits at
Eat a jelly donut —
QNX-based food inspectionsystems detectdangerous
contaminants and can even spotitems with missing ingredients, such
as jelly donuts that have no jelly.
Get a caffeine fix —
Car navigation systems based on QNX technology not only
provide automatic route selectionand turn-by-turn directions, but can
even track down the nearest coffee shop if you’re thirsting for a latté.
Shop online —
Online retailers like Amazon.com and Avnet rely on QNX-based
warehouse automation systems to move massive amounts of
merchandise every day.
Watch TV —
QNX technologykeeps couch potatoes happy, controlling
television stations, delivering cable signals, and even powering
Watch an action flick —
QNX technologypowers motion-controlsystems that create some of
Hollywood’s mostspectacular special effects and stunts.
Take a train —
From high-speed trains to subway cars, QNX-based systems
go the distance, controlling locomotives and coordinating railway
Fly in a plane —
QNX technologyis at the core of pilot-training simulators and
air-traffic control systems worldwide.
Board a boat —
QNX-based navigation and radar systems keep cruise ships on
course by helping crews navigate through fog,bad weather, and
Buy shoes —
Footwear vendors like ASICS and Brown Shoe rely on QNX-
based warehouse systems to move their products from the factory
floor to the shoe store.
Keep coolin the checkoutline —
QNX technologycontrols the HVAC systems in many of the
biggestbig-boxstores in North America.
Stay connectedwhile driving —
Using innovative QNX software, car infotainment systems
connect seamlesslyto Bluetooth phones, MP3 players, USB sticks,
and a variety of other devices and services.
Build a sundeck—
Using QNX-based machine-vision systems,sawmill operators
extract the maximum amount of lumber from every tree.
Mail a letter —
QNX technologyhelps mail-sorting machines push the
performance envelope,processing up to 40,000 letters per hour.
Visit the doctor —
QNX technologybrings reliability to a host of diagnostic
devices,including ECG machines, angiography systems,cardiac
monitors, and bone density analyzers.
Take medicine —
QNX-based vision systems scan for defectsin a variety of
manufactured products,from pharmaceutical blister packs to the lids
of peanut butter jars.
Get better —
QNX-based cancer treatment devices use proton beams to
target tumors precisely,without damaging nearby organs.
Wash socks —
A QNX-based system automatically configures control panels
for washing machines and tests each panel to make sure it functions
Breathe clean air —
QNX-based building-automation systems help factories,
universities, and other large facilities slash power consumptionby up to
50%, reducing the amount of fossilfuels burned for electricity.
Go to college —
Students and professors worldwide use QNX technology to
perform medicalresearch, explore new forms of energy generation,
and even discovernew planets.
See better —
Using a QNX-based LASIK system,doctors perform bladeless
laser surgery to help people reduce their dependencyon glasses and
Buy a book —
Bookstores throughoutNorth America rely on QNX-based
point-of-sale systems to deliver highly personalized service to their
Play video poker —
QNX technologypowers inter casino gaming systems that can
pay out multi-million-dollar winnings, with zero tolerance for error.
Drive over a bridge —
QNX technologyhelps reduce drawbridge congestionby
controlling automated bridge raising systems.
Go for a digital drive —
QNX-based digital instrument clusters are changing the face of
in-car computing,combining virtual speedometerswith navigation
displays, backup cameras, and other content to provide drivers with the
most appropriate information for every drive mode or road condition
Developer BlackBerry Ltd
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Shared source
Initial release 1982;32 years ago
Latestrelease 6.6 / March 2014;7 months ago
Marketingtarget Embedded systems
Package manager Able to use Pkgsrc framework
from NetBSD project
8088,x86, MIPS, PowerPC,SH-
4, ARM, StrongARM, XScale
Kernel type RTOS (Microkernel)
Official website www.qnx.com
• The system can be seamlesslydistributed over several nodes,and is
• True client-serverarchitecture which improves its robustness and
• System’s performance is fast and predictable
• As opposed to the earlier versions of QNx RTOS,which only
supported the Intel x86 family of processors,version 6.x also
supports MIPS, PowerPC,StrongARM and SH4
• QNX RTOS has modern client-serverarchitecture and is completely
message-based.The system is robust. QNX also qualifies as a fault-
tolerant, fully distributed operating system.
The QNX Neutrino RTOS Safe Kernel incorporates many key
characteristics required of an certified system.These include:
– Design safe state — a well-defined state to which the kernel
reverts when it encounters a situation that it cannot handle
– Isolation — between application processes,and between
applications processesand the kernel itself
– Scheduling predictability — guaranteed processorresources
according to thread priorities, assurance against "lazy" resource
allocations, and scheduling analysis through techniques such
as deadline and rate monotonic scheduling