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  1. 1. AZURAWATI BT WOK ZAKI ED7701A2EDU702- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYARTICLE REVIEWKlassen,R.M., Foster,R.Y Sukaina, Bowman,B., (2009). Teaching in the Yukon: Exploringteachers’ efficacy beliefs, stress, and job satisfaction in a remote setting, InternationalJournal of Education Research, (48), pp 381-394.IntroductionThe article chosen is ‘Teaching in the Yukon: Exploring teacher’s efficacy beliefs, stress andjob satisfaction in a remote setting’ written by Klassen, Foster, Sukaina & Bowman (2009)discuss on the influence of cultural and community factors on teacher’s working lives. Thearticle highlights the job’s beliefs for teachers and how the geographical, community andcultural factors were related to teachers’ job beliefs. At such, teachers’ motivation isdetermined by the degree of job stress and job satisfaction which lead to their engagementand transformation in teaching. Even though there are many studies have been conducted inhighlighting teachers’ motivation in teaching but those studies maybe over look theintricacies of teaching in a specific circumstance. This article facilitates in providing insightinto the framework of motivation that infrequently emphasized such as job stress and jobdissatisfaction.This article which stresses on the job beliefs and how geographical, community, and culturalfactors were related to it shows that teachers nowadays encounter lot of challenges in theircareer which could lesser their motivation level in teaching especially in inaccessible setting.The challenges turn into the factors that affect teachers’ working lives. In order to getengaged wholly in a job, one should have a high level of motivation to ensure that job doneis satisfied and decreased stress level. The motivation will easily decrease in thornysituations and change one’s belief or assurance in potential to successfully carry out aparticular course of action. Teachers is one of the factors to inject motivation amongstudents, therefore, teachers should have a high level of motivation in teaching the studentsso that the learning process can be done effectively and cooperatively. By the end of theday, teachers will gain job satisfaction efficiently.In this paper, article summary, critical reflections as well as comments about selected aspectand suggestions to the issue being raised are precisely presented.Article summaryAs indicated in the article, job stress and job dissatisfaction are influenced by physical andhuman geography, level of connection with the community and by the community’s culturaltransitions. The major points made in the article include 1) job beliefs for teachers from the
  2. 2. AZURAWATI BT WOK ZAKI ED7701A2EDU702- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYYukon and western Canada and 2) how geographical, community, and cultural factors wererelated to Yukon’s teachers’ job beliefs. Few possible questions which may be asked; whatis the relationship between teachers’ efficacy beliefs, job stress, and job satisfaction forteachers in the Yukon? Are the levels and patterns of relationship different for teachers inremote and urban setting? Since there are theories such as job satisfaction has been shownto influence career decisions and to enhance motivation and performance (Judge et al.,2001), thus it would be good to get the dept insight regarding teachers’ working lives andfactors influenced their job stress and satisfaction that could point the way to moreunderstanding of teachers and teaching.Critical reflectionTeachers’ motivation is important and it influenced by self-and collective efficacy as well asjob- two related beliefs such as job stress and job satisfaction. Education is a lifelonglearning meanwhile teaching is the lifelong career. In order to make the lifelong learning is atriumphant, teachers’ first need to have the interest and passion as well as motivatedenough towards the job.The use of mixed methods for this study impressed me as Klassen, Foster, Sukaina, &Bowman, attempt to explore more on the factors that teachers understand to influence thestress they experienced in a work setting and the satisfaction that they derived for teachingin inaccessible setting. The researcher mix quantitative and qualitative research methods,procedures, and paradigm characteristics in a way that the resulting mixture or combinationhas complementary strengths and non-overlapping weaknesses. The qualitative phase inthe study helps to elaborate and present deeper analysis of the quantitative findings. Thesemixed methods are to complement one set of results with another, to expand a set of results,or to discover something that would have been missed if only a quantitative or a qualitativeapproach had been used.It is observed that in this article, in Yukon, teachers experienced difficult time that influencedby the harsh climate and hours of daylight leads to job stress and dissatisfaction. Teachersneed time to adjust themselves with the new weather and surrounding. While adjusting theirlife to the new environment, teachers will be affected psychologically. Then, the isolation thatbrought by distance can be a big challenge for teachers too which affect their emotional andpsychological well being. Therefore, the self-and collective efficacy and geographical factorsdo affect their motivation level. Nowadays we can see that many people choose to join thisnoble education field in order to educate the young generation enthusiastically. However,when they are already in this field and got posted to certain remote areas with so manychallenges that need to be faced every day, their self-esteem will diminish and motivation
  3. 3. AZURAWATI BT WOK ZAKI ED7701A2EDU702- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYlevel will easily descend. A motivated teacher is one who not only feels pleased with his orher job, but also is empowered to do the best for excellence and enlargement in instructionalpractice.In Asia, specifically Malaysia, teachers also encounter the same challenges of job stress andsatisfaction as well as the influence of the geographical, community and cultural factors intheir working lives. Teachers need to cater with students’ behaviours and workloads.Therefore, teachers have the high tendency to live in a stress life. Then, in geographicalmatter, every teacher wishes to be posted near to their home as they are already familiarwith the place. However in Malaysia, posting near to home or in a hometown area is not apromise. Therefore, for those who do not prepare much when they are sent to remote area,this does affect them psychologically and emotionally. When they live far away such as whois from peninsular Malaysia and got posted in Sabah or Sarawak, the stress level is higher.The main factor is they are far from home and rarely able to go back home as they are notfamiliar with the new place and need time to prepare their mental and physical with the newenvironment. Their level of motivation can decrease easily.Other than that, when teachers are in a new community with a new cultural, there are certainrules that they need to follow or values that they need to accept which contra to their ownrules and values. Some researchers have found that students from some ethnic groupsbehave in ways that make educational tasks more difficult than others (2008). For example,in Malaysia, there are few dialects in certain states. Teachers from other areas need time toadjust themselves with the new dialects in order to communicate well. In rural areaspecifically, the level of education is low and people is strongly upholding with their traditionsand culture. For example in teaching English, the mind set of people in rural area differs thanin the town area. Some people in rural area think that English is not so important and usefulfor them. Therefore, the students refuse to learn best the subject. Teachers need to changethe mind set first in order to attract the students to learn best for the subject. Thus, wheneverthe teachers are either in Malaysia or Yukon, still they share the same feelings when theyare in different area of their own hometown. The level of motivation will be influenced byinternal and external factors. When community strongly believe in traditional learning, it istough for teachers to bring about new transformation in teaching and learning if they refuseto do so.I moderately find that Klassen, Foster, Sukaina, & Bowman have managed to bring out theover look of complexities of teaching in particular situation as they successfully highlights thechallenges that teachers face in their working lives other than teaching itself especially inYukon remote setting. However, in the article, the author could actually dwell more into the
  4. 4. AZURAWATI BT WOK ZAKI ED7701A2EDU702- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYcontextual factors of the study that should be translated well. This job beliefs and jobdissatisfaction is surely differ for each remote setting. This study which is conducted only inone part of the Canada cannot be generalised as the other part of the world as differentplaces got different factors influenced teachers’ motivation. Job beliefs and job satisfactionmight be the main factors but the meaning of them differs according to places and situations.This article offers the cultural and community factors that influence teachers’ working livesremote setting. As the key cultural and community is that, it explores on the situation thatteachers face when they are in one culture and one community as a part of their life.According to the article, teachers experience external relationship with parents andcommunity members. Novice teachers especially have problem to build rapport with theparents in the community. If this case is prolong, how teachers can achieve self-esteem aswell as self-actualization if they are not able to achieve the third hierarchy in Maslow’sHierarchy of need which are love and belong. Teachers are not belong to the community andlose their focus in order to achieve the goal in education as the First Nation people do notsee themselves reflected in the school system.Then, the article also raised the issue of jobs beliefs and job satisfaction among teachers; itprovides that the physical and geographical context influenced job stress and satisfaction. Inthis article it is stated that teachers face a difficulty in adjusting themselves with the weather.Long hour of daylight and the long periods in winter make the teachers feel stress inworking. For example, during winter, the situation and surrounding are almost the same atone time; 8a.m is just like 3a.m in the morning. Other places will experience differentdifficulties from the geographical context that influenced job stress and satisfaction. Forexample, in certain rural school in Malaysia, in order to reach the school, teachers need totravel for two hours by boat. So, teachers are tired already before they reach to school. Thesituation does affect them emotionally.Another issue that has been identified by the authors could lead another study in teachers’job belief and dissatisfaction. The issue is what are the ways that teachers can do in gettingsupport from the parents in one community to strengthen the children education in remotearea.In contrast, this article also has an array of weaknesses, there is no clear suggestionprovided in order to improve teachers’ motivation in remote setting. The subject only relieson teachers in one part of Canada, I think, it would be better the study also conducted invarious kind of remote setting to see the similarities that they have among teachers thatinfluenced jobs belief and dissatisfaction. The data would be more realistic and theimplication of the theory and practice can derive to the other part of world.
  5. 5. AZURAWATI BT WOK ZAKI ED7701A2EDU702- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYSeveral statement also seems to express the authors own disappointment in the reason ofconducting the study that have been overlooked in much motivation research. For example,Bronfenbrenner’s much cited ecological approach (1979) continues to provide a usefulmodel for understanding factors in teaching and the teaching environment. Influences onteachers and teaching involve more than the microsystem (e.g, factors in the classroom), butalso include influences from the broader layers of the mesosystem (e.g., factors in theschool), the exosystem (community factors), and the macrosystem (cultural factors), thelatter three layers that have been largely ignored in teacher motivation research. (p. 393).These statement highlights that there are various kind of factors that influence teachers’motivation not only from one the first layer of the mesosystem. Therefore, Klassen, Foster,Sukaina & Bowman are called to carry out the study in that particular situation with differentcontexts. The article provides trustworthy information and a credible point of view how thecommunity in remote setting sees the education. However, there is no means provide insuggesting to improve this kind of situation which involves one community in remote setting.Recommendation and further researchI think that teachers’ motivation can be enhance gradually by ongoing support from therespective government or authorities. I personally agreed with the authors that geographical,cultural and community become the factors that influence teachers’ working lives. I wouldsuggest that this study to be carried out to another remote area in other part of the worldsuch as in Malaysia. Being the only source of manpower in the education field to producequality education, there is an urgent need for investigation to counteract the negativeconsequences of work-related stress on teachers.ConclusionKlessen, Foster, Sukaina & Bowman have presented a realistic research that the factorsinfluence job and stress depend on the context and also depend on the outside of theclassroom factors as strongly as school-based factors. The links with community andstakeholder plays an important role in the satisfaction and stress in the classroom. Thearticle does contain supporting information as the finding shows that those factors doinfluence teachers’ motivation.
  6. 6. AZURAWATI BT WOK ZAKI ED7701A2EDU702- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYReferences:Santrock W. J. (2008). Educational Psychology. Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Klassen M. R, Foster Y. R, Sukaina & Bowman C. (2009). Teaching in the Yukon: Exploring teachers’ efficacy beliefs, and job satisfaction in a remote setting. International Journal of Educational Research. Retrieved on March 9, 2012 from K. (2007). The Teachers Role in Motivation. Education Week. Retrieved on March 25, 2012 from S. (2006). Motivation of ESL Teachers. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XII, No. 1. Retrieved on March 16, 2012 from TeacherMotivation.htmlBennet B. (2009). Motivation and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Retrieved on 26 March 2012 from and-the-hierarchy-of-needs/