Observation, Interviews andChecklist Syarifah Nazurah Abd Khalib (2011909417) Wani Nurfahani Mohd Sapuan (2011918621) Rashidah Robani (2011725353)
Observation Meriam – Webster dictionary (2012) defines observe as „to watch carefully especially with attention to details or behaviour for the purpose of arriving at a judgment. Observation as the best way to answer some research questions – observing how people act and how things look.
Roles of a Researcher Participant Nonparticipant Observation observation Overt Participant Participant-as- Observer observer Covert Participant Observer-as- Observer participant
Figure 1 : Variations in Approaches to Observation (Frankael, Wallen & Hyun (2012)
Naturalistic Observation• It involves observing individuals in their naturalsetting.• No effort is required to manipulate variables or tocontrol activities, but simply observes and recordswhat happens.• Example of naturalistic observer – Jean Piaget.
Simulations Individual • You are a primary teacher and a student of yours has been away from school for more than two weeks. What Role do you say to him when he suddenly appears at school? Playing • The district is having an action song competition and your school never Team Role participate in the competition. As new English teachers, all of you are required to discuss on the reasons Playing why the school did not participate in that competition before. What will be the outcome?
Observer Effect• “ The presence of an observer can have aconsiderable impact on the behaviour of those beingobserved and hence, on the outcomes of the study”.• Bernard (n.d), as cited in Frankel, Wallen and Hyun(2012) suggests that “eventually, people just get plaintired of trying to manage your impression and theyact naturally. In research, the trick is to catch aglimpse of people in their natural activities beforethey see you coming on the scene – before they havethe chance to modify the behaviour.
Curiosity aroused, resultedin a lack of attention to the task at hand, thus producing other-than- normal-behaviour. If an observer is unexpected The behaviour of those who are being observedmight be influenced by the researcher‟s purpose
Observer bias andexpectations• Observer bias refers to the possibility that certaincharacteristics or ideas of observers may bias whatthey „see‟.•This is influenced to some degree by pastexperiences; how we see the world and the peoplewithin it.•Observer expectations refers to if the researchersmay expect a certain type of behaviour which maynot be how the subjects normally behave.
Coding Observational Data• The coding scheme is a set of categories that an observer uses torecord the frequency of a person‟s or group‟s behaviour. Figure 2 : The Amidon/ Flanders Scheme for Coding Categories of Interactions in the Classrooms (Amidon & Hough ,1967)
The Use of Technology• Recording the behaviour of people using video or digital recordingdevices permits the researcher to repeatedly view the behaviour of anindividual or a group and then decide how to code it at a later, usuallymore relaxed and convenient time. • To record observation perfectly • Observation can be reviewed several times • Experts or interested others can view and share insights • Permanent record of certain kinds of behaviours is obtained for comparison with later or different samples • Good video requires some training and prior experiences • Several microphones can distort the participant behaviour • Prolonged recording can be expensive • Audio – record only verbal behaviour • Noise is difficult to distinguish specific speakers and sometimes interferes with the understanding of the content
INTERVIEWING The second method for qualitative research. The most important data collection technique a qualitative researcher possesses (Fetterman) The purposes: * to discover the views, opinions and thought of the samples (Patton) * to discover the overlooked things during the observation * to check the accuracy of data collection.
INTERVIEWING Semi Informal structured Structured There are FOUR (4) types of interviews that can be used in a qualitative research;
TYPES OF INTERVIEWS * verbal questionnaires * are conducted in a formal manner.Structure d * are best conducted toward the end of the study Semi * effective in testing the hypothesis of the research. structured * the most common type of interview * no certain guidelines of asking the questions. Informal * less formal/casual manner. * the objective is to gain the views, thoughts and opinions of the samples. * issues of ethics – too personal? * applicable in various forms; * structured, semi-structured or informal. * the least favourable type of the interview * requires the samples to recall and reconstruct of something that happened in the past. * there is a possibility that the data is not accurate thus unreliable for the research.
INTERVIEW STRATEGIES There are FOUR (4) major Informal interview strategies 1 Conversation al Interview Interview Guide 2 Approach Standardized Closed, Fixe 3 Open-Ended Interview 4 d-Response Interview.
INTERVIEW STRATEGIES Informal Conversational Interview Interview Guide Approach1 2 Characteristics: Characteristics: * the questions are not planned * The topics and issues are outlined in * they are asked in accordance to the advance. situation. * The questions and sequence will be determined during the interview. Strengths: Strengths: * Individuality * systematic data collection - the questions & the interview * The outline acts as a guidance Weaknesses: Weaknesses: * vast different responses from one * different responses from one sample to sample to another due to the flexibility in another developing the questions. * the data could not be easy to analyse * the data could not be easy to analyse
INTERVIEW STRATEGIES Standardize Open-ended Interview Closed, Fixed-response Interview3 Characteristics: 4 * The questions and sequence are Characteristics: planned * The categories for the questions and before the interview. responses are already prepared in * The samples are asked the same advance. questions * Responses are fixed. by the researcher. * The questions are in open-ended format. Strengths: Strengths: *The data becomes simpler and clearer *the data could be easy to analyse to be analysed and compared. *Less time consuming Weaknesses: Weaknesses: *limits the naturalness and relevance of *Respondents might face difficulties in the responding to the questions questions to the samples. *Limited choice of responses
KEY-ACTOR INTERVIEWS The term „key actor‟ derives from the term „key informant‟. Definitions: Key informant the individuals who know their culture and history and are able to articulate better than others. Key actor The individuals who are knowledgeable and informative. Excellent source of knowledge In a research context, researchers should take some time to identify and build rapport with the key actors of a population.
TYPES OF INTERVIEWQUESTIONSThere are SIX (6) types ofbasic questionswhich Feelingare; questions Knowledge Opinion questions questions Experience questions Background Sensory questions questions
TYPES OF INTERVIEWQUESTIONS-Demographic questions-feature questions related to respondents Backgroun d questions-For example; education level, age, income etc.-feature questions related to the facts that the respondents know-The information of the school , the graduation requirements, etc.-For example; Knowledg What is the graduation requirement in this school? e questions-Behaviour questions-To discover the respondents‟ experience, behaviour or activities that could not beobserved due to several reasons such as; Experience *The researcher was not there questions *It was happening in the past-For example; If I were to follow you through a typical day here at your school,
TYPES OF INTERVIEWQUESTIONS-Values questions-Concern on the respondents‟ views, opinions and thoughts Opinion-For example; questions What do you think about ________________?-Related to how respondents feel on certain things-For example; Feeling How do you feel about _____________? questions-Rely on the five senses; -What is seen, heard, tasted, smelled and Sensory touched by the respondents. questions-For example; When you enter your classroom, what do you see?
INTERVIEWINGBEHAVIOUR There are a set of expectations of how the researchers should behave during the interview. be natural respect the The build rapport with respondents and researcher the respondents their culture should; etc
FOCUS GROUPINTERVIEW• a group of small people• they are seated together and asked a series of questions to think of.• the objective is to identify what this group of people think about the questions asked.• not a discussion, problem-solving or decision-making session.
FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW knowledgeable Characteristics Roles Facilitating interaction Drawing out differing perspectives Keeping sessions focused Facilitator Challenge participants in bringing out differing opinions about a topic Probe for more details
FOCUS GROUPINTERVIEW • There are 3 parts; facilitator/moderator facilitator/moderator •welcomes members •thanking and debriefing •explains purpose, Closing participants context and rules Opening •giving them opportunity for further input. Middle participants answer main research questions
RECORDING DATA involves•Advantages: To keep track the conscious and unconscious response of the respondents. Facilitate later analysis, including locating important quotations from the recording device Indicate to respondents that what have been said was of importance.
ETHICS IN INTERVIEWING:the necessity for informed consent.• It is preferable to request participants to sign an informed consent form.• to preserve the rights of both interviewers and participants• to avoid misunderstanding of any issues regarding the interview.
CHECKLISTS I A type of informational job aid used to Comprehensive list of important or reduce failure by compensating forrelevant actions, or steps to be taken in potential limits of human memory and a specific order. attention. It helps to ensure consistency (http:/www. businessdictionary.com) and completeness in carrying out a task. (Wikipedia) General DefinitionsA list of items to be noted, checked and A list of things you need to do or remembered. consider.(The American Heritage@Dictionary of (MacMillan) the English Language)
CHECKLISTS II Generally, it is as a tool or instrument for data collection Ensures a more complete The simplest of all the devices consideration of all aspects of for data collection the object, act or task. It consists of a prepared list of Contain terms, which the items pertinent to an object or respondent understands a particular task Presence or absence of each May be used as an independent item may be indicated by tool or as a part of a checking „yes‟ or „no‟ or schedule/questionnaire multipoint scale
CATEGORIES Checklist is divided in TWO (2) categories ; Performance Checklists Self – checklists most frequently used of all measuring List of several characteristics or instruments activities presented to the subjects of a study Consists of a list of behaviours that make up a certain type of Individuals place a mark opposite performance. the characteristics they possess or the activities they have engaged for To determine whether an a particular length of time. individual behaves in a certain way when asked to complete a Often used when particular task researchers wantNo students to diagnose orsubjective If particular behavior is present, to appraise their ownjudgments a check mark is placed performance
THE PURPOSES Enhance quality of research proposals As a guide to build skills in Provide formative evaluation for writing research proposals that the success in the summative involve human participants evaluation process Outline necessary content for research proposals involving human participants, and learning activities are intended to build application skills To guide evaluative feedback As a guide to evaluate previous proposals, thus produces clear Communicate important understanding of the criteria and course content standards
FUNDAMENTAL Brookfield‟s 5 Principles • Explain Intentions Clearly is a guiding principle when distributing checklists. Checklist clearly communicates performance expectations in terms of criteria andP1 standards. • Improve Clarity in Instructions – checklist specifically identifies what needs to beP2 included in a proposal or what parts of a proposal may need revision. • Sort Out Causes of Resistance – use of checklist at intervals help researchers build confidence in their ability to develop a high-quality proposal that meets criteria andP3 standards. • Conduct Regular Formative Evaluation – in the form of troubleshooting, privateP4 feedback, buddy system, small group feedback sessions • Overcome Fear in Public – checklists build confidence and eliminates errors beforeP5 presenting a proposal, creating “success” experience.