A2 research pre production

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A2 research pre production

  1. 1. A2 Media: Research<br />Pre-Production<br />
  2. 2. NEWSPAPER CONVENTIONS<br />
  3. 3. Strapline:  A secondary headline, smaller in size and sometimes can  reveal  more important information of the story. <br />Captions: Typed text under photographs explaining the image which fix the readers understanding of the images. <br />Teasers: Short reference on the front cover to topics/issues which are covered inside the publication. <br />By-line: The name of the reporter, <br />Exclusive – This means that newspaper and no one else  can cover the story. The paper will pay their interviewees, buying the story so it cannot be used by another paper. <br />Credits – The author of a feature may be given credit in the form of a beeline. <br />Kicker – This is a story designed to stand out from the rest of the page by the use of a different font (typeface) and layout.<br />
  4. 4. Lead Story – The main story on the front page, usually a splash. <br />Lure – A word or phrase directing the reader to look inside the paper at a particular story or feature. <br />Headline –  This is the main statement, usually in the largest and boldest font, describing the main story a banner headline spans the full width of the page.<br />Stand Alone Paragraph - The first paragraph of news stories, often in bold and contains approximately 30 words. <br />Menu – The list of contents inside the paper. <br />Connotations of Type face: The shape of letters in printed texts. There are two main types: Sans-serif connotes informality and serif connotes formality. B<br />Bias: A form of prejudice when a person, place or thing is misrepresented, or ignored. <br />Box Out: A small part of the page, shaded in a different colour.<br />
  5. 5. Circulation: The number of copies of a given newspaper sold in a day. <br />Editor: The person who is in charge of the day to day decision making and who edits each edition. <br />Feature: An article written for the interest of the reader which may not have direct relevance to current news events. <br />Human Interest Story: A news story thought to appeal to a mass audience because of its personal qualities.<br />News values: The factors that influence journalists and editors in their selection and rejection of stories for publication. <br />NIB: News In Brief – usually a news item told in a very small space, say one column x two inches. <br />Puff: Small, usually colourful section on the front page which promote features inside the paper<br />
  6. 6. Reach: The amount of people in a target audience who read a given paper. <br />Redtops: Term used to describe The Sun, The Mirror and The Star – down market tabloids. <br />Standfirst: An introductory paragraph before the start of the feature. Sometimes it may be in bold. <br />Tag: A word or phrase used to engage a reader’s interest in a story by categorising it e.g. ‘Exclusive’, ‘Sensational’. <br />Todrov’s theory: Dis-Equilibrium [Interrupted by a conflict], Equilibrium [The state of normality] and New Equilibrium [Later a new normality is established]<br />
  7. 7. PRE PRODUCTION-REVERSED TRIANGLE<br />
  8. 8. In conclusion, I understand all the previous conventions on newspapers. This effects me because I must understand different terminologies and what it means, before constructiong my local newspaper. The next blog I am going to include is annotationg different types of newspapers.<br />
  9. 9. LOCAL NEWSPAPER RESEARCH<br />
  10. 10. More than 85% of the all British adults read a local paper <br />But only 66% read a national daily <br />Regional/local papers are the second largest advertising medium in the UK after television <br />37.5 million local daily papers are bought or given away<br />More than 6 million weekly papers change hands <br />30 million free weekly newspapers are delivered.<br />A local community cannot be continued without its local newspaper- it represents it. <br />Local newspaper carry out conversation in their communities which no other media does. <br />They are vital for information about local government and are a first draft of local history. <br />A local newspaper is a community talking to itself; without that the community would be deaf and dumb.<br />
  11. 11. NEWSPAPERS RESEARCH<br />
  12. 12. Newspapers [a media product] contains the latest news reports, information on the area which the newspaper is distributed and advertising for products and services around the world 24/7.<br />Newspapers usually contain several different topics for example political and financial events, crime, sport and entertainment.<br />Some newspapers often have extra sections, such as  lifestyle or entertainment magazine.<br />Some traditional newspapers include a article written by the editor and articles which express the opinion of newspaper journalists.<br />Newspapers are either published on a daily, weekly, monthly and yearly basis.<br />
  13. 13. Whereas, Sunday newspapers are often include supplements, specialist sections and advertising, they often cost more.<br />There are different Newspapers  sizes: broadsheets  are larger and generally associated with more academically to newspapers, tabloid are smaller than broadsheets and are generally associated with being biased and controversial.<br />A percentage of newspapers revenue comes from advertising, 80% of newspapers revenue comes from advertising and 20% from sales.<br />Most of the audience understand or have known the following, facts of a newspaper. The importance are what fields place on newspapers and how journalists express or publish their stories towards their target audience.<br />
  14. 14. Predictions say that in the future the number of newspapers  may lose their business and suffer from bankruptcy <br />For Example. London Lite, London Paper, News Of The World. <br />Today nearly all newspapers have online editions, web based newspapers have also appeared where the newspaper is only published online.<br />
  15. 15. To conclude this, I understand the concept and theories of the newspaper and what has the development of newspapers changed during the past years. Also, there are facts audience are aware of. In Addition, Hardcopy newspapers are decreasing and losing out meaning the development of technology is increasing, businesses may close down.<br />
  16. 16. CONNOTATIONS OF COLOUR<br />
  17. 17. Red – Red is a very strong and bright colour, its used to show emotion and attract readers,The Sun uses red in it’s mast head. The colour is often associated with love, fire, blood, passion, lust, revolution and desire.<br />Orange – The colour orange is a mix of red and orange, it’s often associated with joy and happiness; it represents sunshine, sucess and stimulation. London Evening Standard uses orange in its background.<br />Yellow – Yellow is the colour of sunshine, the colour is very warm however it isnt used often in newspapers because its not very easy to read text, but it is very effective for catching people’s attention.<br />
  18. 18. Green – The colour green is the colour of nature, it’s associated with harmony and freshness, the colour is strongly associated with safety and money. The colour green is often used in broadsheet newspapers such as The Guardian because it’s a very warming colour.<br />Purple – The colour purple is associated with royalty and symbolizes power and luxury, purple is a great choice of femminine design, it’s associated with wealth and extravagance,  rare colour in nature.<br />To conclude this  the main  colours attracts any  target audiences, and as part of my local newspaper, I must chose the exact background colour for my construction.<br />
  19. 19. Local Newspaper <br />Institutions<br />
  20. 20. Ealing Gazette Series + Harrow Observer:<br />TRINITY MIRROR: www.trinitymirror.com<br />A large British newspaper and magazine publisher. It is Britain’s biggest newspaper group, publishing 240 regional papers as well as The Daily Telegraph, Sunday Mirror. Found in 1903, Its headquarters are at Canary Wharf in London. The Group employs over 6,500 people in more than 60 locations across the UK. In September 1999, Trinity Mirror was found by two highly successful newspaper companies – Trinity plc and Mirror Group plc. With five national and over 160 regional newspapers and more than 500 digital products our brands have a significant reach amongst the adult population.<br />
  21. 21. THE HISTORY OF NEWSPAPERS<br />
  22. 22. What is “News”?<br />News is simply what made it into today’s paper or news broadcast. <br />With near ly188 countries, 5 billion people, and thousands of events that “happened” yesterday.<br />Only the ones that actually made the paper became news. Tomorrow will have its own news, so the rejected events will never be news.<br /> News is not about history, but about profits, when newspaper publishers are thinking clearly, from the very beginning.<br />
  23. 23. The second preliminary point is that there is no need of thinking of news as daily. It comes along irregularly when people, exercising their own judgment, they decide something they heard was interesting or important, and passed it on.<br />The third preliminary, the content is accepted to a sense of important social or political events. There have been many occasions in the history of journalism where opinion has been published as news, where comments have been presented with the authority of facts.<br />The Fourth preliminary, is the most common mistake in thinking about news is to imagine that the most important events are those that get the most publicity. <br />The reverse may be true. Powerful people do not usually like publicity. and the media have learned that customers will pay as much or more to read about celebrities as about the powerful. <br />
  24. 24. The Origins of Newspapers<br />The history of newspapers is an often-dramatic chapter of the human experience going back some five centuries. The first printed  newspaper appeared in Germany in the late 1400′s in the form of news  broadsides, often highly exaggerated in content.<br />The first successively newspaper published was The Weekly Newes of 1622, and the first true newspaper in English was the London Gazette of 1666.<br />
  25. 25. The Importance Of Newspaper<br />
  26. 26. Newspapers play a vital role in human affairs. Its importance has not been reduced by the appearance of the radio or the television. <br />Newspaper has become the main source of information about local and foreign events.<br />Even though radio and television conveys important news and messages quicker than the newspaper, they produce the details of an incident.<br /> On the other hand, it gives not only more detail about a particular incident but it also contains more new items.<br />
  27. 27. Newspaper are easier to carry and it could be read at any time during the day. Further, the stability of the printed word helps one to refresh memories of certain facts and incidents reported in the past.<br />Furthermore, the importance of newspaper has been increased by the spread of education, newspaper appeals most especially if one finds little time to read books. <br />However, newspapers should read with caution, for its ability, to do harm is great. <br />Most people believe everything that is reported by the newspaper. <br />As a result, when some news is reported wrongly either by a mistake or design, it may cause a lot of misbehaviour.<br />
  28. 28. However, newspapers try to report as accurately as possible, for competing with other newspapers to provide accurate information on world developments, and it is the newspaper that links us with the outside world.<br />To conclude this newspapers are very important to any target audience this is because the style, content. Yet, the many readers are affected by education, meaning they are learning and improving their language. My view is without newspapers and replaced by radio and television, <br />
  29. 29. NEWSPAPER LANGUAGE<br />
  30. 30. To constrtuct a local newspaper, I analysed and understood the Newspaper Language such as using specific language and grammar, this shows that it is newspaper text being read. Each newspaper follows a set of simple rules that’s establishes the newspaper language.<br />
  31. 31. The Nine Golden Rules –<br />Keep It Short and Simple. Keep sentences short and simple to make news easier to read.<br />Reading For Speed –This allow the audience to read through articles fast without hesitation or delay. <br />Never Use 3 Words When One Will Do –suggests the rule of reading for speed is not followed.<br />Don’t Repeat Yourself Use Active Verbs –Use Puns In Headlines –making the reader to have a positive response to the article.<br />Personalise The Story – Make it relevant to people and places. <br /> Categorise People - This could lead to looking unprofessional and make difficult reading for the audience.<br />
  32. 32. 7] Grammar and quote use when I am quoting in articles, the quote have to be direct or indirect. <br />8] Text layout Newspaper text making them efficient and easy to read, as well as easy to quick read. <br />9] These are:“WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and WHY”, and HOW<br />

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