1.0 Attitudes ?♫ As Brown (2000) points out, attitudes are cognitive and affective; that is, they are related to thoughts as well as to feelings and emotions.♫ Attitudes begin developing early and are influenced by many things, including parents, peers, and interactions with people who have social and cultural differences.
Attitudes “form a part of one’s perception of self,of others, and of the culture in which one is living”(Brown 2000).♫ According to Gardner (1985) attitudes are a component of motivation, which “refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning plus favorable attitudes towards learning the language.”
1.1 Positive AttitudesBrown (2000) concludesthat “positive attitudes towards the self, thenative language group, and the target language groupenhanced proficiency”.
1.2 Negative Attitudes Negative attitudes towards the foreign language and group, which often comes from stereotypes, can impede *( menghalang ) the learning of that language.
1.3 When? How? When students experience success, the positive attitudes are reinforced. Attitudes can be modified by experience, effective language teaching strategies can encourage students to be more positive towards the language they are learning.
Certain kinds of anxiety can interfere with your language learning Fear of making mistakes can inhibit your learning Too much correction or criticism can inhibit your learning • The more positive you feel about the speakers of a language, the more motivation you will have to learn it • If you want to communicate with speakers of a language, you will be more motivated to learn it • If you need to use a language, you will be more motivated to learn it
Reference Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. 4th ed. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
2.0 Motivation ? Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal Motivation results from the interactions among conscious and unconscious factors such as the intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, and expectations of the individual and of his or her significant others.
2.1 Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation means that the individuals motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it.
Our deep-rooted desires have the highestmotivational power. Below are some examples: Acceptance: We all need to feel that we, as well as our decisions, are accepted by our co-workers. Curiosity: We all have the desire to be in the know. Honor: We all need to respect the rules and to be ethical. Independence: We all need to feel we are unique. Order: We all need to be organized. Power: We all have the desire to be able to have influence. Social contact: We all need to have some social interactions. Social Status: We all have the desire to feel important.
2.2 Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation means that the individuals motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even though the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual performing the task.
Extrinsic motivation is external in nature. Themost well-known and the most debatedmotivation is money. Below are some otherexamples: Employee of the month award Benefit package Bonuses Organized activities