SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 13
Download to read offline
Module 7 Assignment This week's assignment will grant you a glimpse into the realm of
modern academic research within the domain of leadership. The article provided for you to read
this week will grant you insight into the structure of most professional academic papers that are
published in the domain of leadership and management in general. These types of articles are
also where the information found in your textbook stems from. Although I do not expect you to
be strongly familiar with the jargon, structure, or research methods aspects (especially the results
section) included within this paper; I would like for you to try your best to complete the
following: Read the article, and write a detailed essay discussing your opinion on the article's
conclusions. Then discuss how the other course materials support or refute these findings. Lastly,
discuss any issues that you have with the methodology adopted in the research article. Please
note that your similarity score will likely be a bit higher than normal for this paper, but try your
best to keep it below 30% (paraphrasing study information in your own words should help
considerably).
A multi-level analysis of team climate and interpersonal exchange relationships at work t
Herman H.M. Tse m,, Marie T. Dasborough b,t, Neal M. Ashkanasy " Absitrat enplayces,
capecially when ite afloctive climale is atroog Q 2005 silsria lac. Al Rohts rosroed 1.
Latredtactien cxchange relationatips that leadcts develop and maineain mith suberdimases within
workgrumupl (D)ansereau. Grach. 6 . Bow and whether IMKX indlischecs people outwdo of the
leader-meteber dyadie relabonshipu (Sias & Jablin, 1995). WiM. Anklanip]. If
196 Sparrowe & Liden (1997, 2005) and Cole, Schaninger, & Harris (2002) siggest that
interpersonal relationahipo behween lenders, subendinates, and coworkers constitute an
interconected social system that operates in team and orgarimation. Similarly, bused on a
systems perppetive, Gracn & UhL-Bien (1995) have called for more rerearch to tiederstand bow
L.MX relationships affect employeer' woek attitudes and behaviors in larger collectives of
workgrocps; they argue that LMX is not only influenced by, but may also influttee, ocher
exchange relationshlips within the larger system. Consequently, we posit here that L.MX may
have Ynplications for team-member exchange (TMMX), which has been defined by Secrs
(1989) as the relasionship guality L-twoen an individual and her or his team members.
Aceording to Dientseh & Lilen (1986), leaders oten develop high-quality LMX relationships
with cnly a few subortinates because of limited time, abilitics, and resources. The differential
treatment of employees in teams appean to be peoblematic bocasse employees can be seasitive to
social comparison information and perceptions of unfaimees. The resulting alierod self-eoncept
may then affect employees' antitudes toward TMDC (Greenberg. Adhon-James, & Aihkanasy,
2007; Tyler & Blader, 2003). The reasoning bere is that LMX relationships determine bow work
tearn supervisors disribute resoures, work-related infonmation, and psychological support. le this
reypect, team members in high-gaality LMX relationalips are liely to be more advantageously
treated relative to other team member. Team members in low-quality I.MD selationhips aro,
therefore, likely to roseive less ripervisory attention, access to organirational resources, and
empowerment, potentially leading to job disatisfiction and lower organizational commitanen (e
S. Gentner & Day, 1997) Hence, theie teans members may be jealous and resentful of their
conorken wbe enjoy more beneficial high-quality LMX relationships. Althovgh the implications
of I.MX for TMX within a larger organization's social syatean have been implicit in the social
exchame titenture, they hove not been made theoretically explicit, nor lave they been empirically
iesied in a wysematie manner (o.8. Cole ef al, 2002; Graen & UMl Bien, 1995; Sparruwe &
Liden, 1997, 2005). The empirical evidence demonsirates that individuals wbo experience high-
qualiey TMX relationships are more likely to contribeie by assisting one another and to share
triornation, ideas, and feedbokk within woek teams (e.g. Secr. 1989; Secrs, Petly, N Cauhman,
1995). Henee, interpersonal relationships play a pivetal role in effective team functioning
because they faciliate behavions that maximiae the individual potential for teas efficiency and
effectiveness (Gee Kostova & Roth, 2009). Besed on this undentanding. exploeing the
peocesses by which dyadie LMX relaticechips influence employers' pereeptions of TMX
eelationships is an inportant, yet neglected aspect of the socinl exchange literature (eg. Graen
&2 Uh-Bien, 1995; Seers ot al, 1995). The present article antenpts to advance the research on
intepenonal euchange relaticnships in several ways: Fint, we respond to the call by Grien & Lh-
Bien (1995) to eramien the impact of dyadic LMX melationships within a lurger sysitm of
workgroups. To do so, we develop and test a mult fevel model that specifies the relasionship
between LMX, woekplace friendship, affective climate, and TMX within a tean conteat Sceond,
we lypolesire that woelplase friendihip is a process variable that mediats the relationship
between LMX and TMX. This line of research addresses Genener & Day's (1997) call to identify
the esderlying process variables linking LMX and important woek outconses, such as, TMX. It
alwo responds to the call by Beman, Weat, & Richer (2002) to explore the role of workplace
friendahip in creating weial nystemt in organirations. Finally, tiin study conbibuted to the
growing body of research on malti-level models of leader-mereber erehange (ce. Coglace &
Schrieaheim, 2000), integrating individual and team levels of analysis by iavestigating cross-
level inderartion efiocts. Sprcifically, we conceptualine affoctive climate as a team-level
coestruct and examine its effects on individuat-level coestructs such as LMX, worlplace
fikedahip, and TMX. Axploring these selationahips uaing multi-level wealyis is theoretically and
practically imperative because it provider a more comprebenshe and realistic pitare of the
interponooal exihange relationshipe betwoen supervison, suborticatos, and coworkers in
erganizations. 1. Thesry and bypethesis development Fig. I depicts a multilevel model in which
workplace friculahip is a mediator likiking the reiationship between between LMC and
workplace fiendahip at the indivifual level. In this section, we previbe the tatikinale andertying
our model development, and we develop theortical argumenti between LMX and woekplnce
friendahig. Next, we dibcuu brow weekplake fiendahip mediaica the LMX-TMX
involvancit in decision making and relared matten, cooprhtive and receptive information aharing,
and perwooriented mewuge echanges that delermite their communication swiifaction (Raker &
Canster, 198s; Kacnar, Wht, feclings, emotioss and opinions sbent the werk emirunenent (ligh-
geality tocial euchange) Brsed en this tend, it soems reaiceable bo expect that IMX relationshipe
are perocived by enployees a valuatle This idra, in turm, implics that 1MX melationships may be
associated with employees" persepeiona of wodiplace frimdahip within a team. These cosecpos
contribuite oo our fint hopotheris: Hypedhrsit 1. At the indivitual level, L.MX aill be positively
relased to workplace friendship. 22. Hurkplace frimahip asd TMox Team-member cachunge
(TMX) is a thecrobical exiension of L.MX (Seen, 1989), If concens the relationship between an
individual and ber or bis beam members andrhus indicates the effectiveness of the enember's
ongoing share idow and fecdback aed, is turs, to provide information so other members and to
receire recognition from ether menben (Seen, 1959, Seen et al, 1995). Coetempotary research oe
TMX las primarily focused on identifying. different types of justice, team temponal icope,
commanication modiation, and supervisor-subordinate relabicalips as the antocedents of TMX
(eg, Alge, Wiethotf, & Klein, 2003; Hiller & Day, 2003; Liden, Wayne, & Spamowe, 2000:
Sheroey is Green, 2002). The wocial exchanges underlying TMX are likely to be aided by the
pecience of friendships between team menbers. Freedthipe ereale scial ties and affective bondine,
endbling team memben to experiesce relational meanings alose their imimersonal relaoiosships,
including TMX (Duck & Pittman, 1995). Workplace frientahips are unique inierpersonal
relationahips that employees develop and maintia by cheice - not compulsion-and they are
willing to spend time with one another beyoed their fonmal role expxited within other
relationshigs in organtuations (Siax, 2005; Sias & Cathill, 1998). This vobuntary
interdependence assists with fisctions moeh as decision making and influenee sharity, and it
provides an instrumeetal ard emotional wuppot iysicm for team members. Hence, fremdihip is an
importand source of support and intriasic reaed for team metbors (Sias & Calill, 1998). In line
with this reasoning, we argue that worloploce fricodstip nourishes high-quality TMCX
relationchips becase team memben can trust and value coe another, shaee imterss, asd view the
emotional mend instrumental support as valuable means of growth and depeedence (Beman in ti,
8002). This motivational forse encourages employees to enpage in high-quality TMX
relationship development bocause they see theit team members as friends rather than formul
colleagees at work. Evidence supportiog thia claim can be Sisend in an enpirical study by
Morison (2004), whan found that worlplace friendship accounted for substantial variance is leam
cobesion. Based on this, we suggest that worlplace frendihip may be a nocossary condition for,
and is conducive to, the fomation of high-quality TMEK: Hypotheris 2. At the individual level,
workplace friendstip will be positively olated to TMX. 2.1. The modlaring mole of warkolace
frienddip The modiuting role of workplsce frienditip in the relabionship berween LMX and
TMX is premised co the idea that friendilipe npresent o key eleneent of the informal wocial
syisem of an erganization. In this regand, Argytis (1996) has posited that worlplace frienduhip
lays dowa a foundation for organ ivational social in tems that links formal, informal, vatical, and
lateral inerietions with open syles of commaniciefion and fluid task structures for
acoompliatument. to individuals. As soch, friendlhips are powerfil utnuctural units that can ciler
hibder of tacilitae beam and orcanimeional effoctiveners via the informal seial system. This
capacily srises because the charicteniatics of woleplact friendahip emphasize diecretionary
atritudes and behaviors that ae not pee-speeilied for an expected role mithin iniepersonal
relationalipe (Wrigh, 19s4). We therefore peopose that workplace fricondehip is an imermodiale
in qualiy LMX relationelipe endermine the quality of workplace fticnithip by erphasirisg the role
falmetment for
As neted carlier, Bigh-equality I.MX relationalipu facilitate workplace fricmlahip via affective
and coeial bendieg. providing seam members with cmotiosal and inserumesal spport. Teem
memben regand this posihility an a strong intrinsic motivation that may elevate their
commitment to form High-quality TMX relationulipe. Conversely. low. paality LMX
relationships undemine the suality of weekploce friendahip by cmphatiring the role falfiliment
for. reciprocity, so that team member perceive it as part of their formal oblization. This
perecption, is furm, cnemden negative implicabions for team members" attitudes toward the
developnent of TMCX relationihips. As mentioned ctelier, worlylace frimdhaips are also likely
to reflect high-quality LMX reletiosshipi with respect to communication qeality. Fhendytrips are
enhaneed through open and honest communteation ieneractions it which employecs and
supervisen both talk about their emotional ficelings roganding the work enviromenene and their
perooal Lives and ahare fortheoming sensitive iaformation (Siat & Callill, 1998) Participasts in
worlplace fricniahipa also tend to be loss cautious and enguge in less "edining" in their
communication (Sias & Jablin, 1995). We woald therefore expect workplace Atictudahip so
play a role in detemining fe relationdip between LMX and TMX. This aotion was mupported in a
field study conducted by Sias (2005), whetiound that the quality of information cmploytes
roceived from coworkers or supervisors was relaked to the exient to which they were satiafidi
with their cummunication. Based on the forgoing points, we maggest that wotkptace fhendthip
serves at a provimal outcome throegh which LMX infloences the more distal euserne of TMEX:
Hypothesis 3. At the isdividual level, workplace ficendulip will modiate the LMX-TMX
relationship 24. The maderating nile of affective climate. Over the lan taroe decades, a
considerable amoet of rasarch has ecamined the inplicatioes of climate an orgaeirztions (seo
Schneider, 2006, for a revicw of this liicrature). Jenes & lames (1979) defined peychological
climake as etganizational members shared perceptions and interpretations of their werk
enviponent, in terms of pychological meating and significance. Ia parbicular, reseachers have
focued oo the role that climato plays in motivabional processes for individual and teem outcomes
(Ashikanay, Wilderos, & Feterson, 2000- Kovlowiki & Kkein, 2000). Specific domains of
climale that have been shudied inelude serviee climase (Setuneider, Parkinglan, & Buabo,
1980). innovation climate (Asdersoe & Wea, 1998), safety climato (Hofmamn & Stcteer,
1996), transfer bo thining climate (Tracey, Tannenburm, A Kavanagh, 1995), procobural jewice
climse (Naumann A Benneth, 2000h and affectivt climate (De Rivera. 1992) In general, eis
rescarch has ibown that climate actounts for subiantial variance is work: attitudes ats behaviors.
Although climane is defincd as a collective property of groepe. Atw cmpirical shidies brve used
the croup as a level for analysis diatinct from the wider organization (Anderwo & West, 1998;
see Ashkmany & Nicholson, 2003, for an exception). Affoctive climate is a specific domain of
climate, defined by De Riven as an objective group plesomenon that can be "palpably scmod"
(1992, p. 197). Chov, Price, & Visokur (2003) provide a later definition of affective climate,
sating that is is an overall interaction pettem or a shared positive pecopeion among mernbers and
the atmosphere that charscierize interactions wilkin a team. These "ambient group itimuli"
(p,357) reflect the nature of the leam and can shape the action tendency of individals within the
team. Although climane perections originate widin individaals, affective climate pereeptions are
eipected to be thared by memben within diucrste woekgroups. Positive of aegave affective
climates are tikely to be differwt within separaie groupa. This disciepensy arises because
aflective climate is conceptualired an a derivative of chose social networks that erist within
workgroups (De Rivers, 1992). Affective climate is therefore likely to be found in pockets
wathin organizations nether than thruughout whole organirations. In a ficld atudy, for intatanc,
Adhkanay & Nicholice (2003) found that affective climate differed between workgreups as a
reault of workgyep-specific tiffercncen, nalet than organization-wide differences. This flofing
affems that thene is an effect on letividud's' elimate perichptont at the group level, cnusieg them
to share a perecpioa of affect in the workplace that in grater than its ariganiration-wide
perceptions among team mephers wilhin ieams and grealer variatiot acrois seasm (Ahkanany t al,
2000) Thus the appropriate unit of analyuis when atudying the impact of affertove cliemute is the
group and not the indiridual, Climate perecteions deremine how individadls behare colloctively
by influenciag their peroeptions asd fecliap about cerain aspects of their surrounding
ewitronmeat. For this reasce, we suegeat bat affective cfimace afoald be conceptualiond as a
groupilevel moderilor of the relatigealip between 1.MX and workplace friendalip. Ia pariculat.
300 Wwie ne at at r mo Lnalinite olareng is and ins-2is
employees seck guidelines from their environment to intcrpect events, to develop appropriate
ateitudea, and to andentand expectations conceming their behaviors and its consequences
(Salancik & Piefler, 1978), Characieristies of affective climat-including warmth, support,
aceeptance, sinoerity, and enthusiasm-serve as social control mechanisms that focilitate and
shape employees' behaviors in a team (O'Reilly & Chatman, 1996). Therefore, if iram members
stare itrong perseptions of afficetive climate, nembers of the team may foel motivated to develop
workplace friendahips because of their pesitive experience in Ingh-quality L.MX relaticeships.
On thin baris, we argue thas affective climate is likely to be a modcrator of the LMX-woekplace
frichdship relationship, and that the relationship is a function of the variation in affective elimate
across work teams. This leads to our crowi-level hypocheris: Hypothesir 4. The reletionship
between LMX and workplace friendahip at the individual level will be moderated by affective
climaic at the group level, such than ibe relationship befween LMX and workplace friend ahip
will be seronger when the affective climate is strong. 3. Method 3.1. Paricipants The participants
in this stady were employees and their immediale masagers working ia geognphically separate
branches of a large Australian bank. Some branehes were engaged is delivering standard banking
customer services, soch as dealing with personal and corponste banking accounts, bome loans,
and general investment advice. Orher branches were engaged in sevenal inerrdependent taskt,
including handling customer complaints and promoting Etrvetment schemes, diffcreat types of
insurance, and superanauation managemeet. The differing functions of each branch thus created
variation for within-bennch and between-branch comparisons, making this sample ideal for
multilevel modeling and analysis. Paricipants had a range of job titles, including tellens,
investment consulants, insuranee planers, and cudomer service officers. Branch managers had
been fommally appoinsed by the organization to manage the staff and to maintain the
effectiveness of daily operations for beanches. Their job rosponsibitities incloded junjor
cmployee mentoriog employee perfomance evaluation, job allocation, employee totation, and
delivery of genenal bunking services to personal and corporaie customers. Most of the locel
beanches generally consisted of 10 to 12 employees, alihoogh saine had more than 20
eimployees. Each employee directly reported his oe her job progreis to the bnanch maeager co a
daily basix. The study excluded branch managers who had been ia their pesitions for less than 6
months, and employers who had been in their braneh for less than 3 months. This selection rule
was intended to ensare that employees were sufficiently acquainted with their coworkers and
managers so as to sovo developed exchange selationships with them. 1.2. Procndare Survey
packs were sent to potenisl respoedents through the isternal mail system and were prefaced with
a cover letier cudining the details of the research, voluntary particjpation, and an asurance of
confidenciality. Fiach survey pack containod o manager-report questonnaire and numersus
selfeteport employee queationnaires. The nermber of surveys iecluded depended on the size of
the branch. The two forms of questionnaires nimed to collect infornation about the social
exchange relationships from managers' and employees' perppectives. The self-rpport
questionation about the individual employees" prreptioes of affective climats, workploce
fricedship, and TMX; the manager-roport questionalire mearired individual managen'
perceptions of LMX for each employer within the beaneh. Hlcnoe, all construkts (individual and
grove level) were meaiured tavod on individual perreptiona initially. Participarer ware provided
with pre-addressed, emvelopes in which to return their completed survegs to the meanchers
dinctly. The employre quentionaires were matehed to the riposies of their managers asing a
coding system based on infornatice provided by the thaman resources manager of the bank Out
of the 59 manage quetionsaires and 682 employee questionnaires diucnibulod, 36 manager
qsentiononet questionnaires and those falling 10 match with a manager withlas each bratch, the
sample comprised 215 manageremployee dyed from 36 tranches. The averace branch size was 6
iratividuall, and the overall response mate was 32N. To minimine concerm about pessible
sampling bias, we concurod sample means for the uable caves and the case
drepped on the basis of wamatched questioenaires for all study variables. Analysis of variance
(ANOVA) renuls indicaled that the two groups of data were not significadily different from each
obler. We therefore concluded that the manager-crployee matched a ample was valid for
subcequent analyses and samplieg bias was not a major pocklem in this study." In the sample of
managen, 84% were woinen' Some 62%6 were aged 45 yean of younger. The managers had boen
employed in the organization betwecn I and 28 ycars (meas-14 years), and their averwe
experience working in their present porition wat 38 yean. Appratimutely 7kW of the manogeri
had been worling with their employees for 2 yean. Among the employees in the sample. 89%
were women. In thix group. 78% were aged 45 yean or youngor Soue 87% of erployees had been
working in their cument brasches foe more than 5 yean, and 81% had bem working wib their
manegers foe 2.5 years. More than helf of the employecs in the sample iateracted aith their
mazageri oo a daily bess. With respect to their leams, 70% had been working with their team
roemben for 2.5 years and 54% inkeracted with their lesm memben on a daly basis. 3. Mearnos
individal-hevi variables 1, 1,1. Lnader-mimber exchange We used the LMX27 scale (Cines &
Uhl-Bien, 1995) to menvare individual perceptions of the relatiosthp quality betwoce brath
masagen and their employecs. This seale has been widely used to meaur manager-mibonfmite
cxchamge relationships. It consists of seven ileme that characterige various aspects of the
workiag retationship between a supervicer and a subondinaite. I.MX dara wene colleetrd from
managers' perspectives and measurnd using a five-point scale, which ranged from I (toot at ali)
io 5 (extremely). Fach branch manager was asked as provide his or her owa raties of be
relationsip with ench of tis or her individual saboritiatics widin the brabch. This meaurement is
censistent with the past LMX research, which conceptealizes and aweises L.MX as a dyadic
tadividual-level variable. for analytical purpotes (see Sehrichbeim, Casto, & Coglise, 1989).
Sample iteme included "To what cetrat do you undenand work problems and newds of the
employec" and "To what entent do you recognize the potcatial of the: employee". The alpha
reliability for this sexle was $7. 1.3.2. Wirlpiace Friendiby We used iax iems dercloped by
Nielven et al Qoooy wo measure the prevalenee of workplase fhenthip an perceived by
iadividual employees. Rerponies to the ilemu used a seven-point icale that maged from I
(atrongly coworken ouside of the workplace," tad T do not foel that anyote dwock with is a tree
friend. " The spha reliatility for this scale was ig. 3.1. Feam-micmber erchange The tee-item
TMX scale developed by Seen ea al. (1995) wh used to meaure individaal tram meaben'?
percepeikes of tho reciprocal exchange relationthip that ecited between dhrowetves atd their
team member. TMX indicales the quality and effectiveness of an individual member 's working
frlationship with other meraben within hia of her leam. Response to the demes unod a seven
point wale lhas rangod flom I (strongly divagree) to ? (itrongly s3. 1.4. Moencer gevelhel anishle
Composition models define the relationshipe among the vartables at diflorent lects of atabyat that
monewn fundamenally the aame conseot hut ere qualitatively differen (Koulowask & Klein,
2000, Rouacas, 1985) As a reah,
engloyecs" apgregate perteption of aflective climate. The affectve clumale meanse was
specifeally designed for ihp purpose of this refmet shift, with the collicetive entily being the
focal poist. 1.4.1. Aintive dinate albcit slightly modified for the branch conteat of the sample.
This scale eapturea individonl paticipasta". Orcrall perceptiont of their group elimate med it
apcetifeally designed to diel whith a shared perceptios of affrctive climate amobg eroployces,
Hence, the seale was designed as a workgroup peoperty, aning the collective entity as the fneal
point, Tecms wete asucsed oa a five-point seale, tanging from I (not at all) to 5 (cxiremely).
Sample ilema includod 'Tin genenal, lhow tnthesiastic do yoes think your branch is? sud thin
geheral, how wemn do you think your hranch is? The alpha reliahelity for this icale was 92 1.5.
Mhanter: conthol variabler Demographic variables of cmployect ceuld account for variance in
TMX (e- s. Socrs. 1989; 5eces et al, 1995). We therefone liscladed gender and 1ge of cmployces
and their expenence workitg in their curreet branch an control variables. In addition, we
controtled for employees' Jength of wodk experitnce with temn member and their interaction
frequency with other team menbets bocuase these variables may potentially ceplain team
outcomer, such as TMDX. below Table 1. 3.6. Dara analjase 1,6.1. Carerenct walidity Given that
most of the variables incloded in this shady were collected from the same source, eonfirmatery
analysia (CFA) was coeducted to examino whether the variables were emparically distinct feom
cach echer, based on the fis indicts of RMSEA. IH.1, and CFI. We compertd the Fit of ose
hypotherixod focr-fackoe tneasurement medel, in which This 1 io yeun, i=5195 yew, o -255
youn.
wet so load on a one-factor model). 1.6.2. Lowl af aealyir Because our alualy weught to explore
how affective climate influences the relationship between LMCK, workplice fnendatip, and
TMX at the individeal kvel, we necied to junify why affective climare can be aegreaied as a
erouplevel oontruct (Rouseeu, 1985). To do so, we determined the degree lo which individuale'
perceprioni of affective climate were shared widhi cach of the 36 workgroupa (e. ., Chat, 1998,
Hotmann, 1997). We conshcted an rws tesi oo auss the level of initr-nter agrentent for eroop
elimaic within the teama. This agrement meima that teliabilty of ie flectal (laties, Demarte, &
Wolf, 1954) We also perbemed an ANOVA ted to examine betwec0-grop variakions in aflective
climale peroptiont and cemputed the indralass corrlations values (TCC), to sefect the imter-rater
rrlability (Dlioss, 2000). Two forma of acc values are possible: ICC (I) reprecinss the preportion
of variance due to tram variability, whereas ICC (2) reflects the exient to which trams ran be
urod to reliably differeneiate it sems of infividuals' ntings of atfective climate. Bliese (2009)
ausests that 1CC (1) valoes ditferet from zero av desinble, with values close to 20 indicating kigh
scoess for poup-level analysis. Glick (1985) propose that ICC (2) vilass grealer that 60 are
desirable. 1.63. Dare anabikal sibang To overomie the shoricemisg of the akevgation asd
diasgergaton Biases associased with eulti-lovel data, we used hierechical linear modeling (HEM)
in conjunction with the mediation teating peocedures oud bed by Baron & Kenny (1956) so test
our hypedhetes. HIM allows for the analyais of multi-level data ainultanoously to maid the
pessible bieses, mad it supports the etamination of inieractions between veriables at different
levels of analysis while accountipt for their didfenent soures of variance (Griffin, 2001:
Hofmacn, Geiffin, & Cavin, 2000). In addities, Htil. i effective for modeting cres-level
interection elfect betwono gorp-level prodictons asd isdividusi-lovel independent varitbles on
cutcoese varisbles (Hofmane et al, 2000). The standard process for HL M is to develog a senes of
hienarchical models to ten the hypotheses thet retane to different levelu of analysis. In our atudy,
wo calculaned a hirmachical rqgetuon equation for each indinidual a l.ved 1. The intercept and a
lope score from Level I were used as dependent variables at Level 2. A sgenificant peameter
estimate for the Lovel 1 predictor indicates an individuas. level effect, and a significann
parameter estimute for the Lovel 2 prefictor of the Level 1 -intertepts and aleper indicates a
proup-level elfipt. 4. Reselts 4.1. Mearwernarnt model As discused cacliet, CFA was conductod
to denermine the Zalidity of eat hypotheited factor model as conpured to other underlying
plausible facke modelt based on several fit ithisen. The chesquare and fit indices were
x2=891.60,df=344; RMSEA =08;CFI=97, atd TLI - 97, the hypoetesized four-factot model (Le,
LMCX. moup climale, workplace frimadalio, and TMX) fitted the dota siguificantly better than
all altemative modele. The rosulis provide cvidence for the distinctiveness of the coestructs in
thin study anit nugest that common method variance wai ner reponsible for the retationships
befween the cotitruct (Podrakoff, Mackenxie, Lec, & Podeakort, 2093). 12. hanficanion for
grosp climate agroganion To juatify the apropriatencas of a evreutigg allictive climate a a group-
level construct, we had to exaluabe bect discumed earlice. Further, rtwults of ANOVA showed
that the between-group variance in group climse as as Ugniffeantly difterent from zero,
F(35,179)=3,33,p<.01. The ICC (1) derived from ANOVA was 28 , and Ge ICC (2)
was, 75, which provides wiflicient evilence for between-group variability. These remba mdicaie
that guvp climate coosistrd of indivibal perecptions and was able to be aeprejaned as a goup-
lovel coeatruct. 4.3. Descripher rtatidica Thile I powents the mean, standard deviations, and
conclatises for war thaly. All variables in our model were Tignificantly and positively
correlaned. Consintent widh oor bypolicies, LMX wh povitively related io wurlplace Hypothese
I and12, as well as woo condesoss for the mal lation lest usiag the Barea & Keeny (19A6)
arproch. None of the smple sure and Becker' s suggestion, we electod bot to inclade coetrol
variables in the subsogurnt HIIM aedyen. 4.4. Test of koponheres This section prosens the HLM
resalts, testing Hypotheves I throgh 4, Befoe testing the lypotheses, we fint. needod to run mull
models (no individual- of group-kevel pectictocs) to eamine whether significanily systemabe
between-groep variasee ia the mediating and oubocene viriables was present. Rewults in Table 2
porvide mupport for which stows that workplace frendabip had tors, between-eroup variance.
Similar results were found for TMX T00,09,x2(35)=70.40,p<.01, and ICC (1)=14 which leticates
that 14% of varianse ia TMX reaides betw cen the Tpe 0b24+pBa 4.1.1. foabidand tevel
relestinatiye
sepported th view of the 1e M mauls provitine evidence is mppert of Hypotheses t and 2 , the
firat two ponditions of the IMX ind workplece fricndship. Here we tesided whether workplace
fiendalip would modiale the relationship betwoen IMX and TMX. Table 2 bows that de main
effect of IMX on TMX became son-si -ificant when workplase thendthip was estared a a
mediator. The ovenill R2 of this modiation teat was 40 . Thus Hypothesis 3 was muppoted
becnuse wodiplse frentahip was relabod to TMX and miediacod the LMX-TMX scladionstip 4.4.
Grop-kivi molanionihipe In lesting Hypothesis 4, we aimod so eukine whether affoctive climate
would moderwe the relationthip betwocn LMX and workplace frimdthip it the individual level.
This hypotheis wat lested using a "iloped-as-cetcomes" model, where the variece in the slope
aener wotkgroupe is appected to be significanly eclatod to afloctive climate predictins at differnt
lowels of aralysis wiboul segarating the coss-level form the betwern-group interaction variance.
To teet the cross-iecel interaction, we added the interaction torm of group-rean I.MX and
affective climale as fredicton of the intercept and we entered affective climate as a prodiktor of
die varianoe in the shpes relating so L.MXX and workplace frimdilip (Hloftunn & Givin, 1998,
Hofmanm, Motgeses & Gemas, 2003) Resulur in Tahle-2 sow that the cross-ievel intoraction
between alfective dimale and 1MX on wodplace friendehip eflects, we coblscted lierarchical
mgression analyser to estimane be change in R2, when the interaction term wa incladed in the
model (Hofmant et al, 2009). Resule showed the the imleraction lem befwoen I.MX and
afflective the main effet of LMX and affoctive climate. Mccording to Cohen, Cohee, Wet, A
Aiken (2003), internctions typically explain 16-3% of the viriance in eutcomes of intsese. That
the magnitude of oer R2 change is within the range of interaction eitimation
Hypobesis 4 felatinstips of istereat, Berults aur beat that the variance aed covarisace aee
egaivocal acd that these relatsinships may poesiby be aterbutable in indivitual difference effects
anal not gowplevel effects (ace Aspendie A of this article for Wing heoults) 5. Discusien
'Sparowe A-Liden (1997, 2005) suggese although the implications of LMX for subondinates'
perueptions of melationthip developenet widh edher tean methbers lave becin cuplici in social
exhhatge literature, they have mot becn prowide support for the hypothevirod relationahigs in the
model. Spocifically, I.MD was fon-d bo be sigaificatity relaied ta workplace frientahip. We have
thown that workplare fricndahip nelates to TMCX and allo mediates the IMX-TMXX,
relationathe. In ablition, our II1 M rovilt indisate that affective clitrale moderales the thdivadual-
level relatiesthip between lMEX and workplace frichdehip. The ovendl findage have sabitantial
inplicutions for advancing rriearth an LMX, workmlsoe frimodstip, and growp eliature. Socond,
our findiegs shod ncw light on the mediating bole of wotkplace forndahip in the I.MX-TMEX,
relationhiph. in orearirations by lirking farmal and inSormal, vertical and lateral intmpersunal
trlationshipe a4 wotk. To dine. inscarch on morkplace frichdohis bas focused on identafyiag
indridad and contertal factoes that intloesec the aldressing both iasues through ons esplonation of
the nole of work plofe fricedship in the L.MEX-TMCX aclacionship in an atiempt to andentand
the amkcedents, eonscquenoet, and mediating cflocts of workplace friendihip within itrefperional
exchange peocesses. Our rosults ad4 bo the cmecyiag body of reiearcl on wodkplace fliendahip
by. in lager collectives of workgoups work. Whon the affoctoc climate is wrak in the workguup.
even employces who expericece high-quality l3iX
A Klein, 2000k this itudy provides in exemplar of a group-lerel cunatruct that erplaint additional
viriance in the chatate as a morhanien modentine the relationship between LMSX and worlptice
fretifalip in leathi. 5.2. Implination for prikncer These fisdings have implicaticets for the
manaksment of intepervonal exchange pricesses in the workplace. Fint, the prosent atudy bulds
wpon the noton that LMX quality can potentially inflonnoe the development of TMX thromgh
the workplace fienlabigh engenderal in the high-quality spervisor asi mbordinate inieractions.
Further, affective dimoe peomoles the relabiondlip betucen LMX and warlgdece frimodhip
within (cams. As Askanary et at. (2000) lave notel, this fisling implies that foutering a beality
affioctive clinuso helpe enployees understand that they ace not inteprecations of their
experichees of Migh-quality LMCX relationahipe. This, in fuen, defemsinei dheir atitudes and
puide and to educate their cmployees alout hoe the organization cares lar their emotenal well-
belat and to foster pontive emations amang esployees at work Our findings also rwval that high-
quality LMX relabionalips are a dring force in the foemation of workplace expectationa.
Effoctive lcadon sbould ademept to stimulate sabordinatei" shared perceptions tegandieg
affoctive olimate and wo protiote wotliplace friendshp within keams. In adstion, the fintings
suegeat that fromoting warkplace friendhip in teams can be efective in impeoving the quality of
1.MX and TMX relationships for team efficiency and cflectivenesi. A andy by Beman et al,
(2002), for frimdships. The magegs further reporsed that woelploce thendihip ean improve
commanication and inspire mpployees to perfoen better. Thir stady ilows that positive
onicntatens fow ond workplace friendship are neflected in orpanirational effort to foter closer
workplace relations. As The & Dibborough (200s) supged, matagers should orpanize and
cooedinsir social gatheribgs, wuch a piceies, happy houn after werk, barbecues, pacties, and
sports activitien ie belp promose frienduhip formation within ieam. 53. Liminationt, fitine
reieanh directions, and conclatioes The prenest ataly hai four limitations that shoeld be addrssed
in finure research. not oolloct loe pitulital data. Thit shortcoming liatise our undalianding of bow
1.MX infloeses employees" percepeions of their nthationthips with their tean members over tint
W. Althongh the eatam literature secms to support 1995, Spuernow A Liden, 1997, 2005), we
casot eliminate the posuibility of a rcverse causal model piven the cross. mectiosal deaign of this
study. For example, the telationhip duality amoene individuals in a le moth maly determine thei
withis the lcam. To exanuite this powibility, we cooductod another set of analyses to coefins the
agnificance of the revese model. The remule, lawwer, found no sgificant mediatioe effocts of
woikplace fricodibip in the TMEX-LMX telationahip Although the reelts of the mevene model
were not significtst, fatare research shoth adepe esperimetal asd 7MX dyals nested withie 56
hrancher. The branch aiae is rather mall, which would kcad to some problems with climgetice
Jemen & Widens, the Ja. M modeling atrategy is aimewhat complex and "siopler is sometines
belter" (2000, 30
the fistingo and their goneralizability. the ahared peroepeisna among memben ie a branch
regatding their affective climabe, neher than the affictive cinate an perwived ty an individual
menber. Weacgregaded aflectrve climate as a group-level varable, w thich helped raduce the thar
aflioetive climate shapes membert' attitales and behavion within the cntire govp (De Rivers,
1992) The (CFh renalt alo demanstrabed the distinctevencas ef the variables, murgesing that
comnon method varianoe in not respoasible sor the significant effoct observod. The fourth
limitanion anipes because the tcvults of the alkomative analyais using What.A ranie some doabt
about the aphopeiatenes of our multi-level recults based on Hil.M. As a conispracace, these
results should be inderpocted with (aee Dessertat, Cho, A Yarmearine, 2006, for a discussice of
the two analytical methods). In conclusien, the present shady coetritutes to the reserch os
intcrpersonal eschange relationships by developing the axelat eachange felationships in
organiratiots aut coharced by the ecialence of a slrong affoctive clintale and the presence of
fricedshipy at work. We hope that one findirgs encosmag roseanhene to pay closer attention to
the Appendir A Reialts of mithin- mad betwect-group maly is CWABAY"

More Related Content

Similar to Module 7 Assignment This weeks assignment will grant you a glimpse i.pdf

Psychological contract
Psychological contractPsychological contract
Psychological contract
Jaehyeon Nam
 
Group Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docx
Group Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docxGroup Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docx
Group Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docx
gilbertkpeters11344
 
Context matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docx
Context matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docxContext matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docx
Context matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docx
dickonsondorris
 
11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...
11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...
11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...
Alexander Decker
 
Running Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docx
Running Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docxRunning Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docx
Running Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docx
todd271
 
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docxRunning head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
toltonkendal
 
Jean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docx
Jean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docxJean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docx
Jean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docx
christiandean12115
 
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
sodhi3
 
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
blondellchancy
 
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docxRunning head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
charisellington63520
 

Similar to Module 7 Assignment This weeks assignment will grant you a glimpse i.pdf (20)

Psychological contract
Psychological contractPsychological contract
Psychological contract
 
Literature review
Literature reviewLiterature review
Literature review
 
Group Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docx
Group Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docxGroup Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docx
Group Behavior in OrganizationsAt an organizational level,.docx
 
Context matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docx
Context matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docxContext matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docx
Context matters examining ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to emp.docx
 
11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...
11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...
11.the relationship of leader member exchange and organizational citizenship ...
 
psychological empowerment
psychological empowermentpsychological empowerment
psychological empowerment
 
Running Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docx
Running Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docxRunning Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docx
Running Head DOCTORAL STUDY PROSPECTUS1DOCTORAL STUDY PRO.docx
 
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docxRunning head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
 
Fundamental of Organizational Behavior
Fundamental of Organizational BehaviorFundamental of Organizational Behavior
Fundamental of Organizational Behavior
 
Founding thefuture
Founding thefutureFounding thefuture
Founding thefuture
 
kebijakan perdagangan indonesia
kebijakan perdagangan indonesiakebijakan perdagangan indonesia
kebijakan perdagangan indonesia
 
Communication dynamic
Communication dynamicCommunication dynamic
Communication dynamic
 
851653
851653851653
851653
 
Paper 5
Paper 5Paper 5
Paper 5
 
Jean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docx
Jean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docxJean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docx
Jean-Marie van der Elst. Executive Summaries Chapters 1, 17 & 18..docx
 
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
 
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
773Interpersonal Relations, Communication, and Group Effec.docx
 
LMX Presentation
LMX PresentationLMX Presentation
LMX Presentation
 
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docxRunning head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
Running head ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY ANALYSIS REPORT1ORGANIZATIO.docx
 
Dr. Obumneke Amadi - Public health epidemiology transcript
Dr. Obumneke Amadi -  Public health epidemiology transcriptDr. Obumneke Amadi -  Public health epidemiology transcript
Dr. Obumneke Amadi - Public health epidemiology transcript
 

More from americandigitalshop

1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf
1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf
1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf
americandigitalshop
 
1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf
1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf
1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf
americandigitalshop
 
1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf
1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf
1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf
americandigitalshop
 
1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf
1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf
1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf
americandigitalshop
 
Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf
 Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf
Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf
americandigitalshop
 
Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf
 Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf
Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf
americandigitalshop
 

More from americandigitalshop (20)

1. What is the total amount of current assets reported on Timber Cor.pdf
1. What is the total amount of current assets reported on Timber Cor.pdf1. What is the total amount of current assets reported on Timber Cor.pdf
1. What is the total amount of current assets reported on Timber Cor.pdf
 
1. What is a supply chain How can managerial accountants help to im.pdf
1. What is a supply chain How can managerial accountants help to im.pdf1. What is a supply chain How can managerial accountants help to im.pdf
1. What is a supply chain How can managerial accountants help to im.pdf
 
1. What is the income before extraordinary items2. Extraordinary i.pdf
1. What is the income before extraordinary items2. Extraordinary i.pdf1. What is the income before extraordinary items2. Extraordinary i.pdf
1. What is the income before extraordinary items2. Extraordinary i.pdf
 
1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf
1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf
1. What exactly is globalization2. What has been the impact of th.pdf
 
1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf
1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf
1. What is a population What is a sample2. What is descriptive s.pdf
 
1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf
1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf
1. What are the elementary factors of the Labor Process accordin.pdf
 
1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the taxati.pdf
1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the taxati.pdf1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the taxati.pdf
1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the taxati.pdf
 
1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf
1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf
1. Which kind of organization is more likely to feature employees wh.pdf
 
1. Which of the following could pose a challenge in building partner.pdf
1. Which of the following could pose a challenge in building partner.pdf1. Which of the following could pose a challenge in building partner.pdf
1. Which of the following could pose a challenge in building partner.pdf
 
Mike is a graduating high school student. He received an outstanding .pdf
 Mike is a graduating high school student. He received an outstanding .pdf Mike is a graduating high school student. He received an outstanding .pdf
Mike is a graduating high school student. He received an outstanding .pdf
 
Mrs. Adams has experienced gradual but significant hearing loss and.pdf
 Mrs. Adams has experienced gradual but significant hearing loss and.pdf Mrs. Adams has experienced gradual but significant hearing loss and.pdf
Mrs. Adams has experienced gradual but significant hearing loss and.pdf
 
mrough (d) below Clok the icon 10 wew the uabie a. Find the probablit.pdf
 mrough (d) below Clok the icon 10 wew the uabie a. Find the probablit.pdf mrough (d) below Clok the icon 10 wew the uabie a. Find the probablit.pdf
mrough (d) below Clok the icon 10 wew the uabie a. Find the probablit.pdf
 
Michael has utility over going to Yoga (y) and going to a museum (m) .pdf
 Michael has utility over going to Yoga (y) and going to a museum (m) .pdf Michael has utility over going to Yoga (y) and going to a museum (m) .pdf
Michael has utility over going to Yoga (y) and going to a museum (m) .pdf
 
Meiosis and mitosis are both forms of cell division. However, the out.pdf
 Meiosis and mitosis are both forms of cell division. However, the out.pdf Meiosis and mitosis are both forms of cell division. However, the out.pdf
Meiosis and mitosis are both forms of cell division. However, the out.pdf
 
Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf
 Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf
Metfi 120 (introduction to Weather and Climato) Orline - Unit 2 Revie.pdf
 
me Insert Draw Page Layout Formulas Data Review View Automate Tel.pdf
 me Insert Draw Page Layout Formulas Data Review View Automate  Tel.pdf me Insert Draw Page Layout Formulas Data Review View Automate  Tel.pdf
me Insert Draw Page Layout Formulas Data Review View Automate Tel.pdf
 
Match the terms with its best definition or description. Basic Eaming.pdf
 Match the terms with its best definition or description. Basic Eaming.pdf Match the terms with its best definition or description. Basic Eaming.pdf
Match the terms with its best definition or description. Basic Eaming.pdf
 
Match the words in the lenthand column to the appropriate blank in th.pdf
 Match the words in the lenthand column to the appropriate blank in th.pdf Match the words in the lenthand column to the appropriate blank in th.pdf
Match the words in the lenthand column to the appropriate blank in th.pdf
 
Match the vitamin or mineral with a good food source. There is ONLY o.pdf
 Match the vitamin or mineral with a good food source. There is ONLY o.pdf Match the vitamin or mineral with a good food source. There is ONLY o.pdf
Match the vitamin or mineral with a good food source. There is ONLY o.pdf
 
Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf
 Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf
Mediate the movement of a single solute from one side of the membrane.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptxREPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY STUDIE OF MALE AND FEMALEpptx
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
IPL Online Quiz by Pragya; Question Set.
 
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
The Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptx
The Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptxThe Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptx
The Ball Poem- John Berryman_20240518_001617_0000.pptx
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 

Module 7 Assignment This weeks assignment will grant you a glimpse i.pdf

  • 1. Module 7 Assignment This week's assignment will grant you a glimpse into the realm of modern academic research within the domain of leadership. The article provided for you to read this week will grant you insight into the structure of most professional academic papers that are published in the domain of leadership and management in general. These types of articles are also where the information found in your textbook stems from. Although I do not expect you to be strongly familiar with the jargon, structure, or research methods aspects (especially the results section) included within this paper; I would like for you to try your best to complete the following: Read the article, and write a detailed essay discussing your opinion on the article's conclusions. Then discuss how the other course materials support or refute these findings. Lastly, discuss any issues that you have with the methodology adopted in the research article. Please note that your similarity score will likely be a bit higher than normal for this paper, but try your best to keep it below 30% (paraphrasing study information in your own words should help considerably). A multi-level analysis of team climate and interpersonal exchange relationships at work t Herman H.M. Tse m,, Marie T. Dasborough b,t, Neal M. Ashkanasy " Absitrat enplayces, capecially when ite afloctive climale is atroog Q 2005 silsria lac. Al Rohts rosroed 1. Latredtactien cxchange relationatips that leadcts develop and maineain mith suberdimases within workgrumupl (D)ansereau. Grach. 6 . Bow and whether IMKX indlischecs people outwdo of the leader-meteber dyadie relabonshipu (Sias & Jablin, 1995). WiM. Anklanip]. If 196 Sparrowe & Liden (1997, 2005) and Cole, Schaninger, & Harris (2002) siggest that interpersonal relationahipo behween lenders, subendinates, and coworkers constitute an interconected social system that operates in team and orgarimation. Similarly, bused on a systems perppetive, Gracn & UhL-Bien (1995) have called for more rerearch to tiederstand bow L.MX relationships affect employeer' woek attitudes and behaviors in larger collectives of workgrocps; they argue that LMX is not only influenced by, but may also influttee, ocher exchange relationshlips within the larger system. Consequently, we posit here that L.MX may have Ynplications for team-member exchange (TMMX), which has been defined by Secrs (1989) as the relasionship guality L-twoen an individual and her or his team members. Aceording to Dientseh & Lilen (1986), leaders oten develop high-quality LMX relationships with cnly a few subortinates because of limited time, abilitics, and resources. The differential treatment of employees in teams appean to be peoblematic bocasse employees can be seasitive to social comparison information and perceptions of unfaimees. The resulting alierod self-eoncept may then affect employees' antitudes toward TMDC (Greenberg. Adhon-James, & Aihkanasy, 2007; Tyler & Blader, 2003). The reasoning bere is that LMX relationships determine bow work
  • 2. tearn supervisors disribute resoures, work-related infonmation, and psychological support. le this reypect, team members in high-gaality LMX relationalips are liely to be more advantageously treated relative to other team member. Team members in low-quality I.MD selationhips aro, therefore, likely to roseive less ripervisory attention, access to organirational resources, and empowerment, potentially leading to job disatisfiction and lower organizational commitanen (e S. Gentner & Day, 1997) Hence, theie teans members may be jealous and resentful of their conorken wbe enjoy more beneficial high-quality LMX relationships. Althovgh the implications of I.MX for TMX within a larger organization's social syatean have been implicit in the social exchame titenture, they hove not been made theoretically explicit, nor lave they been empirically iesied in a wysematie manner (o.8. Cole ef al, 2002; Graen & UMl Bien, 1995; Sparruwe & Liden, 1997, 2005). The empirical evidence demonsirates that individuals wbo experience high- qualiey TMX relationships are more likely to contribeie by assisting one another and to share triornation, ideas, and feedbokk within woek teams (e.g. Secr. 1989; Secrs, Petly, N Cauhman, 1995). Henee, interpersonal relationships play a pivetal role in effective team functioning because they faciliate behavions that maximiae the individual potential for teas efficiency and effectiveness (Gee Kostova & Roth, 2009). Besed on this undentanding. exploeing the peocesses by which dyadie LMX relaticechips influence employers' pereeptions of TMX eelationships is an inportant, yet neglected aspect of the socinl exchange literature (eg. Graen &2 Uh-Bien, 1995; Seers ot al, 1995). The present article antenpts to advance the research on intepenonal euchange relaticnships in several ways: Fint, we respond to the call by Grien & Lh- Bien (1995) to eramien the impact of dyadic LMX melationships within a lurger sysitm of workgroups. To do so, we develop and test a mult fevel model that specifies the relasionship between LMX, woekplace friendship, affective climate, and TMX within a tean conteat Sceond, we lypolesire that woelplase friendihip is a process variable that mediats the relationship between LMX and TMX. This line of research addresses Genener & Day's (1997) call to identify the esderlying process variables linking LMX and important woek outconses, such as, TMX. It alwo responds to the call by Beman, Weat, & Richer (2002) to explore the role of workplace friendahip in creating weial nystemt in organirations. Finally, tiin study conbibuted to the growing body of research on malti-level models of leader-mereber erehange (ce. Coglace & Schrieaheim, 2000), integrating individual and team levels of analysis by iavestigating cross- level inderartion efiocts. Sprcifically, we conceptualine affoctive climate as a team-level coestruct and examine its effects on individuat-level coestructs such as LMX, worlplace fikedahip, and TMX. Axploring these selationahips uaing multi-level wealyis is theoretically and practically imperative because it provider a more comprebenshe and realistic pitare of the interponooal exihange relationshipe betwoen supervison, suborticatos, and coworkers in erganizations. 1. Thesry and bypethesis development Fig. I depicts a multilevel model in which
  • 3. workplace friculahip is a mediator likiking the reiationship between between LMC and workplace fiendahip at the indivifual level. In this section, we previbe the tatikinale andertying our model development, and we develop theortical argumenti between LMX and woekplnce friendahig. Next, we dibcuu brow weekplake fiendahip mediaica the LMX-TMX involvancit in decision making and relared matten, cooprhtive and receptive information aharing, and perwooriented mewuge echanges that delermite their communication swiifaction (Raker & Canster, 198s; Kacnar, Wht, feclings, emotioss and opinions sbent the werk emirunenent (ligh- geality tocial euchange) Brsed en this tend, it soems reaiceable bo expect that IMX relationshipe are perocived by enployees a valuatle This idra, in turm, implics that 1MX melationships may be associated with employees" persepeiona of wodiplace frimdahip within a team. These cosecpos contribuite oo our fint hopotheris: Hypedhrsit 1. At the indivitual level, L.MX aill be positively relased to workplace friendship. 22. Hurkplace frimahip asd TMox Team-member cachunge (TMX) is a thecrobical exiension of L.MX (Seen, 1989), If concens the relationship between an individual and ber or bis beam members andrhus indicates the effectiveness of the enember's ongoing share idow and fecdback aed, is turs, to provide information so other members and to receire recognition from ether menben (Seen, 1959, Seen et al, 1995). Coetempotary research oe TMX las primarily focused on identifying. different types of justice, team temponal icope, commanication modiation, and supervisor-subordinate relabicalips as the antocedents of TMX (eg, Alge, Wiethotf, & Klein, 2003; Hiller & Day, 2003; Liden, Wayne, & Spamowe, 2000: Sheroey is Green, 2002). The wocial exchanges underlying TMX are likely to be aided by the pecience of friendships between team menbers. Freedthipe ereale scial ties and affective bondine, endbling team memben to experiesce relational meanings alose their imimersonal relaoiosships, including TMX (Duck & Pittman, 1995). Workplace frientahips are unique inierpersonal relationahips that employees develop and maintia by cheice - not compulsion-and they are willing to spend time with one another beyoed their fonmal role expxited within other relationshigs in organtuations (Siax, 2005; Sias & Cathill, 1998). This vobuntary interdependence assists with fisctions moeh as decision making and influenee sharity, and it provides an instrumeetal ard emotional wuppot iysicm for team members. Hence, fremdihip is an importand source of support and intriasic reaed for team metbors (Sias & Calill, 1998). In line with this reasoning, we argue that worloploce fricodstip nourishes high-quality TMCX relationchips becase team memben can trust and value coe another, shaee imterss, asd view the emotional mend instrumental support as valuable means of growth and depeedence (Beman in ti, 8002). This motivational forse encourages employees to enpage in high-quality TMX
  • 4. relationship development bocause they see theit team members as friends rather than formul colleagees at work. Evidence supportiog thia claim can be Sisend in an enpirical study by Morison (2004), whan found that worlplace friendship accounted for substantial variance is leam cobesion. Based on this, we suggest that worlplace frendihip may be a nocossary condition for, and is conducive to, the fomation of high-quality TMEK: Hypotheris 2. At the individual level, workplace friendstip will be positively olated to TMX. 2.1. The modlaring mole of warkolace frienddip The modiuting role of workplsce frienditip in the relabionship berween LMX and TMX is premised co the idea that friendilipe npresent o key eleneent of the informal wocial syisem of an erganization. In this regand, Argytis (1996) has posited that worlplace frienduhip lays dowa a foundation for organ ivational social in tems that links formal, informal, vatical, and lateral inerietions with open syles of commaniciefion and fluid task structures for acoompliatument. to individuals. As soch, friendlhips are powerfil utnuctural units that can ciler hibder of tacilitae beam and orcanimeional effoctiveners via the informal seial system. This capacily srises because the charicteniatics of woleplact friendahip emphasize diecretionary atritudes and behaviors that ae not pee-speeilied for an expected role mithin iniepersonal relationalipe (Wrigh, 19s4). We therefore peopose that workplace fricondehip is an imermodiale in qualiy LMX relationelipe endermine the quality of workplace fticnithip by erphasirisg the role falmetment for As neted carlier, Bigh-equality I.MX relationalipu facilitate workplace fricmlahip via affective and coeial bendieg. providing seam members with cmotiosal and inserumesal spport. Teem memben regand this posihility an a strong intrinsic motivation that may elevate their commitment to form High-quality TMX relationulipe. Conversely. low. paality LMX relationships undemine the suality of weekploce friendahip by cmphatiring the role falfiliment for. reciprocity, so that team member perceive it as part of their formal oblization. This perecption, is furm, cnemden negative implicabions for team members" attitudes toward the developnent of TMCX relationihips. As mentioned ctelier, worlylace frimdhaips are also likely to reflect high-quality LMX reletiosshipi with respect to communication qeality. Fhendytrips are enhaneed through open and honest communteation ieneractions it which employecs and supervisen both talk about their emotional ficelings roganding the work enviromenene and their perooal Lives and ahare fortheoming sensitive iaformation (Siat & Callill, 1998) Participasts in worlplace fricniahipa also tend to be loss cautious and enguge in less "edining" in their communication (Sias & Jablin, 1995). We woald therefore expect workplace Atictudahip so play a role in detemining fe relationdip between LMX and TMX. This aotion was mupported in a field study conducted by Sias (2005), whetiound that the quality of information cmploytes roceived from coworkers or supervisors was relaked to the exient to which they were satiafidi
  • 5. with their cummunication. Based on the forgoing points, we maggest that wotkptace fhendthip serves at a provimal outcome throegh which LMX infloences the more distal euserne of TMEX: Hypothesis 3. At the isdividual level, workplace ficendulip will modiate the LMX-TMX relationship 24. The maderating nile of affective climate. Over the lan taroe decades, a considerable amoet of rasarch has ecamined the inplicatioes of climate an orgaeirztions (seo Schneider, 2006, for a revicw of this liicrature). Jenes & lames (1979) defined peychological climake as etganizational members shared perceptions and interpretations of their werk enviponent, in terms of pychological meating and significance. Ia parbicular, reseachers have focued oo the role that climato plays in motivabional processes for individual and teem outcomes (Ashikanay, Wilderos, & Feterson, 2000- Kovlowiki & Kkein, 2000). Specific domains of climale that have been shudied inelude serviee climase (Setuneider, Parkinglan, & Buabo, 1980). innovation climate (Asdersoe & Wea, 1998), safety climato (Hofmamn & Stcteer, 1996), transfer bo thining climate (Tracey, Tannenburm, A Kavanagh, 1995), procobural jewice climse (Naumann A Benneth, 2000h and affectivt climate (De Rivera. 1992) In general, eis rescarch has ibown that climate actounts for subiantial variance is work: attitudes ats behaviors. Although climane is defincd as a collective property of groepe. Atw cmpirical shidies brve used the croup as a level for analysis diatinct from the wider organization (Anderwo & West, 1998; see Ashkmany & Nicholson, 2003, for an exception). Affoctive climate is a specific domain of climate, defined by De Riven as an objective group plesomenon that can be "palpably scmod" (1992, p. 197). Chov, Price, & Visokur (2003) provide a later definition of affective climate, sating that is is an overall interaction pettem or a shared positive pecopeion among mernbers and the atmosphere that charscierize interactions wilkin a team. These "ambient group itimuli" (p,357) reflect the nature of the leam and can shape the action tendency of individals within the team. Although climane perections originate widin individaals, affective climate pereeptions are eipected to be thared by memben within diucrste woekgroups. Positive of aegave affective climates are tikely to be differwt within separaie groupa. This disciepensy arises because aflective climate is conceptualired an a derivative of chose social networks that erist within workgroups (De Rivers, 1992). Affective climate is therefore likely to be found in pockets wathin organizations nether than thruughout whole organirations. In a ficld atudy, for intatanc, Adhkanay & Nicholice (2003) found that affective climate differed between workgreups as a reault of workgyep-specific tiffercncen, nalet than organization-wide differences. This flofing affems that thene is an effect on letividud's' elimate perichptont at the group level, cnusieg them to share a perecpioa of affect in the workplace that in grater than its ariganiration-wide perceptions among team mephers wilhin ieams and grealer variatiot acrois seasm (Ahkanany t al, 2000) Thus the appropriate unit of analyuis when atudying the impact of affertove cliemute is the group and not the indiridual, Climate perecteions deremine how individadls behare colloctively
  • 6. by influenciag their peroeptions asd fecliap about cerain aspects of their surrounding ewitronmeat. For this reasce, we suegeat bat affective cfimace afoald be conceptualiond as a groupilevel moderilor of the relatigealip between 1.MX and workplace friendalip. Ia pariculat. 300 Wwie ne at at r mo Lnalinite olareng is and ins-2is employees seck guidelines from their environment to intcrpect events, to develop appropriate ateitudea, and to andentand expectations conceming their behaviors and its consequences (Salancik & Piefler, 1978), Characieristies of affective climat-including warmth, support, aceeptance, sinoerity, and enthusiasm-serve as social control mechanisms that focilitate and shape employees' behaviors in a team (O'Reilly & Chatman, 1996). Therefore, if iram members stare itrong perseptions of afficetive climate, nembers of the team may foel motivated to develop workplace friendahips because of their pesitive experience in Ingh-quality L.MX relaticeships. On thin baris, we argue thas affective climate is likely to be a modcrator of the LMX-woekplace frichdship relationship, and that the relationship is a function of the variation in affective elimate across work teams. This leads to our crowi-level hypocheris: Hypothesir 4. The reletionship between LMX and workplace friendahip at the individual level will be moderated by affective climaic at the group level, such than ibe relationship befween LMX and workplace friend ahip will be seronger when the affective climate is strong. 3. Method 3.1. Paricipants The participants in this stady were employees and their immediale masagers working ia geognphically separate branches of a large Australian bank. Some branehes were engaged is delivering standard banking customer services, soch as dealing with personal and corponste banking accounts, bome loans, and general investment advice. Orher branches were engaged in sevenal inerrdependent taskt, including handling customer complaints and promoting Etrvetment schemes, diffcreat types of insurance, and superanauation managemeet. The differing functions of each branch thus created variation for within-bennch and between-branch comparisons, making this sample ideal for multilevel modeling and analysis. Paricipants had a range of job titles, including tellens, investment consulants, insuranee planers, and cudomer service officers. Branch managers had been fommally appoinsed by the organization to manage the staff and to maintain the effectiveness of daily operations for beanches. Their job rosponsibitities incloded junjor cmployee mentoriog employee perfomance evaluation, job allocation, employee totation, and delivery of genenal bunking services to personal and corporaie customers. Most of the locel beanches generally consisted of 10 to 12 employees, alihoogh saine had more than 20 eimployees. Each employee directly reported his oe her job progreis to the bnanch maeager co a daily basix. The study excluded branch managers who had been ia their pesitions for less than 6 months, and employers who had been in their braneh for less than 3 months. This selection rule was intended to ensare that employees were sufficiently acquainted with their coworkers and
  • 7. managers so as to sovo developed exchange selationships with them. 1.2. Procndare Survey packs were sent to potenisl respoedents through the isternal mail system and were prefaced with a cover letier cudining the details of the research, voluntary particjpation, and an asurance of confidenciality. Fiach survey pack containod o manager-report questonnaire and numersus selfeteport employee queationnaires. The nermber of surveys iecluded depended on the size of the branch. The two forms of questionnaires nimed to collect infornation about the social exchange relationships from managers' and employees' perppectives. The self-rpport questionation about the individual employees" prreptioes of affective climats, workploce fricedship, and TMX; the manager-roport questionalire mearired individual managen' perceptions of LMX for each employer within the beaneh. Hlcnoe, all construkts (individual and grove level) were meaiured tavod on individual perreptiona initially. Participarer ware provided with pre-addressed, emvelopes in which to return their completed survegs to the meanchers dinctly. The employre quentionaires were matehed to the riposies of their managers asing a coding system based on infornatice provided by the thaman resources manager of the bank Out of the 59 manage quetionsaires and 682 employee questionnaires diucnibulod, 36 manager qsentiononet questionnaires and those falling 10 match with a manager withlas each bratch, the sample comprised 215 manageremployee dyed from 36 tranches. The averace branch size was 6 iratividuall, and the overall response mate was 32N. To minimine concerm about pessible sampling bias, we concurod sample means for the uable caves and the case drepped on the basis of wamatched questioenaires for all study variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) renuls indicaled that the two groups of data were not significadily different from each obler. We therefore concluded that the manager-crployee matched a ample was valid for subcequent analyses and samplieg bias was not a major pocklem in this study." In the sample of managen, 84% were woinen' Some 62%6 were aged 45 yean of younger. The managers had boen employed in the organization betwecn I and 28 ycars (meas-14 years), and their averwe experience working in their present porition wat 38 yean. Appratimutely 7kW of the manogeri had been worling with their employees for 2 yean. Among the employees in the sample. 89% were women. In thix group. 78% were aged 45 yean or youngor Soue 87% of erployees had been working in their cument brasches foe more than 5 yean, and 81% had bem working wib their manegers foe 2.5 years. More than helf of the employecs in the sample iateracted aith their mazageri oo a daily bess. With respect to their leams, 70% had been working with their team roemben for 2.5 years and 54% inkeracted with their lesm memben on a daly basis. 3. Mearnos individal-hevi variables 1, 1,1. Lnader-mimber exchange We used the LMX27 scale (Cines & Uhl-Bien, 1995) to menvare individual perceptions of the relatiosthp quality betwoce brath masagen and their employecs. This seale has been widely used to meaur manager-mibonfmite
  • 8. cxchamge relationships. It consists of seven ileme that characterige various aspects of the workiag retationship between a supervicer and a subondinaite. I.MX dara wene colleetrd from managers' perspectives and measurnd using a five-point scale, which ranged from I (toot at ali) io 5 (extremely). Fach branch manager was asked as provide his or her owa raties of be relationsip with ench of tis or her individual saboritiatics widin the brabch. This meaurement is censistent with the past LMX research, which conceptealizes and aweises L.MX as a dyadic tadividual-level variable. for analytical purpotes (see Sehrichbeim, Casto, & Coglise, 1989). Sample iteme included "To what cetrat do you undenand work problems and newds of the employec" and "To what entent do you recognize the potcatial of the: employee". The alpha reliability for this sexle was $7. 1.3.2. Wirlpiace Friendiby We used iax iems dercloped by Nielven et al Qoooy wo measure the prevalenee of workplase fhenthip an perceived by iadividual employees. Rerponies to the ilemu used a seven-point icale that maged from I (atrongly coworken ouside of the workplace," tad T do not foel that anyote dwock with is a tree friend. " The spha reliatility for this scale was ig. 3.1. Feam-micmber erchange The tee-item TMX scale developed by Seen ea al. (1995) wh used to meaure individaal tram meaben'? percepeikes of tho reciprocal exchange relationthip that ecited between dhrowetves atd their team member. TMX indicales the quality and effectiveness of an individual member 's working frlationship with other meraben within hia of her leam. Response to the demes unod a seven point wale lhas rangod flom I (strongly divagree) to ? (itrongly s3. 1.4. Moencer gevelhel anishle Composition models define the relationshipe among the vartables at diflorent lects of atabyat that monewn fundamenally the aame conseot hut ere qualitatively differen (Koulowask & Klein, 2000, Rouacas, 1985) As a reah, engloyecs" apgregate perteption of aflective climate. The affectve clumale meanse was specifeally designed for ihp purpose of this refmet shift, with the collicetive entily being the focal poist. 1.4.1. Aintive dinate albcit slightly modified for the branch conteat of the sample. This scale eapturea individonl paticipasta". Orcrall perceptiont of their group elimate med it apcetifeally designed to diel whith a shared perceptios of affrctive climate amobg eroployces, Hence, the seale was designed as a workgroup peoperty, aning the collective entity as the fneal point, Tecms wete asucsed oa a five-point seale, tanging from I (not at all) to 5 (cxiremely). Sample ilema includod 'Tin genenal, lhow tnthesiastic do yoes think your branch is? sud thin geheral, how wemn do you think your hranch is? The alpha reliahelity for this icale was 92 1.5. Mhanter: conthol variabler Demographic variables of cmployect ceuld account for variance in TMX (e- s. Socrs. 1989; 5eces et al, 1995). We therefone liscladed gender and 1ge of cmployces and their expenence workitg in their curreet branch an control variables. In addition, we controtled for employees' Jength of wodk experitnce with temn member and their interaction
  • 9. frequency with other team menbets bocuase these variables may potentially ceplain team outcomer, such as TMDX. below Table 1. 3.6. Dara analjase 1,6.1. Carerenct walidity Given that most of the variables incloded in this shady were collected from the same source, eonfirmatery analysia (CFA) was coeducted to examino whether the variables were emparically distinct feom cach echer, based on the fis indicts of RMSEA. IH.1, and CFI. We compertd the Fit of ose hypotherixod focr-fackoe tneasurement medel, in which This 1 io yeun, i=5195 yew, o -255 youn. wet so load on a one-factor model). 1.6.2. Lowl af aealyir Because our alualy weught to explore how affective climate influences the relationship between LMCK, workplice fnendatip, and TMX at the individeal kvel, we necied to junify why affective climare can be aegreaied as a erouplevel oontruct (Rouseeu, 1985). To do so, we determined the degree lo which individuale' perceprioni of affective climate were shared widhi cach of the 36 workgroupa (e. ., Chat, 1998, Hotmann, 1997). We conshcted an rws tesi oo auss the level of initr-nter agrentent for eroop elimaic within the teama. This agrement meima that teliabilty of ie flectal (laties, Demarte, & Wolf, 1954) We also perbemed an ANOVA ted to examine betwec0-grop variakions in aflective climale peroptiont and cemputed the indralass corrlations values (TCC), to sefect the imter-rater rrlability (Dlioss, 2000). Two forma of acc values are possible: ICC (I) reprecinss the preportion of variance due to tram variability, whereas ICC (2) reflects the exient to which trams ran be urod to reliably differeneiate it sems of infividuals' ntings of atfective climate. Bliese (2009) ausests that 1CC (1) valoes ditferet from zero av desinble, with values close to 20 indicating kigh scoess for poup-level analysis. Glick (1985) propose that ICC (2) vilass grealer that 60 are desirable. 1.63. Dare anabikal sibang To overomie the shoricemisg of the akevgation asd diasgergaton Biases associased with eulti-lovel data, we used hierechical linear modeling (HEM) in conjunction with the mediation teating peocedures oud bed by Baron & Kenny (1956) so test our hypedhetes. HIM allows for the analyais of multi-level data ainultanoously to maid the pessible bieses, mad it supports the etamination of inieractions between veriables at different levels of analysis while accountipt for their didfenent soures of variance (Griffin, 2001: Hofmacn, Geiffin, & Cavin, 2000). In addities, Htil. i effective for modeting cres-level interection elfect betwono gorp-level prodictons asd isdividusi-lovel independent varitbles on cutcoese varisbles (Hofmane et al, 2000). The standard process for HL M is to develog a senes of hienarchical models to ten the hypotheses thet retane to different levelu of analysis. In our atudy, wo calculaned a hirmachical rqgetuon equation for each indinidual a l.ved 1. The intercept and a lope score from Level I were used as dependent variables at Level 2. A sgenificant peameter estimate for the Lovel 1 predictor indicates an individuas. level effect, and a significann parameter estimute for the Lovel 2 prefictor of the Level 1 -intertepts and aleper indicates a
  • 10. proup-level elfipt. 4. Reselts 4.1. Mearwernarnt model As discused cacliet, CFA was conductod to denermine the Zalidity of eat hypotheited factor model as conpured to other underlying plausible facke modelt based on several fit ithisen. The chesquare and fit indices were x2=891.60,df=344; RMSEA =08;CFI=97, atd TLI - 97, the hypoetesized four-factot model (Le, LMCX. moup climale, workplace frimadalio, and TMX) fitted the dota siguificantly better than all altemative modele. The rosulis provide cvidence for the distinctiveness of the coestructs in thin study anit nugest that common method variance wai ner reponsible for the retationships befween the cotitruct (Podrakoff, Mackenxie, Lec, & Podeakort, 2093). 12. hanficanion for grosp climate agroganion To juatify the apropriatencas of a evreutigg allictive climate a a group- level construct, we had to exaluabe bect discumed earlice. Further, rtwults of ANOVA showed that the between-group variance in group climse as as Ugniffeantly difterent from zero, F(35,179)=3,33,p<.01. The ICC (1) derived from ANOVA was 28 , and Ge ICC (2) was, 75, which provides wiflicient evilence for between-group variability. These remba mdicaie that guvp climate coosistrd of indivibal perecptions and was able to be aeprejaned as a goup- lovel coeatruct. 4.3. Descripher rtatidica Thile I powents the mean, standard deviations, and conclatises for war thaly. All variables in our model were Tignificantly and positively correlaned. Consintent widh oor bypolicies, LMX wh povitively related io wurlplace Hypothese I and12, as well as woo condesoss for the mal lation lest usiag the Barea & Keeny (19A6) arproch. None of the smple sure and Becker' s suggestion, we electod bot to inclade coetrol variables in the subsogurnt HIIM aedyen. 4.4. Test of koponheres This section prosens the HLM resalts, testing Hypotheves I throgh 4, Befoe testing the lypotheses, we fint. needod to run mull models (no individual- of group-kevel pectictocs) to eamine whether significanily systemabe between-groep variasee ia the mediating and oubocene viriables was present. Rewults in Table 2 porvide mupport for which stows that workplace frendabip had tors, between-eroup variance. Similar results were found for TMX T00,09,x2(35)=70.40,p<.01, and ICC (1)=14 which leticates that 14% of varianse ia TMX reaides betw cen the Tpe 0b24+pBa 4.1.1. foabidand tevel relestinatiye sepported th view of the 1e M mauls provitine evidence is mppert of Hypotheses t and 2 , the firat two ponditions of the IMX ind workplece fricndship. Here we tesided whether workplace fiendalip would modiale the relationship betwoen IMX and TMX. Table 2 bows that de main effect of IMX on TMX became son-si -ificant when workplase thendthip was estared a a mediator. The ovenill R2 of this modiation teat was 40 . Thus Hypothesis 3 was muppoted becnuse wodiplse frentahip was relabod to TMX and miediacod the LMX-TMX scladionstip 4.4. Grop-kivi molanionihipe In lesting Hypothesis 4, we aimod so eukine whether affoctive climate
  • 11. would moderwe the relationthip betwocn LMX and workplace frimdthip it the individual level. This hypotheis wat lested using a "iloped-as-cetcomes" model, where the variece in the slope aener wotkgroupe is appected to be significanly eclatod to afloctive climate predictins at differnt lowels of aralysis wiboul segarating the coss-level form the betwern-group interaction variance. To teet the cross-iecel interaction, we added the interaction torm of group-rean I.MX and affective climale as fredicton of the intercept and we entered affective climate as a prodiktor of die varianoe in the shpes relating so L.MXX and workplace frimdilip (Hloftunn & Givin, 1998, Hofmanm, Motgeses & Gemas, 2003) Resulur in Tahle-2 sow that the cross-ievel intoraction between alfective dimale and 1MX on wodplace friendehip eflects, we coblscted lierarchical mgression analyser to estimane be change in R2, when the interaction term wa incladed in the model (Hofmant et al, 2009). Resule showed the the imleraction lem befwoen I.MX and afflective the main effet of LMX and affoctive climate. Mccording to Cohen, Cohee, Wet, A Aiken (2003), internctions typically explain 16-3% of the viriance in eutcomes of intsese. That the magnitude of oer R2 change is within the range of interaction eitimation Hypobesis 4 felatinstips of istereat, Berults aur beat that the variance aed covarisace aee egaivocal acd that these relatsinships may poesiby be aterbutable in indivitual difference effects anal not gowplevel effects (ace Aspendie A of this article for Wing heoults) 5. Discusien 'Sparowe A-Liden (1997, 2005) suggese although the implications of LMX for subondinates' perueptions of melationthip developenet widh edher tean methbers lave becin cuplici in social exhhatge literature, they have mot becn prowide support for the hypothevirod relationahigs in the model. Spocifically, I.MD was fon-d bo be sigaificatity relaied ta workplace frientahip. We have thown that workplare fricndahip nelates to TMCX and allo mediates the IMX-TMXX, relationathe. In ablition, our II1 M rovilt indisate that affective clitrale moderales the thdivadual- level relatiesthip between lMEX and workplace frichdehip. The ovendl findage have sabitantial inplicutions for advancing rriearth an LMX, workmlsoe frimodstip, and growp eliature. Socond, our findiegs shod ncw light on the mediating bole of wotkplace forndahip in the I.MX-TMEX, relationhiph. in orearirations by lirking farmal and inSormal, vertical and lateral intmpersunal trlationshipe a4 wotk. To dine. inscarch on morkplace frichdohis bas focused on identafyiag indridad and contertal factoes that intloesec the aldressing both iasues through ons esplonation of the nole of work plofe fricedship in the L.MEX-TMCX aclacionship in an atiempt to andentand the amkcedents, eonscquenoet, and mediating cflocts of workplace friendihip within itrefperional exchange peocesses. Our rosults ad4 bo the cmecyiag body of reiearcl on wodkplace fliendahip by. in lager collectives of workgoups work. Whon the affoctoc climate is wrak in the workguup. even employces who expericece high-quality l3iX
  • 12. A Klein, 2000k this itudy provides in exemplar of a group-lerel cunatruct that erplaint additional viriance in the chatate as a morhanien modentine the relationship between LMSX and worlptice fretifalip in leathi. 5.2. Implination for prikncer These fisdings have implicaticets for the manaksment of intepervonal exchange pricesses in the workplace. Fint, the prosent atudy bulds wpon the noton that LMX quality can potentially inflonnoe the development of TMX thromgh the workplace fienlabigh engenderal in the high-quality spervisor asi mbordinate inieractions. Further, affective dimoe peomoles the relabiondlip betucen LMX and warlgdece frimodhip within (cams. As Askanary et at. (2000) lave notel, this fisling implies that foutering a beality affioctive clinuso helpe enployees understand that they ace not inteprecations of their experichees of Migh-quality LMCX relationahipe. This, in fuen, defemsinei dheir atitudes and puide and to educate their cmployees alout hoe the organization cares lar their emotenal well- belat and to foster pontive emations amang esployees at work Our findings also rwval that high- quality LMX relabionalips are a dring force in the foemation of workplace expectationa. Effoctive lcadon sbould ademept to stimulate sabordinatei" shared perceptions tegandieg affoctive olimate and wo protiote wotliplace friendshp within keams. In adstion, the fintings suegeat that fromoting warkplace friendhip in teams can be efective in impeoving the quality of 1.MX and TMX relationships for team efficiency and cflectivenesi. A andy by Beman et al, (2002), for frimdships. The magegs further reporsed that woelploce thendihip ean improve commanication and inspire mpployees to perfoen better. Thir stady ilows that positive onicntatens fow ond workplace friendship are neflected in orpanirational effort to foter closer workplace relations. As The & Dibborough (200s) supged, matagers should orpanize and cooedinsir social gatheribgs, wuch a piceies, happy houn after werk, barbecues, pacties, and sports activitien ie belp promose frienduhip formation within ieam. 53. Liminationt, fitine reieanh directions, and conclatioes The prenest ataly hai four limitations that shoeld be addrssed in finure research. not oolloct loe pitulital data. Thit shortcoming liatise our undalianding of bow 1.MX infloeses employees" percepeions of their nthationthips with their tean members over tint W. Althongh the eatam literature secms to support 1995, Spuernow A Liden, 1997, 2005), we casot eliminate the posuibility of a rcverse causal model piven the cross. mectiosal deaign of this study. For example, the telationhip duality amoene individuals in a le moth maly determine thei withis the lcam. To exanuite this powibility, we cooductod another set of analyses to coefins the agnificance of the revese model. The remule, lawwer, found no sgificant mediatioe effocts of woikplace fricodibip in the TMEX-LMX telationahip Although the reelts of the mevene model were not significtst, fatare research shoth adepe esperimetal asd 7MX dyals nested withie 56 hrancher. The branch aiae is rather mall, which would kcad to some problems with climgetice Jemen & Widens, the Ja. M modeling atrategy is aimewhat complex and "siopler is sometines belter" (2000, 30
  • 13. the fistingo and their goneralizability. the ahared peroepeisna among memben ie a branch regatding their affective climabe, neher than the affictive cinate an perwived ty an individual menber. Weacgregaded aflectrve climate as a group-level varable, w thich helped raduce the thar aflioetive climate shapes membert' attitales and behavion within the cntire govp (De Rivers, 1992) The (CFh renalt alo demanstrabed the distinctevencas ef the variables, murgesing that comnon method varianoe in not respoasible sor the significant effoct observod. The fourth limitanion anipes because the tcvults of the alkomative analyais using What.A ranie some doabt about the aphopeiatenes of our multi-level recults based on Hil.M. As a conispracace, these results should be inderpocted with (aee Dessertat, Cho, A Yarmearine, 2006, for a discussice of the two analytical methods). In conclusien, the present shady coetritutes to the reserch os intcrpersonal eschange relationships by developing the axelat eachange felationships in organiratiots aut coharced by the ecialence of a slrong affoctive clintale and the presence of fricedshipy at work. We hope that one findirgs encosmag roseanhene to pay closer attention to the Appendir A Reialts of mithin- mad betwect-group maly is CWABAY"