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PHOTOGRAPHY 
AND ITS 
APPLICATIONS
CAMERA 
Types and Characteristics 
(Jenis-jenis dan Ciri-ciri)
Categories of Camera 
Light Catcher Sensor Medium 
(Medium Penangkap Cahaya)
Analogue Camera( 
Kamera Analog (Filem)
CELLULOID FILM 
• Using celluloid film as a Light Catcher Medium and also 
Storage Medium 
• Type of Film depending on mea...
THE PRINT (PHOTO PAPER) 
Darkrooms: Creating Images with Chemistry 
• Films that have been exposed go through a process ca...
Instant Camera (Polaroid) 
Kamera Segera (Polaroid)
• Generates a developed film image (a.k.a. self-developing 
film) by Polaroid Corporation. 
• American scientist Edwin Lan...
Digital Camera (Memory Card) 
Kamera Digital (Filem)
Using Image-sensor atau Picture Sensor as a Light Catcher 
Medium and Memory Card also Storage Medium 
Digital Camera (Mem...
• Pixels = Picture elements 
• Resolution: number of pixels captured by 
the image sensor. 
Higher Resolution Image 
300 p...
• SLR/DSLR 
• Viewfinder/Rangefinder Camera 
• Lomo Camera 
• Mirrorless Camera 
• Twin Lens Reflex Camera 
• Digital Comp...
DSLR/SLR CAMERA 
Single-lens Reflex Camera - Profesional Type Camera 
(Kamera Pantulan Lensa Tunggal)
• SLR –Single Lens Reflect 
• Light directed through a hinged 
mirror/viewfinder (pembidik) 
• DSLR – Digital SLR 
• Inter...
A cross-section (or 'side-view') of the optical components of a typical SLR 
camera shows how the light passes through the...
Universal standard or 35 mm: 
The sensor’s size is 24×36 mm (when is 
Full Frame). This is the most used by 
photojournali...
Medium Format 
The sensor (or film) measures are 
6×4.5 cm or up to 6×7 cm. This kind 
of camera is widely and mostly used...
VIEWFINDER TECHNOLOGY
Viewfinder Camera
Rangefinder/Boutique Camera 
Kamera Penjulat/Butik
• These are called "rangefinder" cameras because 
they focus using a dual-image range finding device. 
You turn a ring, an...
The photograph is taken 
through the main lens 
however the view from 
the lens and the 
viewfinder is slightly 
different...
Lomo Camera 
(Kamera Lomo)
• A Lomo Camera or lens usually gives photos high 
contrast, twisted colors, and a noticeable vignette (a 
shading of the ...
Advantages of the viewfinder camera: 
• Simple viewfinder cameras are cheap. 
• There are fewer moving parts, so less chan...
Samsung NX300 
Mirrorless Camera 
Kamera Tanpa Cermin
• Mirrorless cameras, as the name suggests, don't need a mirror. Instead, the light 
passes through the lens and falls rig...
SLR 
TLR 
Twin Lens Reflex Camera 
(Kamera Pantulan Lensa Kembar)
• A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective 
lenses of the same focal length. 
• One of the l...
Pocket-size/Point and Shoot/Consumer 
Pro-consumer or Prosumer 
Digital Compact Camera 
SLR-Style Camera 
Kamera Kompak Di...
Point and Shoot (Compact) 
• “consumer” digital cameras. 
• All‐in‐one with lens, flash, etc. 
• Automatic. Ready to go. U...
VIEW CAMERA 
Optical Bench /Large Format Camera
OPTICAL BENCH OR 
LARGE FORMAT CAMERA 
This kind of cameras is used mostly for 
study portraits, advertising photography o...
SLR CAMERA 
Specialization and Handling 
Pengkhususan dan Pengendalian 
– Pn Hasnah
SLR Demonstration 
A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) 
typically uses a mirror and prism 
system (hence "reflex", from the ...
How to Choose a Film 
for Your Camera
The Negative (35mm Film ) 
135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It 
is a cartridge film w...
• Color negative film, also called print film, is what most people are 
familiar with; the stuff you can still buy almost ...
• Slide film, more properly called reversal film, gives 
a positive image; in other words, when you look through it, it lo...
• Traditional black-and-white films are usually negative films, but they're 
black-and-white. 
There's a special subset of...
Film Manufacturer
Types of ISO film for SLR 
Camera
ISO numbers start from 100-200 (Base ISO) and increment in 
value in geometric progression (power of two). So, the ISO 
se...
The difference is clear – the image on the right hand side at ISO 3200 has 
a lot more noise in it, than the one on the le...
ISO Film Description 
Slow film speed 
200 and Below 
For bright lighting conditions 
and outdoor photography 
Recommendat...
ISO Film Description 
Medium film speed 
400 
all-purpose film that can be 
used for most situations 
Recommendation 
best...
ISO Film Description 
Fast film speed 
800 
ideal for sports and low light 
photography without flash, and 
extends the fl...
How to Use Almost Any 35mm Film Camera 
• Look for some basic controls on the camera. 
• The shutter speed dial 
• The ape...
• Focus your shot. 
• Auto-focus 
• Manual-focus single-lens reflex cameras 
• Manual-focus rangefinder cameras 
• Viewfin...
HANDLING AN SLR
EXPOSURE 
Lens, Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO 
Dedahan – Lensa, Aperture, Kelajuan Shutter 
----- En Amir
Exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on 
the film/image sensor. 
• Too much light creates an over‐bright ...
• Exposure also known as light exposure. 
• Exposure to too high will cause the image 
to be too bright (overexposure) whi...
Underexposure 
(dark) 
overexposure 
(bright) 
Balance 
HOW TO CONTROL EXPOSURE
Exposure can be controlled 
mainly through two lens settings: 
Aperture… 
… and 
Shutter 
Speed 
… and also 
ISO
Aperture 
• How much light gets in 
Shutter Speed 
• How long light is let in 
ISO 
• Sensitivity of image device 
EXPOSUR...
Aperture 
(IRIS IN YOUR 
EYE) 
 Aperture is the opening lens to set the amount of light 
coming into the camera. 
 The b...
APERTURE RANGE 
 Aperture size is labelled with a symbol f / [number] (Example: f 
/ 2.4). 
 This measure, sometimes con...
Depth of field (DOF) 
• Depth of field (DOF) tells how many images you want to be in focus. 
• DOF is controlled by contro...
Light 
Dof
Shutter Speed 
(LIKE YOUR EYE LID) 
 Shutter-speed refers to the length of time the 
shutter is open to allow light comin...
Shutter Speed Range 
1 
1/2 
1/15 
1/30 
1/60 
1/125 
1/250 
1/500 
1/1000 
More light 
Less light
Freezing and Blurring
Low Shutter speed
High Shutter speed
ISO 
• ISO refers to the 
sensitivity of the sensor to 
light. 
• Lower the ISO, the lower 
response to the light 
sensor,...
ISO Range 
More light 
Less light 
100 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 
Less Noise 
More Noise
• HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE 
sensitive to light, meaning it will take LESS LIGHT 
to get the right expo...
• Set the lowest setting 
possible to avoid noise. 
• ISO measures the 
sensitivity of the image 
sensor. The lower the 
n...
Lense 
s
The lens of your camera and in modern 
cameras is adjusted via a control wheel or 
dial. If you ever owned a manual film 
...
“You don't take a 
photograph, you 
make it.” 
Ansel Adams
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
Group 1   suhaimi, hasnah , amir
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Group 1 suhaimi, hasnah , amir

  1. 1. PHOTOGRAPHY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
  2. 2. CAMERA Types and Characteristics (Jenis-jenis dan Ciri-ciri)
  3. 3. Categories of Camera Light Catcher Sensor Medium (Medium Penangkap Cahaya)
  4. 4. Analogue Camera( Kamera Analog (Filem)
  5. 5. CELLULOID FILM • Using celluloid film as a Light Catcher Medium and also Storage Medium • Type of Film depending on measurement a. Small format (35mm) b. Medium format (100-120mm) c. Large format • Format 35mm most popular (a.k.a. Film 135) Analogue Came Kamera Analog (Filem)
  6. 6. THE PRINT (PHOTO PAPER) Darkrooms: Creating Images with Chemistry • Films that have been exposed go through a process called “developing”. • Developing film-dropping off rolls of 35mm film, and getting back prints and negatives. Analogue Kamera Analog (Filem)
  7. 7. Instant Camera (Polaroid) Kamera Segera (Polaroid)
  8. 8. • Generates a developed film image (a.k.a. self-developing film) by Polaroid Corporation. • American scientist Edwin Land, who unveiled the first commercial instant camera, the Land Camera, in 1948, Camera and portable darkroom in a single compartment, Invented in 1923 by Samuel Shlafrock. • Using Zink Photo Paper as a Light Catcher Medium and also Storage Medium. It is cheap and suitable those who like to collect picture. Instant Camera (Polaroid)
  9. 9. Digital Camera (Memory Card) Kamera Digital (Filem)
  10. 10. Using Image-sensor atau Picture Sensor as a Light Catcher Medium and Memory Card also Storage Medium Digital Camera (Memory Card) Kamera Digital (Filem)
  11. 11. • Pixels = Picture elements • Resolution: number of pixels captured by the image sensor. Higher Resolution Image 300 ppi Lower Resolution Image Pixels 72 ppi
  12. 12. • SLR/DSLR • Viewfinder/Rangefinder Camera • Lomo Camera • Mirrorless Camera • Twin Lens Reflex Camera • Digital Compact Camera • View Camera Types of Camera Jenis-jenis Kamera Utama
  13. 13. DSLR/SLR CAMERA Single-lens Reflex Camera - Profesional Type Camera (Kamera Pantulan Lensa Tunggal)
  14. 14. • SLR –Single Lens Reflect • Light directed through a hinged mirror/viewfinder (pembidik) • DSLR – Digital SLR • Interchangeable lenses • Greater depth of field • Accurate composition • Better image quality • lens + CCD or CMOS (Light Sensor) Profesional • Designed for professionals and advanced amateurs. • Often based on a SLR design & feature resolutions between 8 and 12 million pixels (or more). • One huge advantage ‐ most of the features (such as exposure controls) and accessories (such as lenses) designed for the film versions also work with the digital versions DSLR/SLR CAMERA Single-lens Reflex Camera (Kamera Pantulan Lensa Tunggal)
  15. 15. A cross-section (or 'side-view') of the optical components of a typical SLR camera shows how the light passes through the lens assembly (1), is reflected by the mirror (2) placed at a 45-degree angle, and is projected on the matte focusing screen (5). Via a condensing lens (6) and internal reflections in the roof pentaprism (7) the image appears in the eyepiece (viewfinder) (8). When an image is taken, the mirror (2) moves upwards from its resting position in the direction of the arrow, the focal plane shutter (3) opens, and the image is projected onto the film or sensor (4) in exactly the same manner as on the focusing screen. Kamera pantulan lensa tunggal yang mempunyai sebuah cermin yang memantulkan cahaya yang diperoleh daripada lensa dan melalui pentaprisma (No.7) dan imej dapat dilihat melalui viewfinder (No.8). Semasa merakam, cermin (No.2) akan terangkat dan mendedahkan sensor (No.4) dan merakam imej yang diperoleh daripada lensa. DSLR/SLR Mechanism
  16. 16. Universal standard or 35 mm: The sensor’s size is 24×36 mm (when is Full Frame). This is the most used by photojournalists, photographers of nature, weddings and many advanced amateurs, due to its combination of acceptable weight and price with high quality and versatility. Moreover, among the DSLRr we have all the formats described in the section “The Sensor”, with virtually the same characteristics but with different sizes for the sensor, which enhances the final quality of the file, as the quality increases when the size is bigger.
  17. 17. Medium Format The sensor (or film) measures are 6×4.5 cm or up to 6×7 cm. This kind of camera is widely and mostly used in fashion and advertisement photography, and for portraits. These cameras are a little bit heavy, but their quality makes up for it, albeit their prices don’t help much to make them popular
  18. 18. VIEWFINDER TECHNOLOGY
  19. 19. Viewfinder Camera
  20. 20. Rangefinder/Boutique Camera Kamera Penjulat/Butik
  21. 21. • These are called "rangefinder" cameras because they focus using a dual-image range finding device. You turn a ring, and when two superimposed images line up, you're in perfect focus. • Leica M9 is the most prestige rangefinder camera that be used by the street photographer. • Price: RM25K (Body) dan RM50K (lens 50mm f0.95) Rangefinder Camera
  22. 22. The photograph is taken through the main lens however the view from the lens and the viewfinder is slightly different, this difference is called parallax error.
  23. 23. Lomo Camera (Kamera Lomo)
  24. 24. • A Lomo Camera or lens usually gives photos high contrast, twisted colors, and a noticeable vignette (a shading of the outer edges of the picture). • Kamera Lomo pula merupakan kamera filem yang direka untuk memberi kesan khas seperti gambar di atas. • Kesan2 khas ini memberi impak dramatik pada gambar yang dirakam. kamera ini menggunakan filem dan perlu dicuci di kedai gambar. Lomo Camera (Kamera Lomo)
  25. 25. Advantages of the viewfinder camera: • Simple viewfinder cameras are cheap. • There are fewer moving parts, so less chance of equipment failure. • Higher light levels to the viewfinder. • High-quality rangefinder cameras provide excellent focusing, especially in low light. • Quieter operation than SLR cameras. Disadvantages of the viewfinder camera: • Parallax error (unless compensated for). • The viewfinder image may be quite small. Advantages and Disadvantages Viewfinder/Rangefinder
  26. 26. Samsung NX300 Mirrorless Camera Kamera Tanpa Cermin
  27. 27. • Mirrorless cameras, as the name suggests, don't need a mirror. Instead, the light passes through the lens and falls right onto the image sensor, as it does in point-and- shoot and phone cameras. • To preview the image before you press the shutter button, you look at a screen on the back of the camera, or into a viewfinder with an electronic screen • Kamera jenis ini pula merupakan kamera yang tidak menggunakan cermin sebagaimana yang digunakan DSLR/SLR. jadi sensor terletak betul-betul di belakang lensa dan kaedah elektronik shutter digunakan bagi menggantikan kaedah mechanical shutter yang digunakan oleh DSLR. • Kebanyakan kamera jenis ini mempunyai sensor yang lebih kecil dan antara saiz sensor yang terkenal ialah micro 4/3. Kamera jenis ini juga membolehkan kita menukar lensa sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh DSLR. Mirrorless Camera Kamera Tanpa Cermin
  28. 28. SLR TLR Twin Lens Reflex Camera (Kamera Pantulan Lensa Kembar)
  29. 29. • A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. • One of the lenses is the photographic objective or "taking lens" (the lens that takes the picture), while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is usually viewed from above at waist level. • Kamera jenis ini pula mempunyai pantulan 2 lensa yang mana lensa pertama bertindak sebagai "viewfinder" dan lensa yang kedua bertindak sebagai perakam. • kamera jenis ini masih menggunakan filem dan ia merupakan kamera yang amat popular bagi penggemar kamera lama dan kamera filem. Twin Lens Reflex Camera
  30. 30. Pocket-size/Point and Shoot/Consumer Pro-consumer or Prosumer Digital Compact Camera SLR-Style Camera Kamera Kompak Digital
  31. 31. Point and Shoot (Compact) • “consumer” digital cameras. • All‐in‐one with lens, flash, etc. • Automatic. Ready to go. User friendly. • Small, compact and lightweight • Usually don't provide you with a lot of creative control. Professional Consumer (Prosumer) • Combination of professional and consumer cameras. • High‐quality built‐in zoom lens, high quality sensor & settings. • Interchangeable lenses. • Quality without the hassle of lugging other kit. • Kamera kompak digital ini adalah kamera yang paling ringkas, mudah digunakan serta dimiliki oleh kebanyakan orang biasa. ia mempunyai lensa yang kekal. terdapat jenis lensa yang boleh di zoom atau ada juga yang mempunyai lensa fokus tunggal (fix focal length). • Biasanya kamera jenis ini mempunyai sensor yang kecil dan kualiti gambarnya adalah rendah berbanding dengan kamera jenis DSLR atau Mirror less yang mempunyai lensa yang lebih besar. namun ia merupakan pilihan ramai orang kerana cukup untuk digunakan untuk rakaman harian dan mode auto yang mesra pengguna. Digital Compact Camera
  32. 32. VIEW CAMERA Optical Bench /Large Format Camera
  33. 33. OPTICAL BENCH OR LARGE FORMAT CAMERA This kind of cameras is used mostly for study portraits, advertising photography of big size objects (for instance, cars) and architecture photography. Its formats range from 9×12 cm to 20×25 cm, usually are very heavy, big and cumbersome, but they offer a superb quality. Apart from the obvious quality, we have seen that a big surface in the sensor we get better quality, we have to take into consideration a highly important factor: they can manipulate the perspective according to the Scheimflug Principle and the depth of field (keeping on focus the objects both behind and ahead of that focused on).
  34. 34. SLR CAMERA Specialization and Handling Pengkhususan dan Pengendalian – Pn Hasnah
  35. 35. SLR Demonstration A single-lens reflex camera (SLR) typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured (WYSWIG) The camera has a viewfinder that sees through the lens by way of a 45°-angled mirror that flips up when the shutter fires and allows the light to strike the image sensor (or film).
  36. 36. How to Choose a Film for Your Camera
  37. 37. The Negative (35mm Film ) 135 is photographic film in a film format used for still photography. It is a cartridge film with a film gauge of 35 mm, typically used for hand-held photography in 35 mm film cameras. The size of the 135 film frame has been adopted by many high-end digital single lens reflex cameras, referred to as full frame digital SLRs.
  38. 38. • Color negative film, also called print film, is what most people are familiar with; the stuff you can still buy almost anywhere (and what non-specialists will generally assume you want if you ask for "film"). The image you see on a developed negative is orange-tinted, and the colors are inverted. The process used to develop these is called C-41, and so these are sometimes called "C-41 films". Color negatives have their colors inverted, and are orange-tinted.
  39. 39. • Slide film, more properly called reversal film, gives a positive image; in other words, when you look through it, it looks like a photograph. Nearly all slide films today use the E-6 process, which is a completely different process to that used for negative films. Slide films, typically mounted in plastic or cardboard mounts, give a positive image that looks just like your photograph.
  40. 40. • Traditional black-and-white films are usually negative films, but they're black-and-white. There's a special subset of black-and-white films: those that can be developed in the same C-41 process used for color negatives. Ilford XP2 and Kodak BW400CN are two of them. These have all the properties of color negatives, except for the color part, so most of what is written below about the latter applies to these films as well.
  41. 41. Film Manufacturer
  42. 42. Types of ISO film for SLR Camera
  43. 43. ISO numbers start from 100-200 (Base ISO) and increment in value in geometric progression (power of two). So, the ISO sequence is: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400 and etc. • A low ISO (100-400) rating means the film will be less sensitive to light and therefore would be better to use in brighter conditions to prevent over exposure. • A high ISO rating (400-1600) means the film is far more sensitive to light and therefore better suited to use in lower light conditions to prevent under exposure. Summary : The "faster" the film, the more sensitive it was. The "slower" it was, the less sensitive it was.
  44. 44. The difference is clear – the image on the right hand side at ISO 3200 has a lot more noise in it, than the one on the left at ISO 200. Comparison
  45. 45. ISO Film Description Slow film speed 200 and Below For bright lighting conditions and outdoor photography Recommendation not be used for dimly lit areas and fast-moving subjects. Using tripod or has an extremely steady hand best used to photograph outdoor landscapes, inanimate objects, and outdoor events on a bright day.
  46. 46. ISO Film Description Medium film speed 400 all-purpose film that can be used for most situations Recommendation best used to photograph overcast outdoor images, indoor portraits with natural lighting, and when photographing a combination of indoor and outdoor images on the same roll not be used with fast motion photography such as sporting events, indoors without much lighting, or in extremely bright lighting
  47. 47. ISO Film Description Fast film speed 800 ideal for sports and low light photography without flash, and extends the flash distance compared to slower speeds.
  48. 48. How to Use Almost Any 35mm Film Camera • Look for some basic controls on the camera. • The shutter speed dial • The aperture ring • The ISO dial (marked as ASA) • The mode dial • The rewind release • The rewind crank • Change your battery if your camera has one. • Load your film • Rear-loading cameras • Bottom-loading • Set the film speed PREPARATION
  49. 49. • Focus your shot. • Auto-focus • Manual-focus single-lens reflex cameras • Manual-focus rangefinder cameras • Viewfinder cameras • Set your exposure. • Fully automatic exposure cameras • Fully-manual cameras • Frame your shot and shoot • Shoot till you hit the end of the roll. • Get your film developed • Check your film for exposure problems • Stick another roll of film in and go shoot some more SHOOTING
  50. 50. HANDLING AN SLR
  51. 51. EXPOSURE Lens, Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO Dedahan – Lensa, Aperture, Kelajuan Shutter ----- En Amir
  52. 52. Exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the film/image sensor. • Too much light creates an over‐bright image with white spots • Too little light creates an under‐bright image with black spots EXPOSURE
  53. 53. • Exposure also known as light exposure. • Exposure to too high will cause the image to be too bright (overexposure) while low exposure cause the picture is dark (underexposure). EXPOSURE
  54. 54. Underexposure (dark) overexposure (bright) Balance HOW TO CONTROL EXPOSURE
  55. 55. Exposure can be controlled mainly through two lens settings: Aperture… … and Shutter Speed … and also ISO
  56. 56. Aperture • How much light gets in Shutter Speed • How long light is let in ISO • Sensitivity of image device EXPOSURE
  57. 57. Aperture (IRIS IN YOUR EYE)  Aperture is the opening lens to set the amount of light coming into the camera.  The bigger shutter open, the more light can enter the camera.
  58. 58. APERTURE RANGE  Aperture size is labelled with a symbol f / [number] (Example: f / 2.4).  This measure, sometimes confusing because the larger f number, the smaller shutter’s hole.  Instead, the smaller f number, the bigger shutter’s hole. More light (Brighter image) Less light (dark image)
  59. 59. Depth of field (DOF) • Depth of field (DOF) tells how many images you want to be in focus. • DOF is controlled by controlling the aperture. Shallow (less dof) Narrow (more dof)
  60. 60. Light Dof
  61. 61. Shutter Speed (LIKE YOUR EYE LID)  Shutter-speed refers to the length of time the shutter is open to allow light coming into the sensor.  The shutter speed is calculated by using the second (seconds), and is usually lower than a second.
  62. 62. Shutter Speed Range 1 1/2 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 More light Less light
  63. 63. Freezing and Blurring
  64. 64. Low Shutter speed
  65. 65. High Shutter speed
  66. 66. ISO • ISO refers to the sensitivity of the sensor to light. • Lower the ISO, the lower response to the light sensor, while the higher the ISO, the more powerful response to light. • A lower ISO number , More light is required • Either with a longer shutter speed, a larger aperture opening, or both—to get the same effect that a higher ISO number would get with less light.
  67. 67. ISO Range More light Less light 100 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 Less Noise More Noise
  68. 68. • HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE sensitive to light, meaning it will take LESS LIGHT to get the right exposure. • Low ISO indicates low sensitivity to light but generally higher resolution with less “noise” or “grain”. • Indoor vs Outdoor ? ISO ? • ISO (Light sensitivity) • 50 outdoors/sunlight (low grain/noise) • 1600 indoors/no flash (high grain/noise) ISO
  69. 69. • Set the lowest setting possible to avoid noise. • ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain. ISO
  70. 70. Lense s
  71. 71. The lens of your camera and in modern cameras is adjusted via a control wheel or dial. If you ever owned a manual film SLR you will remember that the lenses had an ring that you set manually with a “Click-click” as you turned it to alter the apertures
  72. 72. “You don't take a photograph, you make it.” Ansel Adams

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