Adolescence is a period of many changes, which usually generates anxiety, stress, doubts and misbehaviors in teenagers.During adolescence they have to take many moral and social decisions that have to be based in intrinsic and extrinsic factors.Thorough this presentation we will be reviewing these factors an how they affect adolescent’s development. And also how we can assist teenagers during this process of development.
In early adolescence, both girls and boys experience a great gain in height and weight. And also greater sexual interest.A fact that I can mention about the physical development in girls is, that African American girls tend to develop faster than Caucasian ones, because they tend to have higher levels of body fat, which are related to faster development. (Dolgin, 2011)
According to (Dolgin, 2011) the age of sexual maturity for boys and girls have been decreasing throughout the years, because of the changes in health care and the fact that adolescents are heavier now than before.It is important to mention that physical development can occur earlier or later for some adolescents and this might bring either positive and negative effects, and this is one of the main reasons that the adolescence period is one of the most difficult ones to go through. Late development might generate feelings of awkwardness, sadness, depression, isolation and many anti-social behaviors. Therefore, this is a period where girls and boys need to receive a lot of support from parents, teachers, and adult people around them.
Cognitive Development: Adolescents are also able to do inductive and deductive reasoning to draw conclusions, and to apply them into their lives, which is a capability that they didn’t have when they were younger. They also develop the capability to think, and plan a future based on their conclusions and their opinions.
Moral Development: This concept has being study for many researchers, and one of them was Kohlberg, who divided the moral development into 6 stages, and he included adolescents in the 3rd and 4th stages. Kohlberg explained that during this stage adolescents stop behaving based on rewards and punishments (as when they were children) and they start understanding how is the proper way to behave in a society, by following their own values, that have been foster by their parents, so they can fit in that society. They start understanding the meaning of good and bad behaviors, and where this behaviors can take them.A common example of misbehavior in schools is the presence of bullying among adolescents, they know that it is a bad behavior, but they still do it, so they can fit in.
Social Development: During adolescence, girls and boys are going through not only physical changes but emotional and social changes. They want to make sure that they can be part of a society and they try to follow the action of their peers, regardless if those actions are morally good or not. Even though adolescents have been taught at home about good and bad behavior, they might end up making the wrong decisions just to be able to socialize with others. As mention by Bandura, adolescents tend to model what they see at home and outside of home. (Dolgin, 2011).
Adolescence is a stage of a lot of stress, anxiety and sadness for teenager, and at the same time, a lot of happiness and pleasure. All these emotions can change in daily bases, one day they can be really small and insignificant and the next one can be extremely relevant and big. That is what we usually recognize adolescents as moodier and unstable.As teachers we need to be aware of all the effects of cognitive, moral, social and emotional development of adolescents to be able to assist them and help them succeed in life.
During adolescence, teenagers start making moral judgments constantly and more often. The fact that they start thinking in an abstract and critical way, allows them to make decisions that they know might affect their futures. These decisions might be influence by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and adolescents need to find a balance between those factors to avoid making bad decisions. But sometimes they tend to ignore the risks and bad repercussions and end up taking bad decisions anyway.According to Dolgin (2011), during late adolescence, teenagers can anticipate consequences of their decisions and they can also evaluate the credibility of their peers and people around them. So it is important that parents and teachers give adolescents some freedom and independence to take their own decisions so they can learn from their own mistakes, rather than trying to keep them in a bubble, because when they are adults and have to be part of society in a work environment or in any other environment they are not going to be able to defend themselves and be independent.
During early adolescence, girls and boys might be rebellious and are unable to show any self-control, because they are trying to adapt to their new physical appearance and also adapt to society, but during later adolescence, they tend to be more emotionally stable and therefore they start to understand and apply the meaning of self-control in their lives. This self-control implies control over their feelings, emotions and actions as well.
Within the intrinsic influences are those of self-determination to do something and thoughts than differentiate between right and wrong. We can also find that adolescents tend to take their moral and social decisions based on their own understanding of how dangerous and risky might be a situation, which is a completely different view for an adult. And therefore they might not take the smartest and safest decisions that can contribute to their proper development. That it is one of the main reasons they need those extrinsic influences to help them.
Within the extrinsic influences are those promoted by society, as for example peer pressure, and parents influence. Among other factors are the ones produced by the adolescent’s religion, culture, subculture and socio-economic status. As I mentioned before, adolescents tend to stay away from parents and get closer to peers. That is the reason why is so important that parents start teaching their children about morals and values at a young age and continue reinforcing it until they are adolescents. Adolescents tend do behave the same way than their peers do, regardless if it is good or bad behavior. Even though they have been taught at home about the consequences of bad behavior and how it might affect their future. The main reason for this is because they want to be part of a group at school or outside of school and they want to feel accepted. Therefore most of their moral and social decisions at these stage will be influenced by their peers and their environment. So it is important that we as teachers understand all these influences and together with parents, provide a guide for adolescents so they can go through this stage without any regrets.I would also like to mention that religion, culture and subculture influence adolescent moral and social development, for example, in some religions and cultures it is very important to stay virgin until you get married, therefore adolescents that are part of these cultures or religions, will think more before they take the decisions of start having an active sex life before marriage, and they will probably wait until they get married. In some religions and cultures it is normal to have several wives, so adolescents that are part of these environments, will not be concerned about having several girlfriends at the same time, and they will not feel guilty for it.
Adolescence is a stage of physical, social and psychological development. During this time, teenagers tend to experience many new situations in their lives that might create confusion, stress, and happiness at the same time; they are very vulnerable to be influenced by others, either in positive or negative ways.Adolescents are trying to find their identity, they are trying to figure out who they are, if they are normal, it they are competent and if they are capable of being accepted and love by others.I think that the key for adolescents to have a good moral and social development is to find a balance between all the influences generated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic ones, so they do what they know is right and make them feel good and at the same time they can be part of a group and be influenced by others and also influence others in positive ways.I think that as teachers we need we need to be aware of all the effects of cognitive, moral, social and emotional development of adolescents to be able to assist them and help them succeed in life, and we also need to work together with parents to accomplish our main task which should be protect and guide adolescents during some of the most important years of their lives. Thanks.
Week 2 presentation-ana duke
ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT Ana M. DukeOverview of Adolescent Psychology/EDD 563 February 18, 2013 Phyllis A. Clemmer
ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENTAdolescence is a stage of development in which a child start becoming an adult.Adolescence is characterized for a series of physical, social and psychological changes.Adolescence is a period to start making moral decisions.
KEY STAGES OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTTable 1Stages of Adolescent DevelopmentGirl’s stages of adolescence Physical DevelopmentEarly Adolescence Slight growth of pubic hair.(Between 10 and 11 years of age) Increase of perspiration and oil production in hair and skin. Breast and hip development onset of menstruation. Height spurt begins.Middle Adolescence Physical growth continues (vagina,(Between 11 to 14 years of age) ovaries, labia, and uterus).Late Adolescence Young women are fully develop, their(Between 14-16 years of age) breast is develop completely as well as their overall bodies.
KEY STAGES OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTTable 2Stages of Adolescent DevelopmentBoys stages of adolescence Physical DevelopmentEarly Adolescence (Between 11 and Growth in testicles, penis, wet dreams,13 years of age) and pubic hair. Height spurt begins.Middle Adolescence (Between 13 to Voice changes16 years of age) Rapid growth of sexual organs Growth of axillary hair.Late Adolescence (Between 16-19 Young men continue to gain weight,years of age) height, muscle mass and body hair.
COGNITIVE, MORAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENTCognitive DevelopmentAs mention by Piaget,adolescence is a formaloperational stage, inwhich boys and girls startthinking abstractly anddo more critical thinking.
COGNITIVE, MORAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Moral Development During adolescence there is a more deep moral thinking. Adolescents can analyze their behavior. And identify if it is right or wrong, and try to improve themselves.
COGNITIVE, MORAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Social Development Serious intimate Adolescents are relationships begin to experiencing the next situations: develop Struggle finding their Increase their need of identities to fit in. independence. Tend to move away from parents and get closer to peers. Have a bigger interest in privacy.
COGNITIVE, MORAL, SOCIAL, ANDEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Emotional Development Adolescents are experiencing the next situations: Change in their moods. Management of emotions. Experiment with feelings of love and passion. Growing independence in decision-making.
MORAL REASONING AND SELF-CONTROLAdolescents moral reasoning may varydepending on their age and also the peoplearound them. Younger adolescents tend to follow the valuesthat have been taught to them at home. Older adolescents tend to make their owndecisions based on their abstract thinking and theirown views about right and wrong. Adolescents are influenced by their parents,peers, siblings, teachers and adult people aroundthem.
MORAL REASONING AND SELF-CONTROL Self-Control Early adolescence stage: There is not much self-control. Teenagers act in a more impulsive and instinctive way. Late adolescence stage: Signs of self-control are starting to show. Teenagers act in a more analytic and intuitive way.
INFLUENCES IN MORAL AND SOCIAL ADOLESCENT’S DEVELOPMENTThere are two types of influences in moral and social adolescents development: Intrinsic Influences: These are related to adolescents own thoughts, views and values.
INFLUENCES IN MORAL AND SOCIAL ADOLESCENT’S DEVELOPMENTThere are two types of influences in moral and social adolescents development: Extrinsic Influences: These are related to what adolescents observed from others and from their environment.
CONCLUSION Adolescences is a stage of development. This development is physical, social and psychological. Adolescents are influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Parents and peers influence adolescent in different ways. Teachers need to understand adolescent development to help their students.
REFERENCESDolgin, K. G. (2011). The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture. Boston, MA. Allyn&Bacon. Pearson Education, Inc. Retreived from University of Phoenix, EDD/563- Overview of Adolescent Psychology.ReCAPP. Theories and Approaches. Adolescent Development: An overview. Retrieved from: http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=p ages.TheoriesDetail&PageID=317Soloway. J. Advanced Placement Psychology Exam. 2002-2003 Edition. New York, NY. The Princeton Review Publishing.