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TRANCE AND THEORY OF MIND:AN EVOLUTIONARY POINT OF VIEW<br />Ambrogio Pennati *, MD,  psychiatrist, private practice, Mila...
EvolutionaryPsychology and Psychotherapy<br />Evolutionarypsychologyseemstobe a euristically fertile approachto life scien...
EvolutionaryPsychology and Hypnosis<br />As a matter of fact, onlypioneeristic, short  and merely speculative papersabout ...
A paradigmaticshift<br />Evolutionarypsycvhologysuggeststhat a shiftfrom the Standard Social Science Model (and itscorolla...
Definitionof Trance<br />Weoperativelydefine the trance asanAltered State ofConsciousness (ASoC) in which the followingphe...
The AdaptativeValueof Trance<br />Social value: increasedgroupidentity, dischargeamong the groupofpeersofotherwiseunaccept...
The EvolutionaryValueofRapport<br />The mirrorneuronssystemsseemsto play a determinantrole in the abilitytodevelopempathic...
Theory of Mind: a Definition<br />Theory of Mind isgenarallydefinedas the specific cognitive abilitytomakeinferencesaboutm...
ToM: AdaptativeValue<br />The mainhypotesisabout the development of the abilitytohaveToMisthatsuchabilityisassociatedto th...
ToM and NeuralSystems<br />Widelydistributedneural System (reviewSiegal & Varley, 2002)<br />2)	 Narrowlydistributedneural...
ToM and NeuralSystems<br />Twobrainareasseemstobeactivated:<br />Superiortemporalsulcus (STS) and bothtemporallobes; their...
ToM and NeuralSystems<br />Moreover, AnteriorCingulateCingulus (ACC) isdeeplyinvolved in the abilityToMè il giro cingolato...
Trance, Rapport, Hypnosis<br />Fromanhistoricpointofviewhypnosiscouldbedefinedas the processof the complex, bidirectional,...
Trance, Rapport, Hypnosis<br />
Hypnosis and  Psychotherapy<br />Psychotherapycouldbeoperationallydefinedaseverymodalityofhelping people in copingwith str...
Hypnosisassynergicisticempowermentofinnerhealingresources<br />Hypnosiscouldbeinterpretedas the potentiallymostpowerfuldev...
Hypnosis and EthiopatogeneticalModelsofIllnesses<br />The majorityofpsychotherapeuticapproachestriedtodevelopetiopathogene...
Recentempirical data<br />Data fromclinicalfieldsuggestthatempatethicalsharingofmemes (beliefs, values, social rituals, id...
The Ericksonian way<br />Nowadayswe can think at Milton Erickson’s work as a pionieristic, revolutionary way ofthinking an...
Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and HypnosisasPsychotherapy<br />
Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and HypnosisasPsychotherapy<br />Hypnosis in psychotherapycouldenhance the effectivenessofdiffer...
Placebo, Hypnosis, InternalHealer<br />As “internalhealer” we can identify the biochemical and neurophysiologicalmodulesof...
HypnoticPsychotherapy<br />Hypnoticpsychotherapy can bedefinedas the structuralblendbetweenhypnosis in psychotherapy and h...
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Hypnotic trance and theory of mind an evolutionary point of view

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Hypnotic trance and theory of mind an evolutionary point of view

  1. 1. TRANCE AND THEORY OF MIND:AN EVOLUTIONARY POINT OF VIEW<br />Ambrogio Pennati *, MD, psychiatrist, private practice, Milano, Italy pennati.ambrogio.md@fastwebnet.it<br />Giampiero Mosconi §, MD, psychologist, private practice, Milano, Italy giampieromosconi@virgilio.it<br />Italian Medical Association for the Study of Hypnosis (AMISI, www.amisi.it), <br />§President and * VicePresident of AMISI<br />
  2. 2. EvolutionaryPsychology and Psychotherapy<br />Evolutionarypsychologyseemstobe a euristically fertile approachto life sciences, suchas medicine, psychology, economics, sociology. Althoughthereisnot (and wehopethatwillneverbe) anevolutionarypsychotherapy, suchpointofviewcouldoffernewperspectives in psychotherapy, as some experiences in jungian and freudianpsychoanalisys, cognitive-behaviortherapy, systemictherapysuggest.<br />
  3. 3. EvolutionaryPsychology and Hypnosis<br />As a matter of fact, onlypioneeristic, short and merely speculative papersabout the relationshipbetweenevolutionarypsychology and hypnosis are available. Wethinkthat the evolutionaryperspective in the study of hypnoticphenomenacould generate newresearch and newconceptualizations in ourfield. Wethinkthat at the coreofEricksonian work thereisanimplicitevolutionary way ofthinking, notfullyblossomedbecauseof the zeitgeist in whichheoperated.<br />
  4. 4. A paradigmaticshift<br />Evolutionarypsycvhologysuggeststhat a shiftfrom the Standard Social Science Model (and itscorollaryofhuman mind asblankslate) to the NaturalisticModelcouldbeuseful in bypassingmostof the conceptualconundrumsofpsychotherapy.<br />In our case thisshiftcould bypass the “state or process” issueofhypnosis. <br />The evolutionaryapproachidentify the abilitytodevelop trance experienceasoneof the mostimportantadaptativemodule in the in the brainfor the individual, the group and the specie.<br />
  5. 5. Definitionof Trance<br />Weoperativelydefine the trance asanAltered State ofConsciousness (ASoC) in which the followingphenomena can consensuallyoccur in a statisticallysignificantpercentages:<br />Dissociationbetween executive and monitoringfunctionof the Self<br />High frequencyofideodinamicbehaviors<br />Verbal and/or motor inhibition<br />Extremefocusingofattention, internal or external<br />Facilitationofautoreferentialthinking<br />Mnesicalterations<br />Changes in quality and quantityof the timeexperience<br />Changes in quality and quantityofperceptualexperience<br />
  6. 6. The AdaptativeValueof Trance<br />Social value: increasedgroupidentity, dischargeamong the groupofpeersofotherwiseunacceptablefeelings, self-trascendence, facilitationofmeme-relatedcomplexes, facilitationofmimeticlearning<br />Individualvalue: self trascendence, modulationofpain, modulationof immune system, modulationofautonomicresponse, increasedefficiencyoffight or flight response, increasedefficiencyofmatingstrategies, increased chance ofactivationofinternalhealingmodules (seebelow)<br />Biologicalvalue: increasedprobabilityofselectionof the fittest gene or memebyreshufflingofgenetic and memetic pool (ritual and/or orgiastic trance)<br />
  7. 7. The EvolutionaryValueofRapport<br />The mirrorneuronssystemsseemsto play a determinantrole in the abilitytodevelopempathicrelationshipsamonghumans. Suchrelationships are essentialfor the survivalstruggle and reproductive success of the individual and the group, gene (kin) or memerelated. Empathiclearningmaybeactivatedwithoutawareness (procedural), and thereforeitcouldbe more efficient and resilientthan the declarativelearning, whichreliesuponlinguistic and eideticstructuresof information. <br />WecoulddefineAlteredStates of Consciousness (AsoC) inductors the multifacetedproceduresthat Homo Sapiens utilizedtoachieve trance states. Suchinductorsrelyupon the empathicrapport.<br />
  8. 8. Theory of Mind: a Definition<br />Theory of Mind isgenarallydefinedas the specific cognitive abilitytomakeinferencesaboutmentalstates – beliefs, willings, drives, etc - of ourselves and of others. Suchabilityallowsustounderstandathatmentalstatescouldbe the cause of behaviors of the others, and thatthereforesuchbehaviors can bepredicted,can be<br />
  9. 9. ToM: AdaptativeValue<br />The mainhypotesisabout the development of the abilitytohaveToMisthatsuchabilityisassociatedto the incrementalcomplexity of humanrelationships, strictltyrelatedto the increasingnumber of people constituive the primalgroups of homo sapiens. The primaryaimistounmaskcheater and strengthenintragroupcohoperation.<br />Suchability, detectedalso in big apes, takesplace in the man at the age of 4 ys, as the linguistic competence.<br />
  10. 10. ToM and NeuralSystems<br />Widelydistributedneural System (reviewSiegal & Varley, 2002)<br />2) Narrowlydistributedneural System (review Gallagher & Frith, 2003)<br /> <br />3) Neural System differientatedby the tipology of requestedmeta-rapresentation (itself vs others(reviewAbu-Akel, 2003)<br />4) Neural System representative of the evolutionarysteps (reviewSaxe, Carey & Kanwisher, 2004)<br />
  11. 11. ToM and NeuralSystems<br />Twobrainareasseemstobeactivated:<br />Superiortemporalsulcus (STS) and bothtemporallobes; theiractivationplays a supportiveindirectrole in the abilitytomentalize<br /> • (STS) seemstobeengaged in processing of esplicitbehavioralinformations, suchas the perception of intentionalbehaviors<br /> • temporallobesseemto play a key role in the processing of personal and episodicmnesic data, which are involved in the ToMactivity<br />
  12. 12. ToM and NeuralSystems<br />Moreover, AnteriorCingulateCingulus (ACC) isdeeplyinvolved in the abilityToMè il giro cingolato anteriore (ACC); ACCisstrictlyrelated in the regulaton of motor activitymarousal and cognition<br />Recentneurophysiological data suggestthat the abilitytomakeinference on the mental state of the others and toempathizewiththemislinkedto a decrease in activity of the cortex of anteriorcingulus; hypnoticinductionseemsto generate the sameeffect. <br />
  13. 13. Trance, Rapport, Hypnosis<br />Fromanhistoricpointofviewhypnosiscouldbedefinedas the processof the complex, bidirectional, fluctuactinginteractionsbetween<br />ASoCinductorsrecognizedby the western scientificcomunityasempiricallyvalidated and useful in medicine and psychology , accordingto the scientificparadigmof the zeitgeist, and <br />The trance statesobtainedfollowingsuchinductionprocedures<br />
  14. 14. Trance, Rapport, Hypnosis<br />
  15. 15. Hypnosis and Psychotherapy<br />Psychotherapycouldbeoperationallydefinedaseverymodalityofhelping people in copingwith stress, emotionalproblems, relationalproblems, or problematichabits; suchmodalities share the factofbeingall treatment based on talkingotanother people and doingsomethingtogether” (RCPychiatrists).<br />Hypnosiscouldbetherapeuticbecauseboth the induction procedure in sé (modeling, emotionaltuning, procedurallearning, based on rapport, ofnewbehavioral or cognitive adaptativestrategies) and hypnotic trance (emotionalreleaseofotherwiseunacceptablefeelings, activation on internalhealingmodules, self-trascendence).<br />
  16. 16. Hypnosisassynergicisticempowermentofinnerhealingresources<br />Hypnosiscouldbeinterpretedas the potentiallymostpowerfuldevicetoactivateinnerhealingresourcesthanksto<br />Interpersonal powerofrapport<br />Intrapersonalpowerof trance<br />thatsynergicallyactivatedinternalhealermodules.<br />
  17. 17. Hypnosis and EthiopatogeneticalModelsofIllnesses<br />The majorityofpsychotherapeuticapproachestriedtodevelopetiopathogeneticalmodelsofdisorderscoherentwiththeirpostulates, butallthesemodelslackofstatistical and scientificvalidation. Hypnosistoosearchedfor a coherentmodel (neodissociative theory), butalso in this case empiricalvalidationisinsufficient or absent.<br />Metaanalysises show thatthereis no evidence (ie, directlylinkedto the model) of the superiorityof a theoreticalmodelamong the others, and thataspecificvariables are the key factors in the efficacyofpsychotherapies. <br />Therefore, everytheoreticalapproachtopsychotherapyseemstobemerely speculative.<br />
  18. 18. Recentempirical data<br />Data fromclinicalfieldsuggestthatempatethicalsharingofmemes (beliefs, values, social rituals, ideasabout the cause of the illness) with the clients can enhance the responsetodifferenttreatments. <br />Sincethere are no evidencesofsuperiorityof a modelofpsychotherapyamong the otherswe can suppose that building a memeticrapportempatheticallybasedis the best operative option in psychotherapy. <br />
  19. 19. The Ericksonian way<br />Nowadayswe can think at Milton Erickson’s work as a pionieristic, revolutionary way ofthinking and workingbased on implicit, intuitive evolutionaryapproachtoclinicalactivity. Suchapproachisrooted in shamanictraditions and overtlyproposedby ME in his look and style. ME optimizedhisskillswithanthropological and psychiatricstudies, lookingfor social and biologicalbasisof trance induction and trance states.<br />
  20. 20. Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and HypnosisasPsychotherapy<br />
  21. 21. Hypnosis in Psychotherapy and HypnosisasPsychotherapy<br />Hypnosis in psychotherapycouldenhance the effectivenessofdifferentapproachesthroughelicitationofrapportmodules; itisbased on empathiccommunicationskills<br />Hypnosisaspsychotherapycouldenhanceself-trascendence and innerhealermodulesthroughactivationof trance states<br />
  22. 22. Placebo, Hypnosis, InternalHealer<br />As “internalhealer” we can identify the biochemical and neurophysiologicalmodulesof placebo:<br />increasedopioid and dopaminergicactivity<br />reduction in anteriorcingulatecortexactivity<br />modulationof immune system <br />modulationof social neuroendocrine pathways<br />
  23. 23. HypnoticPsychotherapy<br />Hypnoticpsychotherapy can bedefinedas the structuralblendbetweenhypnosis in psychotherapy and hypnosisaspsychotherapy. Itisbased on <br />Rapport<br />Trance<br />Theoryof Mind consciousactivation<br />In the contextof the aspecificfactorsthatconstitute the goodclinicalsetting.<br />

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