Main features of judicial review in francophone africa ppt


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Main features of judicial review in francophone africa ppt

  1. 1. Main Features of Judicial Review in Francophone Africa Yuhniwo Ngenge, International IDEA Kick –off Workshop on Comparative Research on Judicial Review Institutions in Africa Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany November 7, 2012
  2. 2. Background• Research focus Sub-saharan Francophone Africa (SSFA)• SSFA comprises approx 20-23 states• Distinction possible between 2 phases 1) Aftermath of Independence: 1960-1990 2) Aftermath of Cold war: 1990- Present• 1960-1990: Judicial review conducted by ordinary judiciary (SC). See e.g constitutions - Cameroon ( 1961,1972,1996) - Mauritania ( 1959, 1961) - Benin (1977) - Gabon (1961) - Mali (1960) (1965 law),1975) - Togo (Law no 61/12 / June 1961) - Senegal (1963 as modified thru the yrs to 1992) - Rwanda (1963)
  3. 3. • 1990- Present: Pressure for reform and democratisation - Complete reform of judicial review system - Supreme Court role in judicial review phased out - Bloom of new institutional archietecture for judicial review - Over 18/ 20-23 countries in the region involved between 1990-2001 alone - Included are: Ben, Bur, Bfaso,CmR, CAR, CiV Chad, Com, Congo, Dji, Eq Gui. - Gabon, Madg, Mali, Maur, Niger, Sen, Togo - Reasons for this shift elaborated in upcoming paper in AJC• So- what are the key features of the new judicial review structures? -Most obvious ones common to all 18 countries analysed btw 1990-2001 relate to:
  4. 4. 1) Institutional design and structure• Specialized jurisdiction for review=>Centralized Constitutional Court/Council model• Political institutions remain key actors in composition procedure (all 18 cases), but role shared with non-political institutions (e.g HJC, Legal Academia, Bar Ass.) See Benin, Cameroon Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Mali, Madagascar, Niger, Togo)• Hybrid composition procedures for CC more common( e.g. CAR, Congo, Comoros, Madagascar, Niger, Togo), even though a few countries still maintain appointments only (e.g Cameroon, )• Legal and judicial expertise essential eligibility criteria (Benin, Burundi, CAR, Mali, Congo, Djibouti, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Niger, Senegal,)
  5. 5. 2) Competence:• Apriori & aposteriori controls of constitutionality: law proposals, internal regulations of parliament, treaties; parliamentary statutes and executive acts (all 18 countries)• Controls both abstract and concrete:(contrôle de constitutionalité par voie d’action- 14 countries including Benin, Chad, Congo, etc) and concrete review (Plea of unconstitutionality- 14 including Burkina Faso, Chad, Congo, etc)• Electoral competence: over national level electoral and referenda processes but also regional and local elections –e.g. Burkina Faso, CAR, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Niger• Resolving conflict of attributions between public powers: horizontally, but also, in some cases vertically (e.g. Cameroon, CAR, Madagascar)
  6. 6. 3) Broadly designed access rules:• Classical/traditional interlocutors: PR, PM , MPs, House Speakers,(all 18 countries)• Non-traditional interlocutors: e.g., Public agencies, HROs, CSOs, AGs or Heads of other Judicial institutions (Benin, Comoros, Cameroon, Gabon, Mali, CAR)• Private individuals: Via 1) citizen constitutional action =>Individual complaints procedure => Contrôle de constitutionalité par voie d’action => one or both forms of action adopted in 12/18 countries covered 2) Plea of unconstitutionality ( 14/18 states)
  7. 7. 4)Extensive Human Rights jurisdiction• Key players in the protection of human rights, evidence by: => Grant of specific HR jurisdiction - Benin - Djibouti - Mali, - Gabon, - Togo => Liberal access rules for private individuals to easily seise body in HR cases => Auto-saisine jurisdiction in case of Benin
  8. 8. 5) Influence from foreign models• France => Basic design structure• Germany/Spain => Right of standing to private individuals => Right of standing non- traditional interlocutors• Spain => Extension of right to recruit judges to non traditional political bodies• Austria/Germany /Spain => Legal and judicial experience essential criteria for CC membership Thank You