Reporting for Active Duty- Actively Engaging Adults with Disabilities
FOR ACTI VE
DUTYNORTH L.A. REGI ONAL SERGEANT
ANDREW DAY &
SERGEANT MAJ OR OF SUPPORT
SERVI CES AMBER OSBORN
DEFINE ACTIVE DUTY :
Stovall (2003) suggests that engagement is defined by a combination of students’ time on task
and their willingness to participate in activities
Krause and Coates (2008) say that engagement is the quality of effort students themselves
devote to educationally purposeful activities that contribute directly to desired outcomes.
Chen, Gonyea and Kuh (2008) say that engagement is the degree to which learners are engaged
with their educational activities and that engagement is positively linked to a host of desired
outcomes, including high grades, student satisfaction, and perseverance
Other studies define engagement in terms of interest, effort, motivation, time-on-task and
that there is a causal relationship between engaged time, that is, the period of time in which
students are completely focused on and participating in the learning task, and academic
achievement (Bulger et al).
Active Engagement: Engaged an activity that brings a desired outcome. There is an active
participation with the learner.
HISTORY OF ACTIVE
There is not a clearly defined
beginning of the philosophy or
practice of active engagement.
It does appear to have come from
the combination of two distinct
movements: Developmental Theory
and Educational Theory.
History Continued-Developmental Theory
Developmental Theory was an outcome of
theoretical groundbreakers Sigmund Freud, Jean
Piaget and Erik Erickson beginning in the late
1800’s. These theorists varied immensely in their
approach to development, yet shared a
common theme of distinct physical and
psychological phases or stages. This provided
the world with a map of “normal” development.
History Continued-Educational Theory
Educational Theory did not emerge until much later; in the
1960’s with the push of theorists Walter Feinburg and Jason
Odeshoo. Educational Theory began as a reflexive process
rather than a prescribed set of normative or theoretical
components. It simply examines what in education can be
ascribed and described and how does it affect the learner as
they engage with the world. Offshoots of educational theory
expand on developmental theory by adding psychological
and theoretical methods to the prescribed biological phases
and or stages. Classic education was merged and in certain
specific school, such as The Waldorff School, replaced with
contemplative methods of learning, which catered to one’s
spiritual absorption of the educational material. Critical (social-
constructivism- Marx), Democratic (teaching of social –
governance) and Normative (core knowledge and teaching
constructs and theories via a determined and set curriculum).
Active engagement as the terminology that we
think of here at PCS is a very recent, progressive
movement based in the belief that the individuals
that we serve have the capacity to actively
engage, which as we know from our definition of
active engagement, requires a psychological
component of the learner.
A recommended source for history of treatment of
individuals with developmental and mental
disabilities in the United States: Mad in America by
HOW CAN WE BEST MODEL AND IMPLEMENT
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR OUR
Give In-Vivo Feedback
Start a Learning Log
Fight For Your Beliefs in Each Individuals Abilities to
Hiring the Right People
Firing the Right People
Be an Advocate Without Fear
Have Ideas for Staff if They Run Out of Ideas
Make it a Priority
AND OUTCOME OF
CARRYING THEM OUT
Keeping good records is always important in any of
our facilities, especially one’s of our own accounts,
notes, observations, etc.
Not only should you as the Corporal should be
maintaining your own notes on management related
items, but regularly check other methods of
documentation to be sure that your troop
understands what the expectations are in regards to
their documentation as well.
Coach, coach, coach
Many of us have commented that you can’t really
teach this component of treatment…what do you do
if you have come across a staff member who is
resistant to active engagement?
ENGAGEMENT MEANS TO
PCS has built the entire company around the expectation
that PCS will be progressive, follow the PCS Way and
operation within Person-Centered Practices
Positive Attitudes: compassion and empathy and train
themselves to be mindful in all their actions.
Shared Principles. principally and morally driven through the
use of moral reasoning, support employees in making
decisions allowing support persons to feel good about the
work they have done on a particular day or for a specific
situation, look within ourselves first and accept responsibility of
our actions and then use that knowledge to learn and grow
and change behaviors in the future so that outcomes for
others are positive and successful. The goal is to be inner
directed and outer focused, always connected with reality
and being able to review your own actions.
What Active Engagement Means to PCS Continued
1. What is the right thing to do?
2. What results do I want?
3. How do I behave in a more authentic way?
4. What role did my actions play in the outcome?
5. What could I do better next time?
6. How can I help others grow and learn?
The last focus is Personal Mastery, through the last component;
it is of the most importance because it allows our minds to think
ahead and pushes us to develop future ways of learning
through spending time on personal reflection and development
while striving to achieve our personal bests.
What Active Engagement Means to PCS Continued
Listen for Understanding
Assume the positive and possible
Check for understanding before
Respond in a timely manner
Seek input by those affected by a
Be aware of scope of responsibility and
Consider what is positive and possible
Be honest about you can and cannot
Determine what you can do
Follow-through on what you have said
you will do
Practice collaborative decision making
Honor and solicit different perspectives
Create working relationships internally
Create and use a framework of
information for collective decision
Act on what you hear
Model respectful language
Take initiative to act when hearing a
need and opportunity
Take responsibility for your personal
choices and actions
What Active Engagement Means to Those We Serve
Literally Gives Them Life: Statistics have proven to us over and
over again that human beings need contact with each other.
Care providing contact is not effective unless there is personal
relating; talking with our Consumers, listening to them weather
they communicate verbally or not.
Engaging with one or persons during your day for an hour or
more a day can increase you life span by 5 years.
Loneliness studies indicate a strong correlation between
shortened lifespan, hopelessness/ helplessness and loneliness.
To experience loneliness one does not actually have to be
alone, perceiving oneself as alone is as powerful.
Attachment theories have demonstrated the need of an infant
to bond in order to thrive. This need to attach continues on
throughout our adult lives- disability or not.
What do you think?
YOUR ORDERS AND OATH TO FOLLOW THEM WHEN RELEASED
BACK TO YOUR PLATOONS
Exercise- You will now break up in groups and use the
attached form, or make your own, to write your plan for
ensuring that Active Engagement is occurring in the
facilities that you manage. Be sure to provide the
What is your Active Engagement Goal?
What Will You Need to Do in Preparation?
How Will You Measure the Degree to Which You Are Meeting
that Goal With Your Staff?
What is Your Expectation of Yourself and Your Staff (clearly
How Will You Coach?
Other Info That You Want to Provide?
Questions and Answers
Now I want you to each sign and print the bottom
of your plan for assuring that Active Engagement is
occurring with our consumers throughout the
I will be copying all of them before you leave
today. You will each get your plan in addition to
the other individuals in your groups. You may alter
your plan by adding to it.
Visualize! Place your plan out in the open, or in
your planner, monitor your success.