Fighting The Uphill Battle- Diagnostics, Medications, Upholding Quality Care


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Fighting The Uphill Battle- Diagnostics, Medications, Upholding Quality Care

  1. 1. PCS Boot Camp 2012
  2. 2.  Psychiatric Diagnoses are categorized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diso . Better known as the DSM-IV  The DSM-IV covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. It also lists known causes of these disorders, statistics in terms of gender, age at onset, and prognosis as well as some research concerning the optimal treatment approaches.
  3. 3.  Psychiatric Diagnoses are defined by the presence of symptoms; typically clusters of symptoms.  The DSM-IV is used by most diagnostic professionals as a guide for differentially diagnosing (based in strong and on-going research).  Symptoms of a psychiatric diagnosis range from observable symptoms to reported experiences of the patient.
  4. 4.  Benefits  Therapies (psychological and medical) can be implemented  Insurance companies or other payees can approve needed therapies  Patient can give name to their experience  Decrease of functional impairments  Risks  Stereotypical Treatment  Stereotypical Diagnosing  Labeling/ Social Impact
  5. 5.  Psychological Therapy:  Psychotherapy  Group Therapy  Psychoanalysis  Behavioral Therapy  Biological  Psychotropic or Other Medication to Treat the Symptoms  Older Therapies such as Elecroconvulsive Shock Therapy
  6. 6.  Adjustment Disorders  Anxiety Disorders  Dissociative Disorders  Eating Disorders  Impulse-Control Disorders  Mood Disorders  Sexual Disorders  Sleep Disorders  Psychotic Disorders  Sexual Dysfunction  Somataform  Substance  Personality
  7. 7. Anxiety Disorders Impulse-Control Disorders Mood Disorders Psychotic Disorders
  8. 8.  Primary feature is abnormal or inappropriate anxiety  Increased heart rate, tensed muscles, acute sense of focus  Part of a normal process in our bodies called the 'flight or flight' phenomenon.  These symptoms become a problem when they occur without any recognizable stimulus or when the stimulus does not warrant such a reaction.
  9. 9.  Acute Stress Disorder  Occurs within 2 days of and has not lasted beyond 4 weeks of a traumatic experience  Agoraphobia  anxiety about being in places where escape might be difficult should a panic attack develop  Generalized Anxiety  Obsessive-Compulsive  obsessions (persistent, often irrational, and seemingly uncontrollable thoughts) and compulsions (actions which are used to neutralize the obsessions)  Panic Disorder  Phobias  Associated with an object or situation  Post-Traumatic Disorder  Symptoms for at leas one month post trauma
  10. 10.  Failure or extreme difficulty in controlling impulses despite the negative consequences.  This failure to control impulses also refers to the impulse to engage in violent behavior (e.g., road rage), sexual behavior, fire starting, stealing, and self-abusive behaviors
  11. 11.  Intermittent Explosive Disorder  Kleptomania  Impulse to Steal-opposed to shoplifting the impulse is not directed toward need of the object, value, etc.  Pathological Gambling  Pyromania  Impulse to deliberately and purposefully start fires  Trichtillomania  Impulse to pull one’s hair out  Impulse Control Disorder NOS  Not Otherwise Specified; currently used in diagnosing cutting and other SIB behaviors that are not resultant of a developmental disability
  12. 12.  Primary symptom is a disturbance in mood  Inappropriate, exaggerated, or limited range of feelings  Everybody gets down sometimes, and everybody experiences a sense of excitement and emotional pleasure. To be diagnosed with a mood disorder, your feelings must be to the extreme. In other words, crying, and/or feeling depressed, suicidal frequently. Or, the opposite extreme, having excessive energy where sleep is not needed for days at a time and during this time the decision making process in significantly hindered.
  13. 13.  Bipolar Disorder  Bipolar I: Presence of Manic and Major Depressive Episodes  Bipolar II: Presence of Hypo-manic and Depressive Episodes  Cyclothymic Disorder  Hypo-mania and Depressive Episodes that do not meet the criteria for Major Depressive Disorder  Dysthymic Disorder  Persistent depressed mood that does not meet the criteria for MDD  Major Depressive Disorder
  14. 14.  Presence of psychosis, or delusions and hallucinations.  Delusions are false beliefs that significantly hinder a person's ability to function.  Hallucinations are false perceptions. They can be visual (seeing things that aren't there), auditory (hearing), olfactory (smelling), tactile (feeling sensations on your skin that aren't really there, such as the feeling of bugs crawling on you), or taste.
  15. 15.  Brief Psychotic Disorder  Lasts between 1 day and 1 month  Delusional Disorder  Non-bizarre delusions  Schizoaffective Disorder  Dual diagnosis of Schizophrenia and an Affective (Mood) Disorder  Schizophrenia  Hallucination, Delusions, Disorganized Behavior or Speech  Schizophrenoform  Temporary diagnosis of Schizophrenia  Shared Psychotic Disorder  delusions which are similar in content to those of an individual who already has an established delusion
  16. 16.  How can you know if someone that you work with or know has a psychiatric diagnosis?
  17. 17.  What might be some of the challenges in determining if an individual with a developmental disability has a psychiatric diagnosis?
  18. 18.  How can we determine if odd behaviors (aggressive, repetitive, non-sensical communication, SIB, etc.) are a result of the individuals developmental disability or an additional psychiatric diagnosis?