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Psychology’s roots online

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Psychology’s roots online

  1. 1. Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas,and CriticalThinking Tools*Be sure to read the notes below the slides inaddition to the material on the slides
  2. 2. Chapter ObjectivesAfter covering this chapter, you should be able to: Identify 4 big ideas that run throughout psychology. Describe psychology’s current perspectives, and identify some ofits subfields. Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and naturalisticobservation, and explain the importance of random sampling. Describe positive and negative correlations, and explain howcorrelational measures can aid the process of prediction but notprovide evidence of cause-effect relationships. Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause andeffect, focusing on the characteristics of experimentation thatmake this possible
  3. 3. Psychology’s Roots Wilhelm Wundt – 1879 Psychology: the scientific study of behaviorand mental processes Behavior Mental Processes Psychology’s sub-fields
  4. 4. Critical Thinking The Case of Andrea Yates Read the case below and try to explain Andrea’sbehavior using as many perspectives as possibleon the previous slide. Why did she murder her children?
  5. 5. Four Big Ideas in Psychology Critical Thinking Behavior is a biopsychosocial event We operate with a two-track mind (dualprocessing) Psychology explores human strengths as wellas challenges
  6. 6. Review A newspaper article describes how a “curefor cancer has been found.” A critical thinkerprobably willa. dismiss the article as untrue.b. accept the information as a wonderful breakthrough.c. question the article, evaluate the evidence, and assessthe conclusions.d. question the article but quickly accept it as true if theauthor has an excellent reputation.
  7. 7. Why do Psychology? 2 common flaws in intuitive thinking Hindsight bias Overconfidence
  8. 8. How do Psychologists Ask & AnswerQuestions? Scientific method Theory Hypothesis Operational definitions Replication
  9. 9. How do Psychologists Ask & AnswerQuestions? Description Case study The survey Wording Random sampling Naturalistic observation
  10. 10. How do Psychologists Ask & AnswerQuestions? Correlation Correlation coefficient CORRELATION DOES NOT PROVECAUSATION Illusory correlations
  11. 11. Direction of correlationsPositive correlationsNegative correlations
  12. 12. ScatterplotsCorrelations can be represented byscatterplots.
  13. 13. Your turnWhat kind ofcorrelation isthis?1. Positive2. Negative3. No correlation
  14. 14. Name the Correlation
  15. 15. How do Psychologists Ask & AnswerQuestions? Experimentation Variable Random assignment Experimental group Control group Double-blind procedure (eliminating bias) Placebo effect Independent variable Dependent variable
  16. 16. Name the independent and dependentvariables A researcher was interested in the effects of rewardon intrinsic motivation. Some children were told thatthey would be given a special award for drawingwith magic markers (an activity they alreadyenjoyed). Other children were simply asked to drawwith the magic markers. One week later, thechildren were unobtrusively observed for how muchtime they spent drawing with the markers. Thechildren who expected and received a reward fordrawing with the markers were less likely to drawwith them later.
  17. 17. Review Descriptive and correlational studiesdescribe behavior, detect relationships, andpredict behavior. But in order to begin toexplain behavior, psychologists usea. naturalistic observations.b. experiments.c. surveys.d. case studies.
  18. 18. Chapter ObjectivesAfter covering this chapter, you should be able to: Identify 4 big ideas that run throughout psychology. Describe psychology’s current perspectives, and identify some ofits subfields. Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and naturalisticobservation, and explain the importance of random sampling. Describe positive and negative correlations, and explain howcorrelational measures can aid the process of prediction but notprovide evidence of cause-effect relationships. Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause andeffect, focusing on the characteristics of experimentation thatmake this possible

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