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Introduction of Treaty of Waitangi for Migrants

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Nzis Sp Treaty

  2. 2. THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TE TIRITI O WAITANGI A GREETING FOR NEW BEGINNINGS The New Zealand Immigration Service, on behalf of the New Zealand Government, would like to welcome you to Aotearoa New Zealand. We hope you will enjoy sharing in our strong and unique cultural history. May we learn from each other and grow together to build a greater nation. Welcome, welcome, welcome! A PROVERB FOR NEW BEGINNINGS HE MIHIMIHI SET THE OVERGROWN BUSH - - - - 01 Nau mai e rea, e nga mana, e nga tini mata waka kua - mai nei ki te whenua e hora nei te whariki mou a - - ALIGHT, AND THE NEW FLAX u Aotearoa New Zealand. Te - nei Te Ratonga Manene o S H O O T S W I L L S P R I N G U P. Aotearoa e whakatau ana i a koutou i raro i te korowai - o te Karauna, me kı, piki mai, nau mai, whakatau mai ra. - reira, whaia kia mau ki nga morimoritanga kua - - HE WHAKATAUAKI No - Aotearoa New Zealand waihotia ake hei huarahi mo - - - TU N G I A T E U R U R U A K I A kei tua atu o apopo. Whakatau mai ra! Tukuna kia rere! TUPU WHAKARITORITO TE TUPU O TE HARAKEKE. Opposite: An extract of signatures from the Treaty of Waitangi.
  3. 3. WHAT IS THE TREATY OF WAITANGI? WHO ARE MAORI? The Treaty of Waitangi is an agreement between Maori are a tribal people indigenous to Aotearoa New Maori hapu (subtribes of Maori people) and the Zealand and make up approximately 16% of the total New Zealand Government. population. Maori societal structure is composed of basically The Treaty of Waitangi: three levels: the individual whanau or family, which is • was signed on the 6th of February 1840 at Waitangi connected to the hapu or subtribe, which in turn is • was signed by Maori chiefs and representatives connected to the iwi or main tribe and then back to of the British Crown the ancestral waka or canoe. • is a starting place of discussion for Maori Hapu and iwi connection is important to Maori as it: and Government • safeguards the development of Maori culture, • is a source of Maori identity resources and way of life • confirms family relationships • maintains Maori as the ancestral people of • connects Maori with the land Aotearoa (the Maori name for New Zealand). • is the traditional base of decision-making 02 • is the heart of Maori culture. Waka Ancestral Canoe The first Government Settlement on the Iwi Waitemata River, Tribe 1st October 1840. [Unsigned, Dr John Johnson 1794-1848]. Hapu Hapu Hapu Subtribe Subtribe Subtribe Whanau Whanau Whanau Family Family Family
  4. 4. THE TREATY OF WAITANGI AND “BUT THEN WE MUST NOT IMMIGRATION IN 1840 F O R G E T T H A T T H E TR E A T Y The Treaty is recognised as the first immigration agreement between Maori and Pakeha (European IS NOT JUST A BILL OF RIGHTS settlers). The Treaty originally allowed settlers to FOR MAORI. IT IS A BILL OF emigrate peacefully to New Zealand under the RIGHTS FOR PAKEHA TOO. British flag. The Treaty was important, firstly, to control the I T I S T H E TR E A T Y T H A T G I V E S thousands of future emigrants to Aotearoa New PAKEHA THE RIGHT TO BE HERE. Zealand, and secondly, to protect the rights of Maori people. The benefits to both parties were clear – W I T H O U T T H E TR E A T Y, settlement rights for Pakeha and the natural right of THERE WOULD BE NO LAWFUL the tangata whenua (the people of the land) would be respected and affirmed. AUTHORITY FOR THE PAKEHA PRESENCE IN THIS PART 03 WHAT DOES THE TREATY SAY? OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC.” The Treaty of Waitangi was written in Maori and English. CHIEF JUDGE EDDIE DURIE. The Government has established three main points: • Article One Government makes law. • Article Two Maori resources and way of life are protected. • Article Three The basic rights of all people within Aotearoa New Zealand are protected. However, the English and Maori text are not an exact translation of each other. Also, it was only the Maori version of the Treaty that was signed by most Maori signatories.
  5. 5. Article The Third THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TEXT In consideration thereof Her Majesty, the Queen of England, extends to the Natives of New Zealand Her Royal protection and imparts to them THE OFFICIAL ENGLISH VERSION all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Preamble to the Treaty of Waitangi Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, of Great Britain and Ireland regarding with Her Royal favour the Native Chiefs and Tribes in New Zealand, and anxious to protect their just rights and property, and W. Hobson to secure to them the enjoyment of peace and good order, has deemed Consul and Lieutenant-Governor it necessary in consequence of the great number of Her Majesty’s Now, therefore, we the Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes subjects who have already settled in New Zealand, and the rapid extension of New Zealand, being assembled in congress at Victoria, in Waitangi, of emigration both from Europe and Australia which is still in progress, and we the separate and Independent Chiefs of New Zealand, claiming to constitute and appoint a functionary properly authorised to treat with authority over the Tribes and territories which are specified after our the Aborigines of New Zealand for the recognition of Her Majesty’s respective names, having being made fully to understand the provisions sovereign authority over the whole or any part of those islands. of the foregoing Treaty, accept and enter into the same in the full spirit Her Majesty, therefore, being desirous to establish a settled form and meaning thereof; in witness of which we have attached our signatures of Civil Government with a view to avert the evil consequences which or marks at the places and the dates respectively specified. must result from the absence of the necessary laws and institutions, alike to the native population and to Her subjects, has been graciously pleased to empower and authorise me, William Hobson, a captain in Her Majesty’s Royal Navy, Consul and Lieutenant-Governor of such parts of New Zealand as may be or hereafter shall be ceded to Her Majesty, 04 to invite the Confederate and Independent Chiefs of New Zealand to concur in the following Articles and Conditions; Article The First The Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand, and the separate and Independent Chiefs who have not become members of the Confederation, cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England, absolutely and without reservation, all the rights and powers of sovereignty which the said Confederation or Individual Chiefs respectively exercise or possess, or may be supposed to exercise or possess over their respective territories as the sole Sovereigns thereof. Article The Second Her Majesty, the Queen of England, confirms and guarantees to the Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand, and to the respective families and individuals thereof the full, exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, and other properties which they may collectively or individually possess, so long as it is their wish and desire to retain the same in their possession; but the Chiefs of the United Tribes and the Individual Chiefs yield to Her Majesty the exclusive right of pre-emption over such lands as the proprietors thereof may be disposed to alienate, at such prices as may be agreed upon between the respective proprietors and persons appointed by Her Majesty to treat with them in that behalf.
  6. 6. THE MAORI VERSION TRANSLATION Preamble to the Treaty of Waitangi Ko Wikitoria, te Kuini o Ingarangi i tana mahara atawhai ki nga Rangatira T R A N S L AT I O N O F T H E M A O R I V E R S I O N me nga Hapu, o Nu Tirani, i tana hiahia, hoki kia tohungia ki a ratou ( T H E A R T I C L E S O N LY ) , rangatiratanga, me to ratou whenua, a kia mau tonu hoki te Rongo ki B Y P R O F E S S O R S I R H U G H K AW H A R U a ratou me te ata noho hoki kau wakaaro ia he mea tike kia tukua mai tetahi Rangatira hei kai wakarite ki nga tangata Maori o Nu Tirini. Kia The First wakaaetia e nga Rangatira Maori te Kawanatanga o te Kuini ki nga wahi The Chiefs of the Confederation and all the Chiefs who have not joined katoa o te wenua hei me nga motu. Na te mea hoki he tokomaha ke nga that Confederation give absolutely to the Queen of England for ever the tangata o tona iwi kua noho ki tenei wenua, a e mai nei. complete government over their land. Na, ko te Kuini e hiahia ana kia wakaritea te Kawanatanga, kia kaua The Second ai nga kino e puta mai ki te tangata Maori ki te Pakeha e noho enoho The Queen of England agrees to protect the Chiefs, the Subtribes and ture kore ana. all the people of New Zealand in the unqualified exercise of their Na, kau pai te Kuini kia tukua a hau, a Wiremu Hopihona, he Kapitana chieftainship over their lands, villages and all their treasures. But on the i te Roiara Nawi, hei Kawana mo nga wahi katoa o Nu Tirini, e tukua other hand, the Chiefs of the Confederation and all the Chiefs will sell aianei amua atu ki te Kuini e mea atu ana ia ki nga Rangatira o te land to the Queen at a price agreed to by the person owning it and by Wakaminenga o nga Hapu o Nu Tirini me era Rangatira atu enei ture ka the person buying it (the latter being) appointed by the Queen as her korerotia nei. purchase agent. Ko Te Tuatahi The Third Ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga, me nga Rangatira katoa hoki, kihai For this agreed arrangement therefore, concerning the Government i uru ki taua Wakaminenga, ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarangi ake of the Queen, the Queen of England will protect all the ordinary people tonu atu te Kawanatanga katoa o ratou wenua. of New Zealand (ie, the Maori) and will give them the same rights 05 Ko Te Tuarua and duties of citizenship as the people of England. Ko te Kuini o Ingarangi ka wakarite ka wakaae ki nga Rangatira, ki nga Hapu, ki nga tangata katoa o Nu Tirini, te tino Rangatiratanga o o ratou wenua o ratou kainga me o ratou taonga katoa. Otiia ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga me nga Rangatira katoa atu, ka tuku ki te Kuini te hokonga o era wahi wenua e pai ai te tangata nona te wenua, ki te ritenga o te utu e wakaritea ai e ratou ko te kai hoko e meatia nei e te Kuini hei kai hoko mona. A reconstruction of the signing of the Ko Te Tuatoru Treaty at Waitangi Hei wakaritenga mai hoki mo te wakaaetanga ki te Kawanatanga o te in the Bay of Islands. Kuini. Ka tiakina e te Kuini o Ingarangi nga tangata Maori katoa o Nu Leonard C. Mitchell, Meeting house at Tirani. Ka tukua ki a ratou nga tikanga katoa rite tahi ki ana mea ki nga 1901-1971. Whakarewarewa, Rotorua. tangata o Ingarangi. W. Hobson Consul and Lieutenant-Governor Na ko matou, ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga o nga Hapu o Nu Tirani, ka huihui nei ki Waitangi. Ko matou hoki ko nga Rangatira o Nu Tirani, ka kite nei i te ritenga o eni kupa, ka tangohia, ka wakaaetia katoatia e matou. Koia ka tohungia ai o matou ingoa o matou tohu. Ka meatia tenei ki Waitangi, i te ono o nga ra o Pepuere, i te tau kotahi mano, e waru rau, e wha tekau, o to tatou Ariki.
  7. 7. THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TODAY THE TREATY OF WAITANGI AND The New Zealand Government has been responsible IMMIGRATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY for all immigration matters from 1852 until today. The New Zealand Immigration Service recognises It recognises that the Treaty is a ‘living’ agreement that the Treaty of Waitangi is the “founding document which must grow and develop with time. Therefore, of our nation”. This means that the New Zealand it has formed ‘principles’ to aid and help in furthering Immigration Service will consult with Maori on the understanding of the Treaty. This means that when immigration matters. the Government deals with Maori, they must act with The New Zealand Immigration Service understands regard to the following principles: the principle of also the social and economic benefits that you will government (the Government has the right to govern bring to our country. These benefits will be shared and to make laws); the principle of self-management with the rest of Aotearoa New Zealand. (iwi Maori have the right to organise themselves, and, When you come to live in Aotearoa New Zealand, under the law to control the resources they own); it will be useful for you to know about the Treaty, the principle of equality (all New Zealanders are equal as it will help you to: under the law); the principle of reasonable co-operation 06 • understand the nature of society within Aotearoa (the Crown must act reasonably and in good faith New Zealand towards its Treaty partner); the principle of redress • realise the significance of the Treaty within every (the Crown is responsible for providing effective aspect of life in Aotearoa New Zealand. processes for the resolution of grievances in the expectation that reconciliation can occur). Maori political demonstration has kept the Treaty debate alive. Although it has been a struggle for the “ TO D A Y W E A R E S T R O N G E N O U G H political demonstrators, and the following generation, AND HONEST ENOUGH TO LEARN we are now beginning to see the rewards within “ A T HA MEO TSH EN ,OT HT H E ’L A S T 1 5 0 S E L S O R F ERE S mainstream society. And even though the gap between NE A R S N A N D OTR E A D MT R ETSH A T G H E Y OTHI, G M O DIS IT SIN T Maori and the Government in relation to the Treaty continues, it is through the valid efforts of many people T H A A T Y AVA S G E EN IILM P E R F E C T L Y TR E N H H I N B A N L C H I L D . that the dialogue has truly begun. WO BWE R V E S O IL U O K Y T H AT I T A S E S ERE D. LCOK UPON I T W A S A ALS Y A C YF I N DP R O M I S E . ” E EG TO OF A D O C T O R W E C O U L D TQR EU N E L I ”A B E T H I I U E S T. Z – MOTHER OF FOUR, XIAO CHANG. ( TR E A T Y O F W A I T A N G I C E L E B R A T I O N S , 1 9 9 0 )
  8. 8. THE TREATY AND EMPLOYMENT An alternative to mainstream education is ‘immersion’. This uses the Maori language as the primary source When looking for work in mainstream employment, of communication, and is available through Kohanga you may (in addition to relevant experience and Reo (similar to Kindergarten, but taught in Maori qualifications) also find knowledge of the Treaty of language and immersed in Maori culture), Kura Waitangi useful when: Kaupapa (Maori secondary school), and Whare • working alongside Maori Wananga (tertiary education in Maori). • working on issues that affect Maori This option is favoured by over 10% of the current • Maori protocol is recognised within your workplace population within Aotearoa New Zealand today. • Maori health, economics and politics are points for discussion. In most cases, showing some regard for the Treaty relationship in employment is encouraged. THE TREATY AND EDUCATION 07 Te reo Maori (the Maori language) is an important aspect of the education system and society within Aotearoa New Zealand. Although English is primarily spoken, it is highly likely your children will be exposed to Maori language, culture and customs while attending schools in Aotearoa New Zealand. However, the levels of awareness regarding Maori Kaiako me nga tamariki culture will vary from place to place, so it is important (teacher and children) from a local Kohanga Reo that you anticipate Maori language, culture, and its (Maori preschool). values in the education system.
  9. 9. WHAT CAN I DO TO LEARN MORE? OTHER TREATY AND MAORI RESOURCES To help you settle into Aotearoa New Zealand, it would • New Zealand/Maori history be good for you to be familiar with the following: After arrival at Aotearoa New Zealand, we recommend a visit to Te Papa Tongarewa – • the Maori language Our Place, Wellington, New Zealand • Maori protocol (Wellington’s living museum,, • Maori culture and customs to view Maori history and culture. • The Treaty and partnership. • Maori claims To find out more you can contact the following Contact The Waitangi Tribunal, Information Service, organisations, or visit the websites listed. 2nd Floor, 110 Featherston Street, Wellington. Telephone: 04 499 3666. The New Zealand Immigration Service • Maori and Government National Office, Director Maori Strategy, Contact Te Puni Kokiri PO Box 3705, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand. (Ministry of Maori Development, Telephone: 04 915 4222. for the latest information on Maori issues, 08 The Waitangi Tribunal Information Service or visit their head office at: 2nd Floor, 110 Featherston Street, Wellington, Te Puni Kokiri House, 143 Lambton Quay, Aotearoa New Zealand. PO Box 3943, Wellington. Telephone: 04 499 3666. Telephone: 04 922 6000. The following websites are worth visiting if you require further information on the Treaty of Waitangi and the past and present history of Aotearoa New Zealand:
  10. 10. GLOSSARY OF MAORI WORDS GLOSSARY OF MAORI NAMES Hapu- subtribe Akaroa Long harbour Harakeke flax bush Aotearoa Long white cloud (Maori name for He a, or one (pending sentence structure), New Zealand) or some (plural) Hokianga Returning Hongi to press noses, a formal greeting - Kaikoura To eat crayfish Iwi tribal people - - Kaitaia (Kaitataia) Food thrown about Kaiako teacher Kapiti Crevice, joining Kaupapa subject, topic Kawhia (Kaawhiawhi) To perform a ceremony Kia let, so that, until = - Kohanga Reo Maori preschool pending sentence structure Kupe The great Polynesian navigator who - Ko hanga learning nest discovered Aotearoa - Ko kiri to charge forward Kura Kaupapa Maori secondary school Kura school, college Mana Strength, prestige, power Marae a Maori communal facility Manawatu - Heart stood still (generally consisting of a meeting house, Manukau Wading bird dining hall, kitchen, and ablution area) - Maori Indigenous person of Aotearoa Me and - Motungarara Insect or lizard island - - Mihimihi greeting Opotiki The place of Potiki Nga- the (plural) Otago Correctly: Otakou – O of the place of red earth or ochre Papa formally recognised as ‘Papatuanuku’ – - Otaki To stick in 09 earth mother (the place where the staff was stuck Puni camp in the ground) Rangatira high-ranking person Paihia Good here (partial transliteration) Reo language - Pa keha- White person Tamariki children Rangitoto Blood sky - Tangata whenua (local) people of the land Rotorua (The) second lake Te the (singular) Ruapuke Two hills Tiriti treaty - Tamaki Battle Tongarewa transluscent greenstone, pounamu Tauranga Sheltered anchorage - Tungia to set alight Te Herenga Waka The hitching post of the canoes Tupu develop Te Kaha The rope (or boundary line) Ururua overgrown bush Te Papa Tongarewa The Treasure Box Waka canoe, vessel (Our Place, The National Museum) - Wananga university - Te Puni Kokiri The group moving forward Whakamutunga finish (the Ministry of Maori Development) Whakataukı- proverb Tokomaru An ancestral canoe, or a staff shelter Whakaritorito heart of the plant Waiapu Swallowing water - Whanau family Waikanae Water, mullet (the glistening of the mullet) Whare house Waikato Flowing water Waimate Stagnant water Waitangi Weeping water Wanganui (properly: Whanganui) Big harbour Whakarewarewa To prepare for war - Whakata ne To act like a man
  11. 11. Photography Adrian Heke Photographer Earp-Jones Originals Wreford Hann Photography Ltd Archives New Zealand Acknowledgements Text: Sarah Reo and Jason Fox © Mataaho Ltd Design and Layout: Scenario Communications Limited – Disclaimer The information included in this was drawn from a number of sources and was current at the time of print. Accordingly, NZIS is not able to guarantee the accuracy of that information. Copyright Sarah Reo and Jason Fox © Mataaho Ltd 2001 Text may be reproduced without permission but acknowledgement of source is required. Photographs remain copyright of the photographers. Published by the New Zealand Immigration Service – a service of the Department of Labour. ISBN 0-477-03680-5 NZIS 2007