07 THE TREATY OF
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TREATY
OF WAITANGI FOR MIGRANTS
A GREETING FOR NEW BEGINNINGS 01
WHAT IS THE TREATY OF WAITANGI? 02
WHO ARE MAORI? 02
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI AND
IMMIGRATION IN 1840 03
WHAT DOES THE TREATY SAY? 03
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TEXT 04
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TODAY 06
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI AND IMMIGRATION
IN THE 21ST CENTURY 06
THE TREATY AND EMPLOYMENT 07
THE TREATY AND EDUCATION 07
WHAT CAN I DO TO LEARN MORE? 08
OTHER TREATY OF WAITANGI AND
MAORI RESOURCES 08
GLOSSARY OF MAORI WORDS 09
GLOSSARY OF MAORI NAMES 09
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI
TE TIRITI O WAITANGI
A GREETING FOR NEW BEGINNINGS
The New Zealand Immigration Service, on behalf of
the New Zealand Government, would like to welcome
you to Aotearoa New Zealand. We hope you will enjoy
sharing in our strong and unique cultural history.
May we learn from each other and grow together to
build a greater nation. Welcome, welcome, welcome!
A PROVERB FOR NEW BEGINNINGS
HE MIHIMIHI SET THE OVERGROWN BUSH
- - - - 01
Nau mai e rea, e nga mana, e nga tini mata waka kua
- mai nei ki te whenua e hora nei te whariki mou a
ALIGHT, AND THE NEW FLAX
Aotearoa New Zealand. Te - nei Te Ratonga Manene o S H O O T S W I L L S P R I N G U P.
Aotearoa e whakatau ana i a koutou i raro i te korowai
o te Karauna, me kı, piki mai, nau mai, whakatau mai ra.
- reira, whaia kia mau ki nga morimoritanga kua
- Aotearoa New Zealand
waihotia ake hei huarahi mo
- - -
TU N G I A T E U R U R U A K I A
kei tua atu o apopo. Whakatau mai ra! Tukuna kia rere!
TUPU WHAKARITORITO TE
TUPU O TE HARAKEKE.
Opposite: An extract of
signatures from the Treaty
WHAT IS THE TREATY OF WAITANGI? WHO ARE MAORI?
The Treaty of Waitangi is an agreement between Maori are a tribal people indigenous to Aotearoa New
Maori hapu (subtribes of Maori people) and the Zealand and make up approximately 16% of the total
New Zealand Government. population.
Maori societal structure is composed of basically
The Treaty of Waitangi:
three levels: the individual whanau or family, which is
• was signed on the 6th of February 1840 at Waitangi connected to the hapu or subtribe, which in turn is
• was signed by Maori chiefs and representatives connected to the iwi or main tribe and then back to
of the British Crown the ancestral waka or canoe.
• is a starting place of discussion for Maori
Hapu and iwi connection is important to Maori as it:
• safeguards the development of Maori culture, • is a source of Maori identity
resources and way of life • confirms family relationships
• maintains Maori as the ancestral people of • connects Maori with the land
Aotearoa (the Maori name for New Zealand). • is the traditional base of decision-making
02 • is the heart of Maori culture.
The first Government
Settlement on the
1st October 1840.
Dr John Johnson
Hapu Hapu Hapu
Subtribe Subtribe Subtribe
Whanau Whanau Whanau
Family Family Family
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI AND “BUT THEN WE MUST NOT
IMMIGRATION IN 1840
F O R G E T T H A T T H E TR E A T Y
The Treaty is recognised as the first immigration
agreement between Maori and Pakeha (European
IS NOT JUST A BILL OF RIGHTS
settlers). The Treaty originally allowed settlers to FOR MAORI. IT IS A BILL OF
emigrate peacefully to New Zealand under the
RIGHTS FOR PAKEHA TOO.
The Treaty was important, firstly, to control the I T I S T H E TR E A T Y T H A T G I V E S
thousands of future emigrants to Aotearoa New
PAKEHA THE RIGHT TO BE HERE.
Zealand, and secondly, to protect the rights of Maori
people. The benefits to both parties were clear – W I T H O U T T H E TR E A T Y,
settlement rights for Pakeha and the natural right of THERE WOULD BE NO LAWFUL
the tangata whenua (the people of the land) would be
respected and affirmed. AUTHORITY FOR THE PAKEHA
PRESENCE IN THIS PART
WHAT DOES THE TREATY SAY? OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC.”
The Treaty of Waitangi was written in Maori and English. CHIEF JUDGE EDDIE DURIE.
The Government has established three main points:
• Article One
Government makes law.
• Article Two
Maori resources and way of life are protected.
• Article Three
The basic rights of all people within Aotearoa
New Zealand are protected.
However, the English and Maori text are not an exact
translation of each other. Also, it was only the Maori
version of the Treaty that was signed by most Maori
Article The Third
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TEXT In consideration thereof Her Majesty, the Queen of England, extends to
the Natives of New Zealand Her Royal protection and imparts to them
THE OFFICIAL ENGLISH VERSION all the rights and privileges of British subjects.
Preamble to the Treaty of Waitangi
Her Majesty Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, of Great Britain and
Ireland regarding with Her Royal favour the Native Chiefs and Tribes in
New Zealand, and anxious to protect their just rights and property, and W. Hobson
to secure to them the enjoyment of peace and good order, has deemed Consul and Lieutenant-Governor
it necessary in consequence of the great number of Her Majesty’s
Now, therefore, we the Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes
subjects who have already settled in New Zealand, and the rapid extension
of New Zealand, being assembled in congress at Victoria, in Waitangi,
of emigration both from Europe and Australia which is still in progress,
and we the separate and Independent Chiefs of New Zealand, claiming
to constitute and appoint a functionary properly authorised to treat with
authority over the Tribes and territories which are specified after our
the Aborigines of New Zealand for the recognition of Her Majesty’s
respective names, having being made fully to understand the provisions
sovereign authority over the whole or any part of those islands.
of the foregoing Treaty, accept and enter into the same in the full spirit
Her Majesty, therefore, being desirous to establish a settled form
and meaning thereof; in witness of which we have attached our signatures
of Civil Government with a view to avert the evil consequences which
or marks at the places and the dates respectively specified.
must result from the absence of the necessary laws and institutions,
alike to the native population and to Her subjects, has been graciously
pleased to empower and authorise me, William Hobson, a captain in
Her Majesty’s Royal Navy, Consul and Lieutenant-Governor of such parts
of New Zealand as may be or hereafter shall be ceded to Her Majesty,
04 to invite the Confederate and Independent Chiefs of New Zealand
to concur in the following Articles and Conditions;
Article The First
The Chiefs of the Confederation of the United Tribes of New Zealand,
and the separate and Independent Chiefs who have not become members
of the Confederation, cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England,
absolutely and without reservation, all the rights and powers of
sovereignty which the said Confederation or Individual Chiefs respectively
exercise or possess, or may be supposed to exercise or possess over
their respective territories as the sole Sovereigns thereof.
Article The Second
Her Majesty, the Queen of England, confirms and guarantees to the
Chiefs and Tribes of New Zealand, and to the respective families and
individuals thereof the full, exclusive and undisturbed possession of
their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, and other properties which
they may collectively or individually possess, so long as it is their wish
and desire to retain the same in their possession; but the Chiefs of the
United Tribes and the Individual Chiefs yield to Her Majesty the exclusive
right of pre-emption over such lands as the proprietors thereof may
be disposed to alienate, at such prices as may be agreed upon between
the respective proprietors and persons appointed by Her Majesty to treat
with them in that behalf.
THE MAORI VERSION TRANSLATION
Preamble to the Treaty of Waitangi
Ko Wikitoria, te Kuini o Ingarangi i tana mahara atawhai ki nga Rangatira T R A N S L AT I O N O F T H E M A O R I V E R S I O N
me nga Hapu, o Nu Tirani, i tana hiahia, hoki kia tohungia ki a ratou ( T H E A R T I C L E S O N LY ) ,
rangatiratanga, me to ratou whenua, a kia mau tonu hoki te Rongo ki B Y P R O F E S S O R S I R H U G H K AW H A R U
a ratou me te ata noho hoki kau wakaaro ia he mea tike kia tukua mai
tetahi Rangatira hei kai wakarite ki nga tangata Maori o Nu Tirini. Kia The First
wakaaetia e nga Rangatira Maori te Kawanatanga o te Kuini ki nga wahi The Chiefs of the Confederation and all the Chiefs who have not joined
katoa o te wenua hei me nga motu. Na te mea hoki he tokomaha ke nga that Confederation give absolutely to the Queen of England for ever the
tangata o tona iwi kua noho ki tenei wenua, a e mai nei. complete government over their land.
Na, ko te Kuini e hiahia ana kia wakaritea te Kawanatanga, kia kaua The Second
ai nga kino e puta mai ki te tangata Maori ki te Pakeha e noho enoho The Queen of England agrees to protect the Chiefs, the Subtribes and
ture kore ana. all the people of New Zealand in the unqualified exercise of their
Na, kau pai te Kuini kia tukua a hau, a Wiremu Hopihona, he Kapitana chieftainship over their lands, villages and all their treasures. But on the
i te Roiara Nawi, hei Kawana mo nga wahi katoa o Nu Tirini, e tukua other hand, the Chiefs of the Confederation and all the Chiefs will sell
aianei amua atu ki te Kuini e mea atu ana ia ki nga Rangatira o te land to the Queen at a price agreed to by the person owning it and by
Wakaminenga o nga Hapu o Nu Tirini me era Rangatira atu enei ture ka the person buying it (the latter being) appointed by the Queen as her
korerotia nei. purchase agent.
Ko Te Tuatahi The Third
Ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga, me nga Rangatira katoa hoki, kihai For this agreed arrangement therefore, concerning the Government
i uru ki taua Wakaminenga, ka tuku rawa atu ki te Kuini o Ingarangi ake of the Queen, the Queen of England will protect all the ordinary people
tonu atu te Kawanatanga katoa o ratou wenua. of New Zealand (ie, the Maori) and will give them the same rights 05
Ko Te Tuarua and duties of citizenship as the people of England.
Ko te Kuini o Ingarangi ka wakarite ka wakaae ki nga Rangatira, ki nga
Hapu, ki nga tangata katoa o Nu Tirini, te tino Rangatiratanga o o ratou
wenua o ratou kainga me o ratou taonga katoa. Otiia ko nga Rangatira
o te Wakaminenga me nga Rangatira katoa atu, ka tuku ki te Kuini te
hokonga o era wahi wenua e pai ai te tangata nona te wenua, ki te
ritenga o te utu e wakaritea ai e ratou ko te kai hoko e meatia nei e te
Kuini hei kai hoko mona. A reconstruction
of the signing of the
Ko Te Tuatoru
Treaty at Waitangi
Hei wakaritenga mai hoki mo te wakaaetanga ki te Kawanatanga o te
in the Bay of Islands.
Kuini. Ka tiakina e te Kuini o Ingarangi nga tangata Maori katoa o Nu
Leonard C. Mitchell, Meeting house at
Tirani. Ka tukua ki a ratou nga tikanga katoa rite tahi ki ana mea ki nga
1901-1971. Whakarewarewa, Rotorua.
tangata o Ingarangi.
Consul and Lieutenant-Governor
Na ko matou, ko nga Rangatira o te Wakaminenga o nga Hapu o Nu
Tirani, ka huihui nei ki Waitangi. Ko matou hoki ko nga Rangatira o Nu
Tirani, ka kite nei i te ritenga o eni kupa, ka tangohia, ka wakaaetia
katoatia e matou. Koia ka tohungia ai o matou ingoa o matou tohu.
Ka meatia tenei ki Waitangi, i te ono o nga ra o Pepuere, i te tau kotahi
mano, e waru rau, e wha tekau, o to tatou Ariki.
THE TREATY OF WAITANGI TODAY THE TREATY OF WAITANGI AND
The New Zealand Government has been responsible
IMMIGRATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY
for all immigration matters from 1852 until today. The New Zealand Immigration Service recognises
It recognises that the Treaty is a ‘living’ agreement that the Treaty of Waitangi is the “founding document
which must grow and develop with time. Therefore, of our nation”. This means that the New Zealand
it has formed ‘principles’ to aid and help in furthering Immigration Service will consult with Maori on
the understanding of the Treaty. This means that when immigration matters.
the Government deals with Maori, they must act with The New Zealand Immigration Service understands
regard to the following principles: the principle of also the social and economic benefits that you will
government (the Government has the right to govern bring to our country. These benefits will be shared
and to make laws); the principle of self-management with the rest of Aotearoa New Zealand.
(iwi Maori have the right to organise themselves, and, When you come to live in Aotearoa New Zealand,
under the law to control the resources they own); it will be useful for you to know about the Treaty,
the principle of equality (all New Zealanders are equal as it will help you to:
under the law); the principle of reasonable co-operation
06 • understand the nature of society within Aotearoa
(the Crown must act reasonably and in good faith
towards its Treaty partner); the principle of redress
• realise the significance of the Treaty within every
(the Crown is responsible for providing effective
aspect of life in Aotearoa New Zealand.
processes for the resolution of grievances in the
expectation that reconciliation can occur).
Maori political demonstration has kept the Treaty
debate alive. Although it has been a struggle for the
“ TO D A Y W E A R E S T R O N G E N O U G H
political demonstrators, and the following generation, AND HONEST ENOUGH TO LEARN
we are now beginning to see the rewards within “ A T HA MEO TSH EN ,OT HT H E ’L A S T 1 5 0
S E L S O R F ERE S
mainstream society. And even though the gap between NE A R S N A N D OTR E A D MT R ETSH A T G H E
Y OTHI, G M O DIS IT SIN T
Maori and the Government in relation to the Treaty
continues, it is through the valid efforts of many people T H A A T Y AVA S G E EN IILM P E R F E C T L Y
TR E N H H I N B A N L C H I L D .
that the dialogue has truly begun. WO BWE R V E S O IL U O K Y T H AT I T A S
E S ERE D. LCOK UPON
I T W A S A ALS Y A C YF I N DP R O M I S E . ”
E EG TO OF A
D O C T O R W E C O U L D TQR EU N E L I ”A B E T H I I
S T. Z
– MOTHER OF FOUR, XIAO CHANG.
( TR E A T Y O F W A I T A N G I C E L E B R A T I O N S , 1 9 9 0 )
THE TREATY AND EMPLOYMENT An alternative to mainstream education is ‘immersion’.
This uses the Maori language as the primary source
When looking for work in mainstream employment, of communication, and is available through Kohanga
you may (in addition to relevant experience and Reo (similar to Kindergarten, but taught in Maori
qualifications) also find knowledge of the Treaty of language and immersed in Maori culture), Kura
Waitangi useful when: Kaupapa (Maori secondary school), and Whare
• working alongside Maori Wananga (tertiary education in Maori).
• working on issues that affect Maori This option is favoured by over 10% of the current
• Maori protocol is recognised within your workplace population within Aotearoa New Zealand today.
• Maori health, economics and politics are points for
In most cases, showing some regard for the Treaty
relationship in employment is encouraged.
THE TREATY AND EDUCATION 07
Te reo Maori (the Maori language) is an important
aspect of the education system and society within
Aotearoa New Zealand. Although English is primarily
spoken, it is highly likely your children will be
exposed to Maori language, culture and customs
while attending schools in Aotearoa New Zealand.
However, the levels of awareness regarding Maori Kaiako me nga tamariki
culture will vary from place to place, so it is important (teacher and children)
from a local Kohanga Reo
that you anticipate Maori language, culture, and its (Maori preschool).
values in the education system.
WHAT CAN I DO TO LEARN MORE? OTHER TREATY AND MAORI RESOURCES
To help you settle into Aotearoa New Zealand, it would • New Zealand/Maori history
be good for you to be familiar with the following: After arrival at Aotearoa New Zealand,
we recommend a visit to Te Papa Tongarewa –
• the Maori language
Our Place, Wellington, New Zealand
• Maori protocol
(Wellington’s living museum, www.tepapa.govt.nz),
• Maori culture and customs
to view Maori history and culture.
• The Treaty and partnership.
• Maori claims
To find out more you can contact the following Contact The Waitangi Tribunal, Information Service,
organisations, or visit the websites listed. 2nd Floor, 110 Featherston Street, Wellington.
Telephone: 04 499 3666.
The New Zealand Immigration Service
• Maori and Government
National Office, Director Maori Strategy,
Contact Te Puni Kokiri
PO Box 3705, Wellington, Aotearoa New Zealand.
(Ministry of Maori Development, www.tpk.govt.nz)
Telephone: 04 915 4222.
for the latest information on Maori issues,
08 The Waitangi Tribunal Information Service or visit their head office at:
2nd Floor, 110 Featherston Street, Wellington, Te Puni Kokiri House, 143 Lambton Quay,
Aotearoa New Zealand. PO Box 3943, Wellington.
Telephone: 04 499 3666. Telephone: 04 922 6000.
The following websites are worth visiting if you require
further information on the Treaty of Waitangi and the
past and present history of Aotearoa New Zealand:
GLOSSARY OF MAORI WORDS GLOSSARY OF MAORI NAMES
Hapu- subtribe Akaroa Long harbour
Harakeke flax bush Aotearoa Long white cloud (Maori name for
He a, or one (pending sentence structure), New Zealand)
or some (plural) Hokianga Returning
Hongi to press noses, a formal greeting -
Kaikoura To eat crayfish
Iwi tribal people - -
Kaitaia (Kaitataia) Food thrown about
Kaiako teacher Kapiti Crevice, joining
Kaupapa subject, topic Kawhia (Kaawhiawhi) To perform a ceremony
Kia let, so that, until = -
Kohanga Reo Maori preschool
pending sentence structure Kupe The great Polynesian navigator who
Ko hanga learning nest discovered Aotearoa
Ko kiri to charge forward Kura Kaupapa Maori secondary school
Kura school, college Mana Strength, prestige, power
Marae a Maori communal facility Manawatu - Heart stood still
(generally consisting of a meeting house, Manukau Wading bird
dining hall, kitchen, and ablution area) -
Maori Indigenous person of Aotearoa
Me and -
Motungarara Insect or lizard island
Mihimihi greeting Opotiki The place of Potiki
Nga- the (plural) Otago Correctly: Otakou –
O of the place of red earth or ochre
Papa formally recognised as ‘Papatuanuku’ –
Otaki To stick in
earth mother (the place where the staff was stuck
Puni camp in the ground)
Rangatira high-ranking person Paihia Good here (partial transliteration)
Reo language -
Pa keha- White person
Tamariki children Rangitoto Blood sky
Tangata whenua (local) people of the land Rotorua (The) second lake
Te the (singular) Ruapuke Two hills
Tiriti treaty -
Tongarewa transluscent greenstone, pounamu Tauranga Sheltered anchorage
Tungia to set alight Te Herenga Waka The hitching post of the canoes
Tupu develop Te Kaha The rope (or boundary line)
Ururua overgrown bush Te Papa Tongarewa The Treasure Box
Waka canoe, vessel (Our Place, The National Museum)
Wananga university -
Te Puni Kokiri The group moving forward
Whakamutunga finish (the Ministry of Maori Development)
Whakataukı- proverb Tokomaru An ancestral canoe, or a staff shelter
Whakaritorito heart of the plant Waiapu Swallowing water
Whanau family Waikanae Water, mullet (the glistening of the mullet)
Whare house Waikato Flowing water
Waimate Stagnant water
Waitangi Weeping water
Wanganui (properly: Whanganui) Big harbour
Whakarewarewa To prepare for war
Whakata ne To act like a man