Actual matanda and micajo

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Jornadas Cientificas presentation under the supervision of dr Companhia

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Actual matanda and micajo

  1. 1. 1IntroductionMany teaching professionals spend their entire careers in search of teaching excellence. This searchmay be even more important when students are underprepared adults. As teachers we help ourstudents understand pedagogical concepts and go beyond the knowledge level to higher levels ofthinking. We help them analyze and synthesize concepts thus creating new knowledge and solvingnew problems. So, too, as teachers, we need to recognize our challenge to go beyond knowledgeabout effective teaching. We need to apply these strategies, analyze what works, and take action tomodify or synthesize our effectiveness to help our students learn in a way that works for us asindividuals and teams of teachers. The learning community consists of both students and teachers.Students benefit from effective teaching and learning strategies inside and outside the classroom.This present work focuses on teaching strategies one can use in the classroom to foster effectivelearning. Our challenge as teachers is to help students learn. Identifying effective teachingstrategies, therefore, is our challenge as we both assess the effectiveness of our current teachingstyle and consider innovative ways to improve our teaching to match our students learning styles.The mission of the Pedagogic University is to create, integrate, transfer, and apply knowledge. Thestrategic plan sets forth three broad aims to achieve and maintain, namely:• Educational excellence• Research leadership• Data transfer leadership.Volkwein and Cabrera (1998) suggest that the single most important factor in affecting multipleaspects of student growth and satisfaction is the classroom experience. The key to teachingdevelopmental students successfully is to assure that teaching practices are consistent with thecharacteristics of successful programs and the principles of effective teaching.Objectives:General  To know the most significant ways to become an effective teacher.Specific  To describe the characteristics of becoming an effective teacher.  To identify the qualities of an effective teacher.  To overcome the shortcomings of ineffective teachers.  To make teaching a more effective and heartfelt career rather than just a mere profession.
  2. 2. 2What is an Effective Teacher? DefinitionsDefinition #1:An effective teacher is a good person who meets the community ideal for a good citizen, goodparent, and good employee. He or she is expected to be honest, hardworking, generous, friendly,and considerate, and to demonstrate these qualities in their classrooms by being authoritative,organized, disciplined, insightful, and dedicated; Muelenberg (1986). However, this definition lacksclear objective standards of performance.Definition #2:Silverman, C. (1996) undermines the idea that an effective teacher is one who has an achievement-motivated personality with a strong commitment and rich teaching experiences. He or she isexpected to have a motivation to teach, empathy towards children, and good records at collegeresults and student teaching.However, this definition does not reflect a teachers day-to-day work in the classroom, does notinclude the most important and obvious measure of all for determining good teaching: theperformance of the students who are being taught.Definition #3:An effective teacher is one who concerns students learning outcomes. He or she is expected todemonstrate five key behaviors and five helping behaviors in teaching. Five key behaviors are: 1)lesson clarity, 2) instructional variety, 3) task orientation, 4) engagement in the learning process,and 5) student success. Five helping behaviors are: 1) using student ideas and contributions, 2)structuring, 3) questioning, 4) probing, and 5) teacher affect.However, there can be no single definition of the effective teacher because there is no simpledefinition. The effective teaching varies with the age of the student population, background, subjectmatter etc. The multiple definitions will be more accurate to describe what the effective teaching is;claims Borich G. (1992) in Effective teaching methods (2nd Ed) New York: Merrill).According to Jeremy Harmer (1998:6) an effective teacher has an ability to give interesting, usingthe full range of their personality, the desire to empathise with a student, treating them all equallyhowever tempting it is to do otherwise, and knowing all their names.
  3. 3. 3Effective teaching can be seen as teaching that successfully achieves the learning objectives by thepupils as identified by the teacher. In this way there are essentially two simple elements to effectiveteaching:  A major responsibility of classroom teachers is to maintain a good learning environment for the entire class  The teacher sets up and provides a learning experience that enables this to happen. Research has shown that there are five attributes that have been identified as important factors in the classroom in relation to effective teaching. The strength of each attribute determines how receptive pupils are to learning and has been identified in research as a key cause of success in the classroom. The five attributes are:  Personality and will  Intelligence  Sympathy and tact  Open-mindedness  A sense of humorStudies, which attempt to relate these teaching attributes to educational outcomes, have sometimesreferred to them as „black-box‟ research. The point of which is that such research on effectiveteaching in the past has completely ignored what actually happened in the classroom. Instead,studies simply looked at the input characteristics such as attributes of the teacher and pupils, lookedat the output such as the examination results and then tried to relate the two.However, more recent research on effective teaching has focused on activities in the classroom. Inparticular, research has looked at the interaction between the teacher and pupils to which thispersonality attributes help. As a result, there is a good understanding regarding the basic thinking ofeffective teaching within which we can identify three main classes of variables.How to Be an Effective TeacherTo be an effective teacher is to do more than just give information. It is to give information in a waythat promotes the very best learning.To be an effective teacher, teach to every learning style (including auditory, visual, tactile, andkinesthetic or hand-on). Knowledge of whether students are visual, auditory, or tactile learners and
  4. 4. 4whether they prefer to work individually or in groups should shape the instructional delivery systemand learning materials offered. Boylan and Bonham (1998) cite several studies which reveal thatmany developmental students are hands-on learners.Some of us learn better when we hear things, others of us need to see things or actually get up andmove and do things. Everybody has a style that works best for them. However, the best teachingwill address every style. A really good teaching technique to is say it (the information), show it inwriting, show visuals of it, model it (for example demonstrating mapping an item or solving aproblem), give opportunities for students to practice it in real life situations, and then check forunderstanding. The students will hear it, read it, say it, see pictures/visuals of it, write it, andpractice it both on paper and in real life situations. For example, when teaching diameter, thestudent would solve for it on paper but would also actually find the diameter of objects in the homeor classroom. For tactile opportunities, a young student might trace letters with finger paints but anolder student might paint or make a visual representation of an atom.Understanding requires that things are not presented in isolation. Learning will be increased whencritical connections are made. For example, when teaching fractions, be sure to point out theconcepts of division, sharing, etc. and how this relates to real life like knowing how to cut a pizza inthe right number of slices so they everyone gets an equal number. Better, yet, actually practice on apizza (like showing the 1/2, 2/4, and 4/8 are equal amounts) and then eat it as a reward.Teach in Cycles.Do not teach one thing, and then move on to another and on and on. Every time you teachsomething, constantly go back and review prior skills or knowledge. This may only take a minute.For example "remember ..." Being presented with information that is spaced out over time like thishelps really plant it into long-term memory. This is learning theory that is research based.Do not Wear Yourself Out.Focus most of your energy on good teaching techniques and the rest will follow. Even the bestlesson plan may not be effective if it is not taught using good teaching techniques. Always have agood lesson plan in place, but you do not have to recreate the wheel. The internet is full of greatlesson plans. I am including a couple of helpful links below in the resources section.
  5. 5. 5Tips and WarningsThe more excited and energetic you are as a teacher, the more apt you will be to capture yourstudents attention and be an effective teacher. Cross (2000) reports that students are well-motivatedto get involved in learning when they are faced with peers who depend on them and, in turn, nurturethem in challenging learning tasks.Students learn better when theyre motivated internally, such as by their own curiosity, rather thanby punishments and rewards. A teachers enthusiasm or boredom in the subject is usually obvious tostudents, and its likely to "rub off" on them.Go for NoveltyThis could mean using colored paper, dressing the part, anything to capture their interest and helpyou to be effective. (Jennifer Burger, 1989)Teach EffectivelyThere are some principles of effective teaching that can be applied in virtually any educationalsituation. However, youll need to implement them differently, based on whether youre leading afirst grade classroom, teaching a neighbor a new skill, homeschooling your children, or teaching abusiness seminar.InstructionsDevelop an understanding of the topics you will be teaching. You have to know more than yourstudents do if youre going to present material to them. In addition, you should be willing to admitwhen you dont know the answer to a question. Help the student research the answer if possible, orlook it up on your own and answer it later. Earn the trust and respect of your students. This isessential to getting them to listen to what you have to say and follow your guidance. Try to connectwith students on an appropriately personal level. In a school setting, this can be as simple as askinga child about his pets after class. It may be harder, but even more important, to do with resistantstudents, Ritson (1986) says. Understand your students learning styles. Moreover, tailor yourteaching methods to students as much as possible. This is much easier in a small group or one-on-one than it is in a classroom, but it can still be done. Provide visual, auditory, and hands-onactivities to meet your students needs. Have a variety of tools and resources available to them.
  6. 6. 6Provide individual attention to students. This is the best way to assess their levels of understandingand find out which ones are having problems and why. Individual guidance can also help to keepadvanced students from getting bored if theyre provided with more challenging activities.Learn and implement positive methods. This will keep the classroom environment runningsmoothly. Keep learning materials organized. Have a plan in mind and, in a classroom, make surethat students know whats expected of them. It is much more difficult to learn in a disorderlyenvironment. Try to handle disruptive students in a positive manner, and figure out what theunderlying issues are. In addition, Hutchison (2002) demonstrates that an effective teacher must bewilling to change their schedule to meet the needs of students. People of all ages learn much moreeasily when theyre both interested in and ready to learn about a subject. Dont be afraid to let themtake the lead, if possible. Get creative and have fun with the material.Qualities of an Effective TeacherTeaching is more than a job.When University students at Fort Hare, South Africa were asked what they thought an effectiveteacher was, this is what the survey got as feedback:-An effective teacher is someone who has the ability to establish positive realistic expectations forsuccess of their students and themselves.An effective teacher is someone who is organized and able to maintain a well-ordered environment,from the paperwork and deadlines, to the behavior of students. They should be able to walk away,so to speak, and learning should continue.An effective teacher knows how important it is to reflect, not necessarily on what they plan to do,but how they will carry out that plan.An effective teacher is someone who knows how to create interesting lessons. These lessons must becaptivating, reach all students, and ensure mastery.An effective teacher is kind and fair.An effective teacher does the right thing.An effective teacher is consistent.Effective teachers do not overlook the small acts of kindness they perform every day. They do notthink they are of no benefit. Even tiny drops of water - in the end - will fill a huge vessel.Effective teachers do not overlook any negative actions they may perform just because they appearsmall. However small a spark may be, it can burn down a haystack as big as a mountain.
  7. 7. 7Effective teachers must be open to the possibilities of the teaching and learning experience byalways challenging their own assumptions.Effective teachers must find joy in the unanticipated.The Difference between Effective and Ineffective TeachersThe present work compares descriptions of effective and ineffective teachers given by prospectiveteachers (beginning a teacher-education program), novice teachers (finishing the student-teachingexperience), and experienced teachers (teaching in public schools). The participants‟ descriptionsfocused on what their best and worst teachers did. The themes that emerged from their verb-referentstatements were (a) emotional environment, (b) teacher skill, (c) teacher motivation, (d) studentparticipation, and (e) rules and grades.The affective domain figured prominently in the descriptions of all three groups. The overallemotional environment was a dominant theme. „While Jones (1982) argues that caring aboutstudents was particularly prevalent in the descriptions of effective teachers and they were describedas warm, friendly and caring Smith (1990 ) conversely claims that ineffective teachers often weresaid to create a tense classroom and were described as cold, abusive, and uncaring. A greaterproportion of these emotional-environment responses, however, described their best teachers.In the category of teacher skill, effective teachers were said to know how to create an effectivelearning environment. They were organized, prepared, and clear.Ineffective teachers consistently were indicted for their inept pedagogy, boring lectures, andunproductive learning environment. A higher percentage of statements were devoted to describingtheir best teachers.In the category of teacher motivation, effective teachers were described as caring about learning andteaching. “Enthusiasm” or “enthusiastic” often appeared in these descriptions. In contrast, acommon statement was that their worst teachers hated teaching. Some were faulted for beingburned-out or just going through the motions. Overall, more verb-referent statements about teachermotivation were written for best teachers than for worst teachers.In the category of student participation, the descriptions of their best teachers emphasized activitiesthat involved the students in authentic learning, interaction, the characteristics of effective andineffective teachers questioning, and discussion. Their worst teachers were characterized asrequiring isolate behavior with little interaction, activity, or discussion. Some participantscomplained that their most ineffective teachers were intolerant of questions asked by students.Again, however, a greater proportion of student-participation descriptors were written about theirmost effective teachers than their least effective teachers.
  8. 8. 8Their care about student accomplishment and advocacy for student success set the tone for fair rulesand grading. Such teachers frequently were depicted as requiring and maintaining high standards ofconduct and academic work. Ineffective teachers were faulted for unreasonable or unfairassignments, tests, and grades. Opposite poles in classroom management were expressed, in whichthe ineffective teacher either was a dominating ogre or had no control. This category of rules andgrades was the only one of the five categories in which greater proportions of verb referentdescriptors were expressed for ineffective teachers than for effective teachers.The literature on expert versus novice performance suggests that experts rely more on proceduralknowledge, and those less apt in the particular professional field or task depend more on declarativeknowledge. Expert teachers would appear (a) to have better developed schemata for classroomteaching with strong links between subject matter and ways to teach it, (b) to be more effectivelesson planners and implementers, and yet (c) to be more flexible and reflective in meeting studentneeds and facilitating student social and academic growth (Gallagher, 1994.)The present results were remarkably similar for the written descriptions by prospective teachers,novice teachers, and experienced teachers. The exceptions were that the experienced teachersdwelled less on teacher motivation and more on rules and grades. Even in light of more completedescriptions of effective and ineffective teachers, however, a problem for educators who arecommitted to the preparation of teachers is that knowing how effective and ineffective teachersbehave does not provide a prescription for shortening or easing the route to proficiency andexcellence in teaching. However Leinhardt, (1993) states that simply copying the externalcharacteristics of effective teachers without building complementary rich, underlying knowledgestructures is likely to result in a conservative mimic lacking in adaptive innovation. The challenge isto find an initial balance between formal knowledge of educational practice and the application ofconcepts of effective teaching and then to progressively shift that balance to move teachers-in-training toward expert thinking and action as rapidly as feasible. By giving pre-service teachersmultiple opportunities to teach in progressively more complex, multidimensional, and realisticenvironments, progressive shifts and refinement from declarative “what to do” to procedural “howto do” knowledge structures occur. The present results demonstrated that prospective teachers,novice teachers, and experienced teachers have almost identical perceptions. They know whateffective teachers do and what ineffective teachers do. All of the participants had strong viewsabout what constitutes good teachers versus bad teachers, and the two are by no means mirrorimages of one another. More verb-referent statements about emotional climate care about students,interaction with students, learning activities, discussion, and teacher or student questions werereported for effective teachers than for ineffective teachers. Further, there was evidence of more
  9. 9. 9focus on tests, feedback, grades, assignments, and homework when participants described theirworst teachers.The present research builds on previous findings to provide a more complete picture of the positiveand negative teacher procedures and behaviors as perceived across the teacher-preparation-experience continuum.Principles of Effective Teaching and LearningPrinciple #1: Demonstrate Good Command of the Subject MatterTiberius & Tipping, (1990 p.15), investigates the idea that teachers knowledge of the subject matteris essential to the implementation of important teaching tasks. Teachers who know their subjectmatter thoroughly can be more effective and efficient at organizing the subject matter, connectingthe subject with the students previous knowledge, finding useful analogies and examples,presenting current thinking on the subject, and establishing appropriate emphases. Unfortunately,many new teachers try to employ the same teaching techniques their graduate professors usedsuccessfully, since this is their most recent experience with the teaching/learning environment. Thisis one of the biggest mistakes teachers can make, especially with developmental students who mayhave had little academic success, clearly stated (Boylan & Bonham, 1998).Principle #2: Address Non cognitive Issues that Affect LearningInteraction between teachers and students is the most important factor in student motivation andinvolvement. Teachers indicate that motivating students to learn and to participate in learningactivities may be the most difficult task, especially in working with developmental students. Relatedaffective characteristics, such as self-regulation and academic procrastination, can be influenced bymotivation. Scholars have reported that procrastination “compromises an individual‟s ability to setand achieve personal, academic, and career related goals” through self-regulated behavior. Further,Wambach (2000) states that students who can self-identify skill areas that need improvement seemmore motivated to pursue assistance to gain appropriate skills are more than self-regulated. “Theconscious development of self-regulation is the task that might distinguish developmental educationprograms from other post - secondary education programs” (p.3). Some teachers, especially thosewith graduate school mentalities, declare that it is not their responsibility to motivate students.These teachers need to engage in professional development quickly. It is, indeed, the responsibilityof developmental education and all education to help students sustain the motivation that led them
  10. 10. 10to enroll in courses at the beginning of the semester and strengthen that motivation as the termprogresses. Teachers are challenged to try to determine how and when students lost their motivationand help them regain that initial vision. Of course, motivation is a team effort: No teacher canmotivate a student who does not want to join the effort. McCombs (1991) and the StanfordUniversity Newsletter on Teaching (“Speaking of,” 1998) recommend these strategies formotivating students.Principle #3: Engage in Ongoing Evaluation and Professional DevelopmentBoylan and Bonham (1998) and Roueche and Roueche (1993) both examined successfuldevelopmental programs and identified program evaluation as a key element. However, programevaluation does not always include faculty evaluation and subsequent improvement in facultyperformance. Faculty improvement is usually achieved through professional development activitiesthat include reading professional journals, writing professional articles, taking courses, andattending professional workshops and conferences. These activities are time-consuming, buteffective developmental educators make this a part of their continuing education.Baiocco and DeWaters (1998) contend that professional development is the key to helping effectiveteachers manage change that is inherent in the 21st century. Effective teachers are constantlyembracing change in their quest for improvement and also applying findings from evaluationoutcomes to enhance teaching effectiveness and student success.Principle #4: Provide Open and Responsive Learning EnvironmentsCross (2000) reports, “Research clearly shows that students who are most likely to drop out ofcollege are students who are not connected with the people and events of the college” (p. 1). Shenotes that the connections need not always be face-to-face. They can be electronic via email or chatrooms, telephone calls, or letters, but humans need some way to feel that they belong. It is easy fordevelopmental students to convince themselves that they are so far behind that the teacher wouldnot want them back in class. A phone call or letter can be all it takes to assure most students thatthey still belong in the class and they will receive support to help them catch up. It is important forteachers to obtain local telephone numbers, addresses, and e-mail addresses from students on thefirst day of class. Tinto (1993) reports that being connected to the classroom and college has asignificant effect on retention. Students need to know that teachers recognize them as individuals.Goodman (2001) has found those simply calling students‟ names aloud when checking attendancehas a positive effect on attendance. We have concluded that teachers could enhance retention and
  11. 11. 11attendance by orally calling the class roll and making individual comments when returning papersto students.Another strategy to promote feelings of belonging is for the teacher to arrange to meet withindividual students during office hours. Although office hours are posted and announced, manystudents will not take the initiative to go to the teacher‟s office without a personal invitation orappointment.Ironically, teachers often feel rejected when students don‟t respond to their open announcement ofoffice hours. This feeling of rejection may create a barrier between the teacher and student.Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) report, “The educational impact of a college‟s faculty is enhancedwhen their contacts with students extend beyond the formal classroom to informal non-classroomsettings” (p. 620). Such interaction gives the teacher the opportunity to get to know students better,and it helps students learn the value of using office hours that teachers set aside for them.Experience is associated with increasing teacher effectiveness for some teachers, probably for thoseteachers who obtain feedback about their teaching and who are flexible enough to modify theirmethods in response to the feedback. As was mentioned in the introduction to this section, teachingcan help you develop a variety of skills that are valuable in a multitude of careers. The followingideas summarize some of the strategies we have discussed in this section:Practice - Try out some of the grading or discussion techniques that have been presented in thispresent work. Use different adaptations until you find a collection of techniques that are effectivefor you and your students. Remember that experience is one of the key components that positivelyimpacts feelings of effectiveness.Ask for feedback. Remember that you will probably get a range of responses from your students.Try to identify the major issues and ways you can work to improve those areas.Learn from the best. Think back to some of the "great" teachers you have had. What made themeffective? Go and observe some outstanding teachers in your department or the University. Talk tothem about their teaching style and the techniques they find effective.Complete self-scoring inventories. Use lists of best practices to help you reflect on your strengthsand areas for improvement.
  12. 12. 12Tips in Becoming an Effective TeacherLela Iskandar Suhaimi (1992:22) undermines the position that being a teacher is no easy feat. "Youhave to put up with a lot of things. You have to bear tons of burdens, sometimes with very littlerewards in exchange". That is why many say it is a noble job. However, instead of focusing on thenegative, just think that you are one of those chosen to serve. You have been given this opportunityto open doors for young ones, to shape values, to sharpen minds, to be a second parent. While youare in the teaching profession, make the most out of it.Establish your AuthorityFrom the very beginning that you step into a classroom for the first time, it is important that youestablish your authority so that students will know and feel that you are the one in charge. This isessential for students of different levels, because throughout a school year, students will keep tryingto challenge you or to test your authority. If you let them know from the start that you are the"boss", then it will ascertain respect already which can help limit their misbehavior and tendency tobe defiant and disobedient. However, Taylor (2001) argues that this does not mean that you have tohave "military rule" or you have to be very rigorous and stringent. Make sure to still be friendly tothe students, but firm in implementing rules and in disciplining the students. In addition, you needto be consistent and fair when doing these things.Have a Sense of HumorStudents love a teacher who has a sense of humor, who can turn an ordinarily boring lesson into aninteresting one and can crack jokes and tell funny anecdotes while teaching, recent research byOxford University students has shown. Having a sense of humor makes the class lighter and notsuch a burden to students. Also keep in mind that they learn better and are able to retain informationmore easily when they are relaxed and having a good time. A sense of humor can help you becomea successful teacher. Your sense of humor can relieve tense classroom situations before theybecome disruptions. A sense of humor will also make class more enjoyable for your students andpossibly make students look forward to attending and paying attention. Most importantly, a sense ofhumor will allow you to see the joy in life and make you a happier person as you progress throughthis sometimes stressful career.Content DominionFirst, when working with at-risk students, teaching and learning activities must be highly structured,with all requirements and standards clearly stated (Boylan & Bonham, 1998). Developmental
  13. 13. 13students need to know exactly what is expected of them and when it is due. Teaching students howto pace their work is one of the most important things a teacher can do. Students oftenunderestimate the amount of work required and the time required to complete it, so teachers need tohelp students develop specific plans. A helpful strategy is to require students to turn in drafts orsmall segments of their work as they proceed toward the final product. Second, manydevelopmental students require a lot of time-on-task. Scheduled and supervised activities in class, inlabs, and with tutors facilitate the “pacing skills” often lacking for at-risk students. Third,developmental students perform better when the curriculum they are studying relates to the realworld and their specific interests (Cross, 2000). Fourth, information should be presented in smallchunks that allow students to link new material to something they already know. Fifth, sincedevelopmental education is providing the foundation for more advanced learning, mastery of thecontent is important. If students fail to master one set of skills, concepts, or knowledge before theymove on to the next level, gaps similar to the problems the students are already experiencing arecreated. Finally, frequent testing and immediate feedback are critical for developmental students.Wambach, Brothen, and Dikel (2000) report that many developmental students lack the ability toprovide their own feedback. These authors note, "highly" skilled students are better able to knowthey have understood what they have read, to know whether they are prepared for an exam, and toevaluate how well they have done on exams". They know the difference between simply doing andactually learning assignments” (p. 8) Therefore, early, frequent, meaningful, and clear feedback is amajor factor in helping students hone their metacognitive skills.Inspire your StudentsIn Becker‟s view (1997, p. 9) veering away from the curriculum once in a while, just to share wordsof wisdom with your students can be fruitful. Be a good listener and friend, as well as a counselor.Leave them with inspiring stories that they will remember forever, and that they can apply in theirlives. Research has shown that as a teacher, you are a leader, and you should be setting an exampleworthy of following. Being an effective teacher advisor to your students will help them immenselylater on in their lives. There are several things that you can do to achieve this; be memorable, beconfident, fair, consistent, and be a role model. The role of the teacher is to nurture the mind of theyouth, and to leave an indelible imprint upon their memory. Becoming an effective teacher advisorto your students is simple, provided you carry yourself in an appropriate manner at all times. Beinga good teacher is not nearly enough; you must transcend boundaries and become something more tothe impressionable youth that infiltrate your classroom.
  14. 14. 14You must also give them hope that they are on the right path in life, and that you are willing to helpguide them whenever they find themselves going astray. Teaching is a tremendously rewardingexperience, and a vocation that requires a certain type of personality to flourish. As advisor to theyouth of today that will lead the future, a teacher should always model appropriate behaviour, andalways display fairness and consistency.Top 4 Keys to Being a Successful TeacherThe most successful teachers share some common characteristics. Here are the top four keys tobeing a successful teacher. Every teacher can benefit from focusing on these important qualities.Success in teaching, as in most areas of life, depends almost entirely on your attitude and yourapproach.1. A Positive AttitudeA positive attitude is a great asset in life. You will be thrown many curve balls in life and especiallyin the teaching profession. A positive attitude will help you cope with these in the best way. Forexample, you may find out the first day of school that you are teaching Algebra 2 instead ofAlgebra 1. This would not be an ideal situation, but a teacher with the right attitude would try tofocus on getting through the first day without negatively impacting the students. For example,Roueche and Roueche (1993) have suggested that because teacher attitudes are probably related tostudent achievement, no teacher should be arbitrarily assigned to teach a remedial class if he or shewould rather not teach that class, nor should any teacher be assigned who is only mildly interestedin doing so: uninterested teachers cannot be expected to motivate students who are typicallycharacterized by a lack of motivation. (p.58).2. High ExpectationsAn effective teacher must have high expectations. You should strive to raise the bar for yourstudents. If you expect less effort you will receive less effort. You should work on an attitude thatsays that you know students can achieve to your level of expectations, thereby giving them a senseof confidence too. This is not to say that you should create unrealistic expectations. Chickering &Reisser, (1993) .The guidelines suggest that good practices encourage student-faculty contact,promote cooperation among students, encourage active learning, give prompt feedback, emphasizetime on task, communicate high expectations, and respect diverse talents. However, yourexpectations will be one of the key factors in helping students learn and achieve.
  15. 15. 153. ConsistencyIn order to create a positive learning environment your students should know what to expect fromyou each day. You need to be consistent. This will create a safe learning environment for thestudents and they will be more likely to succeed. It is amazing that students can adapt to teachersthroughout the day that range from strict to easy. However, they will dislike an environment inwhich the rules are constantly changing. Taylor, D. (2001).4. FairnessLeithwood, K. (2006), claims that many people confuse fairness and consistency. Therefore hedifferentiates simply stating that a consistent teacher is the same person from day to day and a fairteacher treats students equally in the same situation. For example, students complain of unfairnesswhen teachers treat one gender or group of students differently. It would be terribly unfair to goeasier on the football players in a class than on the cheerleaders. Students pick up on this so quickly,so be careful of being labeled unfair.
  16. 16. 16ConclusionTeachers need to sell education to their students, and therefore they must walk their walk and talktheir talk. Teachers are a constant role model and a parent during the course of the school day. If, asa teacher, you are able to deliver your messages in a clear and concise manner, and have thestudents buy what youre selling, then you have done your job correctly. If the democratic ideals ofour educational mentality are to be supported by Mozambican higher education, it is essential thathigher education is truly open to all interested citizens. But, in order for higher education to servethe needs of our general populace, quality teaching in higher education is imperative. Faculty atpostsecondary institutions must recognize and embrace the importance of developing teaching skillsthat enhance learning for all types of students in tandem with continuing development of theircontent-area knowledge. Advising students is not necessarily part of the job description, but it is anessential and crucial aspect of the teachers duties. In becoming a responsible and effective teacheradvisor to your students, you must believe in everything that you are saying, and must convince thestudents of this fact. Mentoring is a lifelong process, and the impact that you have upon yourstudents can last forever. An effective teacher will incorporate many different methods to help theirstudents to reach their academic and personal zenith. As educators, teachers are bound to becomeadvisors to students, and this needs to be nurtured in an effective manner. As a teacher, the mainpriority is to provide a learning environment that is non-exclusionary, and that enables all studentsto feel welcome, respected, and smart.
  17. 17. 17Bibliography 1. Boylan, H.R., Bonham, B.S., Jackson, J., & Saxon, D.P. (1998). Staffing patterns in developmental education programs: Full-time, part-time, credentials, and program placement. Research in Developmental Education, 11(5), 1-4. 2. Chickering, A.W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity. San Francisco: CA Jossey- Bass 3. Cross, P. (2000). Collaborative learning 101. The Cross papers # 4. Mission Viejo, CA: League for Innovation in the Community College, Educational Testing Service. 4. Hanushek, E. A. and Rivkin, S. G. “Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality” (Spring2007), The Future of Children, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 69-86. 5. Harmer, Jeremy, How to teach English, Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1998 6. Hirsch, E., Freitas, C., et. al.. Massachusetts Teaching, Learning and Leading Survey: Creating School Conditions Where Teachers Stay and Students Thrive (2009), Santa Cruz, CA: New Teacher Center Lankford. 7. H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Spring, (2002): Vol. 24, No. 1, 37-62. 8. Leithwood, K. Teacher working conditions that matter: Evidence for change (2006), Toronto, ON, Canada: Elementary Teachers‟ Federation of Ontario. 9. Pascarella, E.T., & Terenzini, P.T. (1991). How college affects students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 10. Roueche, J.E., & Roueche, S.D. (1993). Between a rock and a hard place: The at-risk student in the open-door college. Washington, DC: The American Association of Community Colleges, The Community College Press. 11. Roueche, J.E., & Roueche, S.D. (1999). High stakes, high performance: Making remedial education work. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges, The Community College Press. 12. Taylor, D. (2001). Writing a Literature Review. Accessed 17/4/2003 from, http://www.utoronto.ca/hswriting/lit-review.htm.

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