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- 1. Ratio analysis Is a method or process by which the relationship of items or groups of items in the financial statements are computed, and presented. Is an important tool of financial analysis. Is used to interpret the financial statements so that the strengths and weaknesses of a firm, its historical performance and current financial condition can be determined.
- 2. Ratio ‘A mathematical yardstick that measures the relationship between two figures or groups of figures which are related to each other and are mutually inter- dependent’. It can be expressed as a pure ratio, percentage, or as a rate
- 3. Words of caution A ratio is not an end in itself. They are only a means to get to know the financial position of an enterprise. Computing ratios does not add any information to the available figures. It only reveals the relationship in a more meaningful way so as to enable us to draw conclusions there from.
- 4. Utility of Ratios Accounting ratios are very useful in assessing the financial position and profitability of an enterprise. However its utility lies in comparison of the ratios.
- 5. Utility of Ratios Comparison may be in any one of the following forms: For the same enterprise over a number of years For two enterprises in the same industry For one enterprise against the industry as a whole For one enterprise against a pre-determined standard For inter-segment comparison within the same organisation
- 6. Classification of RatiosRatios can be broadly classified into four groups namely: Liquidity ratios Capital structure/leverage ratios Profitability ratios Activity ratios
- 7. Liquidity ratios These ratios analyse the short-term financial position of a firm and indicate the ability of the firm to meet its short-term commitments (current liabilities) out of its short-term resources (current assets). These are also known as ‘solvency ratios’. The ratios which indicate the liquidity of a firm are: Current ratio Liquidity ratio or Quick ratio or acid test ratio
- 8. Current ratioIt is calculated by dividing current assets bycurrent liabilities.Current ratio = Current assets where Current liabilitiesConventionally a current ratio of 2:1 isconsidered satisfactory
- 9. CURRENT ASSETSinclude – Inventories of raw material, WIP, finished goods, stores and spares, sundry debtors/receivables, short term loans deposits and advances, cash in hand and bank, prepaid expenses, incomes receivables and marketable investments and short term securities.
- 10. CURRENT LIABILITIESinclude – sundry creditors/bills payable, outstanding expenses, unclaimed dividend, advances received, incomes received in advance, provision for taxation, proposed dividend, instalments of loans payable within 12 months, bank overdraft and cash credit
- 11. Quick Ratio or Acid Test RatioThis is a ratio between quick current assets and current liabilities (alternatively quick liabilities).It is calculated by dividing quick current assets by current liabilities (quick current liabilities)Quick ratio = quick assets where Current liabilities/(quick liabilities)Conventionally a quick ratio of 1:1 is considered satisfactory.
- 12. QUICK ASSETS & QUICK LIABILITIESQUICK ASSETS are current assets (as stated earlier)less prepaid expenses and inventories.QUICK LIABILITIES are current liabilities (as stated earlier)less bank overdraft and incomes received in advance.
- 13. Capital structure/ leverage ratios These ratios indicate the long term solvency of a firm and indicate the ability of the firm to meet its long-term commitment with respect to(i) repayment of principal on maturity or in predetermined instalments at due dates and(ii) periodic payment of interest during the period of the loan.
- 14. Capital structure/ leverage ratiosThe different ratios are: Debt equity ratio Proprietary ratio Debt to total capital ratio Interest coverage ratio Debt service coverage ratio
- 15. Debt equity ratioThis ratio indicates the relative proportion of debt andequity in financing the assets of the firm. It iscalculated by dividing long-term debt by shareholder’sfunds.Debt equity ratio = long-term debts where Shareholders fundsGenerally, financial institutions favour a ratio of 2:1.However this standard should be applied having regardto size and type and nature of business and the degree ofrisk involved.
- 16. LONG-TERM FUNDS are long-term loans whethersecured or unsecured like – debentures, bonds, loansfrom financial institutions etc.SHAREHOLDER’S FUNDS are equity sharecapital plus preference share capital plus reserves andsurplus minus fictitious assets (eg. Preliminaryexpenses, past accumulated losses, discount on issueof shares etc.)
- 17. Proprietary ratioThis ratio indicates the general financial strength of thefirm and the long- term solvency of the business.This ratio is calculated by dividing proprietor’s funds bytotal funds. Proprietary ratio = proprietor’s funds where Total funds/assetsAs a rough guide a 65% to 75% proprietary ratio isadvisable
- 18. PROPRIETOR’S FUNDS are same asexplained in shareholder’s fundsTOTAL FUNDS are all fixed assets and allcurrent assets.Alternatively it can be calculated asproprietor’s funds plus long-term funds pluscurrent liabilities.
- 19. Debt to total capital ratioIn this ratio the outside liabilities are related tothe total capitalisation of the firm. It indicateswhat proportion of the permanent capital of thefirm is in the form of long-term debt.Debt to total capital ratio =long- term debt Shareholder’s funds + long- term debtConventionally a ratio of 2/3 is consideredsatisfactory.
- 20. Interest coverage ratioThis ratio measures the debt servicing capacity of a firmin so far as the fixed interest on long-term loan isconcerned. It shows how many times the interestcharges are covered by EBIT out of which they will bepaid.Interest coverage ratio = EBIT InterestA ratio of 6 to 7 times is considered satisfactory.Higher the ratio greater the ability of the firm to payinterest out of its profits. But too high a ratio mayimply lesser use of debt and/or very efficient operations
- 21. Debt service coverage ratioThis is a more comprehensive measure to compute thedebt servicing capacity of a firm. It shows how manytimes the total debt service obligations consisting ofinterest and repayment of principal in instalments arecovered by the total operating funds after payment oftax.Debt service coverage ratio = EAT+ interest + depreciation + other non-cash exp Interest + principal instalmentEAT is earnings after tax.Generally financial institutions consider 2:1 as asatisfactory ratio.
- 22. Profitability ratiosThese ratios measure the operating efficiency ofthe firm and its ability to ensure adequate returnsto its shareholders.The profitability of a firm can be measured by itsprofitability ratios.Further the profitability ratios can be determined(i) in relation to sales and(ii) in relation to investments
- 23. Profitability ratiosProfitability ratios in relation to sales: gross profit margin Net profit margin Expenses ratio
- 24. Profitability ratiosProfitability ratios in relation to investments Return on assets (ROA) Return on capital employed (ROCE) Return on shareholder’s equity (ROE) Earnings per share (EPS) Dividend per share (DPS) Dividend payout ratio (D/P) Price earning ratio (P/E)
- 25. Gross profit marginThis ratio is calculated by dividing grossprofit by sales. It is expressed as a percentage.Gross profit is the result of relationshipbetween prices, sales volume and costs. Gross profit margin = gross profit x 100 Net sales
- 26. Gross profit margin A firm should have a reasonable gross profit margin to ensure coverage of its operating expenses and ensure adequate return to the owners of the business ie. the shareholders. To judge whether the ratio is satisfactory or not, it should be compared with the firm’s past ratios or with the ratio of similar firms in the same industry or with the industry average.
- 27. Net profit marginThis ratio is calculated by dividing net profit bysales. It is expressed as a percentage.This ratio is indicative of the firm’s ability toleave a margin of reasonable compensation tothe owners for providing capital, after meetingthe cost of production, operating charges and thecost of borrowed funds.Net profit margin = net profit after interest and tax x 100 Net sales
- 28. Net profit marginAnother variant of net profit margin is operatingprofit margin which is calculated as:Operating profit margin = net profit before interest and tax x 100 Net salesHigher the ratio, greater is the capacity of thefirm to withstand adverse economic conditionsand vice versa
- 29. Expenses ratioThese ratios are calculated by dividing the various expenses bysales. The variants of expenses ratios are: Material consumed ratio = Material consumed x 100 Net salesManufacturing expenses ratio = manufacturing expenses x100 Net salesAdministration expenses ratio = administration expenses x 100 Net salesSelling expenses ratio = Selling expenses x 100 Net salesOperating ratio = cost of goods sold plus operating expenses x100 Net salesFinancial expense ratio = financial expenses x 100 Net sales
- 30. Expenses ratioThe expenses ratios should be compared overa period of time with the industry average aswell as with the ratios of firms of similar type.A low expenses ratio is favourable.The implication of a high ratio is that only asmall percentage share of sales is available formeeting financial liabilities like interest, tax,dividend etc.
- 31. Return on assets (ROA)This ratio measures the profitability of the total funds ofa firm. It measures the relationship between net profitsand total assets. The objective is to find out howefficiently the total assets have been used by themanagement.Return on assets = net profit after taxes plus interest x 100 Total assetsTotal assets exclude fictitious assets. As the total assetsat the beginning of the year and end of the year may notbe the same, average total assets may be used as thedenominator.
- 32. Return on capital employed (ROCE)This ratio measures the relationship between net profit andcapital employed. It indicates how efficiently the long-termfunds of owners and creditors are being used.Return on capital employed = net profit after taxes plus interest x 100 Capital employedCAPITAL EMPLOYED denotes shareholders funds and long-term borrowings.To have a fair representation of the capital employed, averagecapital employed may be used as the denominator.
- 33. Return on shareholders equityThis ratio measures the relationship of profits toowner’s funds. Shareholders fall into twogroups i.e. preference shareholders and equityshareholders. So the variants of return onshareholders equity areReturn on total shareholder’s equity = net profits after taxes x 100 Total shareholders equity.
- 34. TOTAL SHAREHOLDER’S EQUITY includes preference share capital plus equity share capital plus reserves and surplus less accumulated losses and fictitious assets. To have a fair representation of the total shareholders funds, average total shareholders funds may be used as the denominator
- 35. Return on ordinary shareholders equity = net profit after taxes – pref. dividend x 100 Ordinary shareholders equity or networthORDINARY SHAREHOLDERS EQUITYOR NET WORTH includes equity share capitalplus reserves and surplus minus fictitious assets.
- 36. Earnings per share (EPS)This ratio measures the profit available to theequity shareholders on a per share basis. Thisratio is calculated by dividing net profit availableto equity shareholders by the number of equityshares.Earnings per share = net profit after tax – preference dividend Number of equity shares
- 37. Dividend per share (DPS)This ratio shows the dividend paid to theshareholder on a per share basis. This is a betterindicator than the EPS as it shows the amount ofdividend received by the ordinary shareholders,while EPS merely shows theoretically how muchbelongs to the ordinary shareholdersDividend per share = Dividend paid to ordinary shareholders Number of equity shares
- 38. Dividend payout ratio (D/P)This ratio measures the relationship between theearnings belonging to the ordinary shareholders and thedividend paid to them.Dividend pay out ratio = total dividend paid to ordinary shareholders x 100 Net profit after tax –preference dividendORDividend pay out ratio = Dividend per share x 100 Earnings per share
- 39. Price earning ratio (P/E)This ratio is computed by dividing the marketprice of the shares by the earnings per share. Itmeasures the expectations of the investors andmarket appraisal of the performance of the firm.Price earning ratio = market price per share Earnings per share
- 40. Activity ratios These ratios are also called efficiency ratios / asset utilization ratios or turnover ratios. These ratios show the relationship between sales and various assets of a firm. The various ratios under this group are: Inventory/stock turnover ratio Debtors turnover ratio and average collection period Asset turnover ratio Creditors turnover ratio and average credit period
- 41. Inventory /stock turnover ratioThis ratio indicates the number of times inventory isreplaced during the year. It measures the relationshipbetween cost of goods sold and the inventory level.There are two approaches for calculating this ratio,namely:Inventory turnover ratio = cost of goods sold Average stockAVERAGE STOCK can be calculated as Opening stock + closing stock 2AlternativelyInventory turnover ratio = sales_________ Closing inventory
- 42. Inventory /stock turnover ratioA firm should have neither too high nor toolow inventory turnover ratio. Too high a ratiomay indicate very low level of inventory and adanger of being out of stock and incurring high‘stock out cost’. On the contrary too low aratio is indicative of excessive inventoryentailing excessive carrying cost.
- 43. Debtors turnover ratio and average collection periodThis ratio is a test of the liquidity of the debtorsof a firm. It shows the relationship betweencredit sales and debtors.Debtors turnover ratio = Credit sales Average Debtors and bills receivablesAverage collection period = Months/days in a year Debtors turnover
- 44. Debtors turnover ratio and average collection periodThese ratios are indicative of the efficiency ofthe trade credit management. A high turnoverratio and shorter collection period indicateprompt payment by the debtor. On thecontrary low turnover ratio and longercollection period indicates delayed paymentsby the debtor.In general a high debtor turnover ratio andshort collection period is preferable.
- 45. Asset turnover ratioDepending on the different concepts of assets employed, therearemany variants of this ratio. These ratios measure the efficiencyof a firm in managing and utilising its assets.Total asset turnover ratio = sales/cost of goods sold Average total assetsFixed asset turnover ratio = sales/cost of goods sold Average fixed assetsCapital turnover ratio = sales/cost of goods sold Average capital employedWorking capital turnover ratio = sales/cost of goods sold Net working capital
- 46. Asset turnover ratioHigher ratios are indicative of efficientmanagement and utilisation of resources whilelow ratios are indicative of under-utilisation ofresources and presence of idle capacity.
- 47. Creditors turnover ratio and average credit periodThis ratio shows the speed with which paymentsare made to the suppliers for purchases madefrom them. It shows the relationship betweencredit purchases and average creditors.Creditors turnover ratio = credit purchases Average creditors & bills payablesAverage credit period = months/days in a year Creditors turnover ratio
- 48. Creditors turnover ratio and average credit periodHigher creditors turnover ratio and short creditperiod signifies that the creditors are beingpaid promptly and it enhances thecreditworthiness of the firm.

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