OUR space: the new world of metadata


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Presented at Industry Symposium, IFLA, 14 August 2008. Describes a new environment of global information services using metadata, taxonomies, and knowledge organization. Makes the case that these changes will permanently affect what it means "to catalog" materials for the purpose of connecting citizens, students and scholars to the information they need, when and where they need it.

Published in: Business, Education
  • Worth reading.

    zunita http://ringtones-x.com/ | www.freeringtonesforatt.org/
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  • Very interesting and thought-provoking...
    Sadly, previous attempts to 'catalog' the web through the use of appropriate meta data has led to abuse: search engine spam. In many cases, commercial and research/educational informatoin will continue to vie for the top spots in popular search engines for a while, I thnk.
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  • OUR space: the new world of metadata

    1. Karen Calhoun Vice President WorldCat and Metadata Services OCLC OUR Space: the new world of metadata IFLA 13 August 2008
    2. The Catalog: First Self-Service Information Tool 2007/2008 Statistics for a Large Research Library: 175K unique visitors/month to Library Web pages (9% of overall site use) ------------------------- 2007/2008 Statistics for Amazon.com: 55M unique visitors/month (U.S.) Data sources: http:// siteanalytics.compete.com / and http:// www.alexa.com /
    3. LC Action Item 6.4: “Support research and development on the changing nature of the catalog to include consideration of a framework for its integration with other discovery tools.” Calhoun, Karen.  The Changing Nature of the Catalog and Its Integration with Other Discovery Tools.   Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 17 March 2006. http://www.loc.gov/catdir/calhoun-report-final.pdf
    4. The Catalog in Context Online catalogs represent one node in the end user’s information universe
    5. Geocentric/ Aristotelian view: The local catalog is the sun Heliocentric/ Copernican view: The local catalog is a planet
    6. Metadata 2.0: ‘Way Cool! Canadian-American actor Keanu Reeves, Matrix Reloaded
    7. Metadata in the Information Industry <ul><li>“Data is the next Intel Inside” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim O’Reilly, “What is Web. 2.0?” http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html?page=3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“The digital world … has never met a piece of information it didn’t like” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Weinberger, Everything is Miscellaneous , Ch. 6, “Smart Leaves,” p. 119 </li></ul></ul>
    8. ebay: User-Supplied Metadata Supported By Sophisticated Web Templates and Indexing Not shown: categories (controlled vocabulary), item specifics, abstract, more
    9. Remix, reuse, ‘mashup’: Web 2.0 metadata management http:// www.housingmaps.com / Fed by Google Maps + craigslist.com
    10. Metadata + Full Text Searching
    11. Which One Is the “Full” Record? + 3 more screens Product Description & Purchase Information More like this Editorial Reviews & Author Info Inside the Book Tags, Ratings Customer Reviews Lists More With thanks to David Lankes: http://quartz.syr.edu/rdlankes/Presentations/ 2007/ALCTS.pdf Bibliographic Information Library Holdings Details Subjects Editions Reviews Bibliographic Information Australian Library Holdings
    12. The Base Model for Metadata Is Changing <ul><li>Library metadata </li></ul><ul><li>practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Author(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Publication details </li></ul><ul><li>Pagination, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Series </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>‘ categories’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISBN </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Other attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>How/where to get it </li></ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><li>How many sold </li></ul><ul><li>How many circulations </li></ul><ul><li>Banned anywhere? </li></ul><ul><li>Awards won? </li></ul><ul><li>Works cited by this one? </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Publisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Author information </li></ul><ul><li>Other editions </li></ul><ul><li>Technical metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Related works </li></ul><ul><li>Blog conversations </li></ul><ul><li>User tags </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>And on and on … </li></ul>
    13. Changing Context for Library Metadata <ul><li>B.W. (Before the Web) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For finding and managing library materials (mostly print) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog records (well-understood rules and encoding conventions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared cooperative cataloging systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually handcrafted, one at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A.W. (After the Web) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For finding and managing many types of materials, for many user communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of records, many sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely coupled metadata management, reuse and exchange services among multiple repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of manual and automated creation and metadata extract, conversion, mapping, ingest and transfer services </li></ul></ul>
    14. Collections Have Changed high low low high stewardship uniqueness Books Journals Newspapers Gov. docs CD, DVD Maps Scores Special collections Rare books Local/Historical newspapers Local history materials Archives & Manuscripts, Theses & dissertations <ul><li>Research, learning and administrative </li></ul><ul><li>materials , </li></ul><ul><li>ePrints/tech reports </li></ul><ul><li>Learning objects </li></ul><ul><li>Courseware </li></ul><ul><li>E-portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Research data </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional records </li></ul><ul><li>Reports, newsletters, etc </li></ul>Freely-accessible web resources Open source software Newsgroup archives
    15. Libraries and What They Collect on Behalf of Their Communities Books Journals Newspapers Gov. docs CD, DVD Maps Scores Special collections Rare books Local/Historical newspapers Local history materials Archives & Manuscripts, Theses & dissertations
    16. Expenditures: What ARL Libraries Are Buying Percent of 2006 total materials spend: eSerials 36.6% Monographs 21.6% Source: ARL Statistics Interactive Edition http:// fisher.lib.virginia.edu/arl/index.html
    17. The Promise of Institutional Repositories IR of the Université du Québec à Montréal http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/448/
    18. Scholarly Portals arXiv.org Open access to 490,465 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology and Statistics
    19. Exposing Scientific Research: Brazil’s IBICT Electronic Theses and Dissertations
    20. Exciting New Digital Collections: Europeana Prototype http:// www.europeana.eu /
    21. Library Special Collections Are Underutilized … <ul><li>Digital visibility creates use </li></ul>Research Information Network. 2007. http://www.rin.ac.uk/files/hidden-resources-final-report.pdf
    22. Scholarly/Community Digital Assets Are Too Often Hidden From the Network http:// isbellandes.library.cornell.edu /
    23. http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/news/lcwg-ontherecord-jan08-final.pdf 2 ENHANCE ACCESS TO RARE, UNIQUE, AND OTHER SPECIAL HIDDEN MATERIALS
    24. 2 ENHANCE ACCESS TO RARE, UNIQUE, AND OTHER SPECIAL HIDDEN MATERIALS <ul><li>2.1.1 Make the discovery of rare, unique and other special hidden materials a high priority </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.2 Streamline cataloging for rare, unique and other special hidden materials, emphasizing greater coverage and broader access </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.3 Integrate access to rare, unique and other special hidden materials with other library materials </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.4 Encourage digitization to allow broader access </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.5 Share access to rare, unique and other special hidden materials </li></ul>
    25. Information Seekers Have Changed [ about the people following them ] Butch Cassidy : I couldn't do that. Could you do that? Why can they do it? Who are those guys? http://outnow.ch/Movies/1969/ButchCassidyAndTheSundanceKid/Bilder/dvd-film.ws/11
    26. The Changing Context for Research, Teaching, and Learning on University Campuses Knowledge itself will be modified and research and development transformed by the new capacities provided by IT. Nothing will be left untouched. The liberal arts will be revived and transfigured, liberated from their age-long reliance on text alone. The silos of the departments will topple as new approaches to bewildering issues are pursued with new vigor by scholars in mind-boggling combinations of once insular and isolated disciplines. – Frank H. T. Rhodes, past President of Cornell University, in The Creation of the Future
    27. The Toppling Silos of the Disciplines and Mind-Boggling New Forms of Scholarly Communication Kurt Wüthrich Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Scripps Research Institute Fields: Chemistry, physics, mathematics, biophysics --How does the library help him create new knowledge? --What are his information seeking/sharing behaviors and preferences? --In what ways does the library serve his colleagues and his graduate and post-doctoral students?
    28. And Then There’s Today’s (and Tomorrow’s) Student No, you weren’t downloaded. You were born.”
    29. The New Academic Library User in Sweden (and Everywhere Else) <ul><li>The ‘wild user’ wants to use the library’s collections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At a distance from the library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independently and self-sufficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is an international phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Martha Kyrillidou and Ann-Christin Persson. 2005. The New Library User in Sweden: </li></ul><ul><li>a LibQUAL+™ study at Lund University. Conference presentation. Available: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.libqual.org/documents/admin/sweden_finalpaper3.doc </li></ul>Five Most Desired Items Overall Making electronic resources accessible from my home or office Easy-to-use access tools that allow me to find things on my own A library Web site enabling me to locate information on my own Making information easily accessible for independent use Print and/or electronic journal collections I require for my work
    30. Summary So Far <ul><li>Metadata has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Collections have changed </li></ul><ul><li>Information seekers have changed </li></ul><ul><li>What does it all mean for library metadata tradition and practice? </li></ul>
    31. The Challenges for Library Metadata <ul><li>Will search engines usurp the library catalog? </li></ul><ul><li>Will Google Books usurp the library catalog? </li></ul><ul><li>What if libraries don’t change how they support the discovery and delivery of their collections? </li></ul>
    32. Will Search Engines Usurp Library Catalogs? College Students’ Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: a Report to the OCLC Membership : http:// www.oclc.org/reports/perceptionscollege.htm
    33. Will Google Books Usurp the Library Catalog? Ludwig, Mark J. and Wells, Margaret R. “Google Books vs. BISON.” Library Journal , July 15, 2008. http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6566451.html
    34. What If We Do Nothing?
    35. Opportunities for Library Metadata Practice <ul><li>Take the collections to a wider audience: be where their eyes are; expose your metadata! </li></ul><ul><li>Open up metadata silos ; support metadata exchange, reuse, interoperation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop user-centered definitions of metadata ‘quality’ </li></ul>
    36. 1. Be Where Their Eyes Are La Grande bibliothèque nationale du Québec Attribution: Uploaded on May 8, 2005 by Master Long http://flickr.com/photos/long/12987307/ Library as Place Place as Library
    37. ‘ Promiscuous’ Metadata <ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Group, national, regional </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul>
    38. BnF
    39. The European Library
    40. Global: Exposing Library Collections on the Network
    41. Global to Group or Local: Driving Searches to Your Library
    42. Get It From My Library
    43. What is OCLC Doing to Help Libraries Share Their Metadata at Web Scale? <ul><li>Support for a globally coordinated system of metadata management (metadata 2.0) </li></ul><ul><li>WorldCat partnerships with national libraries and large consortia </li></ul>
    44. A Globally Coordinated System of Metadata Sharing <ul><li>Discovery and delivery are mediated by large information hubs </li></ul>
    45. GLOBAL GROUP LOCAL Outward Integration, Exposure, And Linking Of Collections (e.g., Google, WorldCat, Other aggregators, national libraries, consortia) Local/Group Authentication, Discovery And Delivery Services Data Flows, Syndication, Synchronization, Linking We Can Be Connected: A New Vision for Metadata Sharing
    46. WorldCat Partner Sites Google, Google Books, Google Scholar HCI Bibliography : Human-Computer Interaction Resources
    47. WorldCat.org: Destination or Metadata Switch? It’s a switch. Referrals to worldcat.org, Jan. 1 – May 31, 2008 Search Engines 47.45% Other Web Sites 39.91% Typed/Bookmarked URLs 12.64% Total
    48. WorldCat Global Coverage *2007/08:forecast based on Q2 results Objectives for FY09: 300-500M records processed; Significant coverage in more countries outside N.A.
    49. Introducing: A New National Library Web Page
    50. WorldMap of National Libraries
    51. OCLC CBS (Central Bibliographic System) Partners and WorldCat <ul><li>Support strong frameworks for national or regional union catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>Loading in WorldCat gives broader exposure, from more places, to citizens, students and scholars around the world </li></ul><ul><li>GGC (Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>LinkUK / UnityUK </li></ul><ul><li>GBV (Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>Hebis (Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>BSZ (Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>ABES (France) </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries Australia </li></ul>= records are also in WorldCat
    52. 2. Open Up Metadata Silos <ul><li>“ We have drawn a wall around what is and what is not of interest to ‘cataloging’ that is not necessarily backed up by any good rationale. Many things that we decide are not of interest … are in fact of high significance to the success and ease our users will have in carrying out the tasks we mean to support … I don’t mean that “catalogers” need to apply the exact same standards to journal articles, institutional repository metadata, [etc.] … But we do need to consider it our responsibility to figure out how all these things can fit together.” </li></ul>Rochkind, Jonathan. Bibliographic Wilderness [blog]. “‘Broken’ huh?” May 27, 2007 http://bibwild.wordpress.com/2007/05/25/broken-huh/#more-42
    53. Metadata Silos <ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>for: </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archival </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><li>More </li></ul>
    54. Metadata Reuse and Exchange: OCLC Next Generation Cataloging <ul><li>Establish partnerships with publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Ingest publisher and vendor metadata in ONIX </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswalk to MARC (poss. to other formats) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance publisher metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Output MARC records (available early in the publishing life-cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Output enhanced ONIX data to publishers/other partners </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.oclc.org/partnerships/material/nexgen/nextgencataloging.htm </li></ul>PILOT TO BE COMPLETE THIS SUMMER FY09 objective: Launch Next Generation Cataloging
    55. Fichier d'Autorité International Virtuel : VIAF <ul><li>“ Une avancée de la francophonie dans le web sémantique&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Joint project: OCLC, Library of Congress, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Bibliothèque nationale de France </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.oclc.org/research/projects/viaf / </li></ul><ul><li>Work in progress </li></ul>
    56. Objectives of VIAF <ul><li>Link national authority records </li></ul><ul><li>Build on their authority work </li></ul><ul><li>Move towards universal bibliographic control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow national or regional variations in authorized forms to co-exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support needs for variations in preferred language, script, and spelling </li></ul></ul>
    57. 3. Develop user-centered definitions of metadata “quality” <ul><li>“ Quality” in the user workflow from discovery to delivery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library user studies suggest that users expect finding and getting information they want, when and where they want it, to be easy and convenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These users’ tolerance for barriers to easy and convenient discovery and delivery is limited. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does what they want relate to what catalogers do ? </li></ul></ul>
    58. Defining Catalog Metadata Quality: Research Project Underway <ul><li>WorldCat.org Pop-up Survey (done) </li></ul><ul><li>WorldCat.org Usability/Focus Group Tests (done) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholars and students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casual searchers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Librarian Web survey (coming August/September) </li></ul><ul><li>Research results to inform business case for new WorldCat Quality Management Program </li></ul>
    59. A Sneak Preview <ul><li>Catalogs have many audiences, inside and outside the library </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups of end users have different priorities, but there are some commonalities across groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The end user’s delivery experience is as important, if not more important than the discovery experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faceted search/browse has some appeal, but: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most important for analog materials: summaries, TOCs, professional reviews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most important for licensed e- and digital materials: the ability to link easily and conveniently to the online content itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>With respect to metadata ‘quality,’ it is likely that librarians’ and end users’ definitions differ </li></ul>
    60. What Will It Mean “to Catalog”? <ul><li>Many types of information objects (things and people) </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata production – manual and automated </li></ul><ul><li>Data mining </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata design and development </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata reuse, conversion and exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata ‘mash-ups’ </li></ul>
    61. A New Kind of Cataloger <ul><li>Examine assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Be involved with information objects of all types </li></ul><ul><li>Move to next generation systems and services </li></ul><ul><li>Make information (including, but not limited to library collections) more visible and easier to use </li></ul>
    62. Forecast: Future So Bright, Gotta Wear Shades by Netream http://flickr.com/photos/maerten/521195773/
    63. From article “Being a librarian” – cited next page Increasing expertise in discovery and delivery systems Help build new kinds of systems for IR and delivery; many new kinds of metadata; emphasis on re-use, interconnections, interoperability Active participation in the local community Blurring of lines between what has been public services and technical services; project and team-based workplaces; involvement in local community projects and digital asset management; consulting work; decreasing involvement in traditional cataloging duties Technology-driven research, teaching and learning Need for “IT fluency,” esp. metadata specialists; increasing involvement in large-scale digital library research, development, and production projects
    64. Thank You Merci Gracias Shukran Xie xie Danke Spasibo [email_address] http:// community.oclc.org/metalogue Calhoun, Karen. Being a librarian: metadata and metadata specialists in the 21st century. Library Hi Tech , Volume 25, Number 2, 2007 , pp. 174-187(14) Open access preprint: http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/2231/1/Calhoun-20041217-final-preprint1.pdf