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Developing new services in library organizations


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A workshop for a library and information science class on management. Includes sections on innovation and new service development in libraries; project initiation and management; teamwork and leadership; and project politics.

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Developing new services in library organizations

  1. 1. DEVELOPING NEW SERVICES INLIBRARY ORGANIZATIONSA Guest Lecture prepared for ManagementTheory and Practice for InformationProfessionalsMay 2012UCLA GSEISKaren Calhoun, AUL,University of Pittsburgh Some of the UCLA GSEIS Senior Fellows, Class of 2007
  2. 2. OUTLINE 1. New degree, new job: what are you getting yourself into? 2. The role of new product/service development 3. Initiating and running a new product development project 4. New product development teams 5. The politics of projects 6. From surviving to thriving: Failure, resilience and commitment To someplaceFrom here like here UCLA GSEIS CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 2
  3. 3. BY THE END OF SECTIONS 1-2, PLEASEMAKE THREE NOTES: 1 main idea from this section 1 point to ponder 1 insight I can apply right now 3
  4. 4. WHAT ARE YOU GETTING INTO?“If you work in an academic library and are under 35, you probably dont have a lot in common with your older counterparts.” --Stanley Wilder More likely to work in areas beyond the confines of traditional librarianship, often in information technology. Less likely to hold a degree in LIS (but plenty still do). More diverse in ethnic and racial terms. Nonsupervisory jobs likely to earn less; but high-tech jobs earn much more. Large proportion of new hires work at jobs that didn’t exist for older colleagues Wilder, Stanley. 2007. The new library professional. Chronicle of 4 Higher Education Vol. 53, Iss. 25, p. C1.
  5. 5. LIBRARY TRADITIONAL SERVICE MODELBooksJournalsNewspapersGov docsMapsScoresAVDissertations Library catalogsSpecialcollectionsManuscriptsPapersUniv records ArchivesJournal articles Public ServicesConference proceedings Tech ServicesEtc. Systems (IT) Abstracting & Indexing services Administration
  6. 6. Geocentric/ Aristotelian view: The library and its collections are the sun Heliocentric/ Copernican view: the user is the sun; the library is a planetImage: Original by Niko Lang. CC-BY-SA 2.5 6
  7. 7. Five Most Desired Items OverallMaking electronic resources accessible from my homeor officeEasy-to-use access tools that allow me to find thingson my ownA library Web site enabling me to locate informationon my ownMaking information easily accessible for independentusePrint and/or electronic journal collections I requirefor my work •The ‘wild user’ wants to use the library’s collections: •At a distance from the library •Independently and self-sufficiently •This is an international phenomenon Martha Kyrillidou and Ann-Christin Persson. 2005. The New Library User in Sweden: a LibQUAL+™ study at Lund University. Conference presentation. Available:
  8. 8. A NEW KIND OF LIBRARY Build a vision of a new kind of library Be more involved with research and learning materials and systems Reach out to local communities in new ways Make collections and services more visible locally and on the Web Move to next generation systems and services An online social network 8
  9. 9. BUT … The library ‘brand’ is books And Lots of people today are willing to say “I don’t need libraries” And The library share of ‘eyeballs’ on the Web is comparatively small—even for the largest sites 9
  10. 10. Unique visitors/month in US - Feb 2012 21,635 SEE HANDOUT 21,749 24,443 54,353 82,783 101,151 115,761 303,402 333,044 Unique visitors/month 336,437 396,402 734,785 918,053 1,065,032 1,650, 2,037,619 6,843,743 Source:, 4 May 2012
  11. 11. THE ROLE OF PRODUCT AND SERVICE INNOVATION  All organizations rely on new products and services to maintain viability in the communities they serve  A significant percentage of use /sales comes from newly introduced products and services  Some high tech organizations expect a 100% turnover in their portfolio of products every five years  Libraries are not different in this regardAdapted from Cooper, Robert. Winning at new products. Data from 11a study published by the Conference Board.
  12. 12. NEW PRODUCT / SERVICE FORECAST Dependence on New Products Higher than now 67% About the same 25% 8% Lower than now 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% From Cooper. Winning at new products. 12
  13. 13. LIBRARIES NEED INNOVATORS“Organizations must be retooled, new skills must be learned or brought into the organization to ensure our viability.”--Stephen Abram. Are libraries innovative enough? Presentation at OLA Superconference, Feb. 3, 2006. 13
  14. 14. A FEW OF THE BARRIERS TO RAPID PRODUCT /SERVICE INNOVATION Unclear strategic objectives or vision Organizational silos / lack of cooperation between departments Lack of skilled project management; too many projects Failure to address community needs Frequent changes in requirements Not enough time to do the workAdapted from Hilmmelfarb, Philip A. Survival of the fittest. 14
  15. 15. WINNERS AND LOSERS New products / services fail because 1. Intended users don’t need it  Inadequate understanding of community needs and preferences 2. The product / service doesn’t work  Problems or defects 3. Intended users don’t understand it  Ineffective communications (marketing) 4. Intended users resist  Perceived risks (convenience, performance)  Product incompatible with user values or work practices  Bad timingAdapted from Crawford, C. Merle. New Products Management 15
  16. 16. END OF PARTS 1 AND 2—OVER TO YOU 1 main idea from this section 1 point to ponder 1 insight I can apply right now 16
  17. 17. A lightening introduction to project management3. INITIATING AND RUNNING A NEWPRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
  18. 18. WHEN WE FINISH THIS SECTION YOU MIGHTKNOW HOW TO: Initiate a project Identify key stakeholders Identify project components Project manager 18
  19. 19. YOU WON’T KNOW HOW TO … Use “work packages”  Use project management Estimate how long each software work package will take to  E.g., Microsoft Project complete  Communicate effectively with Allocate people to tasks stakeholders Account for dependencies  Negotiate a contract Logically sequence work  Manage risk packages  Execute and control and Create a schedule for a project project  Lead organizational change Estimate (and negotiate) the project completion date Seriously interested in professional certification as a project manager? Visit 19
  20. 20. CASE STUDY: RELOCATE THE WHIRLIGIG COLLECTIONImage: John Tenniel, from Alice in Wonderland. Image: Cover of 1915 edition.Public domain. Public domain. File:Peter_Pan_1915_cover.jpg 20
  21. 21. PROJECT INITIATION Authorize expenditure of resources Assign project manager Establish roles and responsibilities of project manager and other key participants Identify high-level goals/objectives Notify people/organizations affected by project 21
  22. 22. ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER Plan, organize, execute, control, close the project Identify/communicate with stakeholders Manage expectations Build/maintain project team performance Continuously balance the “triple constraint” Anticipate and track risk Communicate and manage relationships 22
  23. 23. NOW LET US BE PERFECTLY CLEAR… WHAT YOU(IDEALLY) KNOW GOING INTO THE PROJECT Project name Project sponsor(s) Project manager Statement of purpose—reason for the project Specific high level project deliverables Authorized project resources (i.e., people, budget) Basic project timeline Schedule and budget constraints 23
  24. 24. GROUP WORK & CLASS DISCUSSION:INITIATING THE WHIRLIGIG MOVE Do you have the information that you, as the move leader, need to get started?1. Who is the project manager?2. Who is the project “sponsor”? (see handout—glossary)3. Who is on the project team?4. What is the scope of the project manager’s authority?5. What is the purpose of the project?6. Who are the key stakeholders? (see handout—glossary)7. When the project is done, what will be different? (What are the “deliverables”?)8. What is the budget for the project? What is the source of funds?9. What human resources are available for the project?10. What is the basic project timeline?11. Are there any special constraints on the project?
  25. 25. HANDOUT: GLOSSARY Project Project sponsor Champion Stakeholder Deliverable Requirement Triple constraint Work breakdown structure Work package 25
  26. 26. THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT Schedule (Time) Resources (aka Cost Project or Budget) Scope/Requirements (aka Specifications) 26
  27. 27. GOALS, OBJECTIVES, TASKS, REQUIREMENTSAND DELIVERABLES Goal: “Enhance family relationships” Objective: “Hold a family reunion in 2004” Project “component”: “Pick date and location” Requirements for date and location:  Pick date/location convenient to large number of family members  Must not be a school day  Wheelchair accessible Deliverable: the date and location 27
  28. 28. GETTING STARTED: IDENTIFYING PROJECTCOMPONENTS (MAJOR TASKS) Each person get Post-It note pad Write down 2 to 5 major components of a Family Reunion Project—one major component per Post-It note Articulate with a verb and an object -- for example:  Pick a date and a location  Serve food and beverages  Invite people No discussion for now! 2 minute exercise 28
  29. 29. EXAMPLES OF MAJOR PROJECTTASKS/COMPONENTS—FOR A FAMILY REUNION Goal: Enhance family relationships Objective: Hold a family reunion Hold a Family Reunion Pick date and location Send invitations Serve food 29
  30. 30. NEXT STEP: IDENTIFYING PROJECT SUB-COMPONENTS Example of subcomponents for “serve food” component Family Reunion Pick date and location Send invitations Serve food Plan menu Shop for groceries Cook food 30
  31. 31. A TYPICAL “WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE” Family Reunion Select date and location Send invitations Serve food Plan menu Shop for groceries Cook food “Work Evaluate cook books Review ideas with cooks Identify any dietary restrictions Finalize & communicate menu packages” 31
  32. 32. PROJECT CHANGES ARE INEVITABLE: BEPREPARED! IF: Schedule •SCHEDULE is cut THEN must either get more RESOURCES or reduce REQUIREMENTS (or both) •REQUIREMENTS increase Requirements THEN must either increase Resources(aka Cost or (aka Specs) SCHEDULE or get more Budget) RESOURCES (or both) Do you remember •RESOURCES are cut THEN must either increase what this triangle is SCHEDULE or reduce called? REQUIREMENTS (or both) … 32
  33. 33. NEGOTIATION Avoid and resist irrational assumptions It is impossible to do the impossible The earlier bad news is known the better Avoid stressing yourself out, negotiate instead Use your influence – and your champion’s! Don’t lose your nerve. You can do it! 33
  34. 34. END OF PART 3 – SPEAK TO ME! 34
  35. 35. THOUGHT ASSIGNMENT FOR BREAK:WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEAM LEADER?Write one ideaon a Post-Itand bring itback with you 35
  36. 36. BREAK: 15 MINUTES 36
  37. 37. Leadership, influence, trust, and networking: and some tips forcoping when things aren’t going well4. LEADING AND PARTICIPATING IN NEWPRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TEAMS
  38. 38. WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEAM LEADER? Green thumb; small seeds, big trees Driven; “miss a meal” pains Leads from the middle Velvet hammer Tinker, tailor, try again Manners matter “Fly-eyed” From Crawford, New Products Management 38
  39. 39. ROLES IN NEW PRODUCT TEAMS Product/project manager Sponsor Team member (formal or ad hoc) Other participants:  Champion  Reviewers, managers, committees, …  Other stakeholders 39
  40. 40. PERSONALITY TYPES TYPICALLY ON TEAMSALL ARE KNOWLEDGEABLE BUT SOME ARE:  Integrators  Likerelating to people from other departments; want to be on the team  Receptors  Respect others but don’t desire new relationships; good contacts but not good team members  Isolates  Specialists who want to work alone – also not good team members 40
  41. 41. CROSS-FUNCTIONAL PROJECT TEAMS Speed new product development More likely to produce successful products Ideal size of core team: 6 to 12 people Team member more than a department’s “representative” Collaboration, not just cooperation 41
  42. 42. BEING EFFECTIVE WITH WHAT YOU HAVE Be influential Be trustworthy 42
  43. 43. WHAT DO I MEAN BY “BE INFLUENTIAL”? Focus on your “circle of influence” – those things you can do something about Don’t stress too much about your “circle of concern” – those things you care about but can’t control Be a networker Be visible, credible, or both Emphasize influencing decisions rather than giving orders or “being right” Give problems their proper weight and context 43
  44. 44. VISIBILITY AND CREDIBILITY: MEASURING POWERAND INFLUENCE SEEN High Visibility/ Low Visibility/ HEARD AND High Credibility High Credibility BUT HEARD NOT SEEN SEEN NEITHER High Visibility/ Low Visibility/ BUT SEEN Low Credibility Low Credibility NOT HEARD NOR HEARD Reddy, W. Brendan and Williams, Gil. The visibility/credibility Inventory. 1988 Annual: Developing Human Resources 44
  45. 45. GROUP WORK ON VISIBILITY/CREDIBILITYINVENTORY Divide into groups Spend 5 minutes discussing the matrix (and your own results if you wish to share them) Spend 5 minutes considering the implications for leading and participating in new product development teams Report out (2 minutes per group) 45
  46. 46. Organizational influence strategies5. THE POLITICS OF PROJECTS
  47. 47. WHAT IS POLITICS? Actions and interactions with people that affect the achievement of your goals Using the power and influence of others to mobilize people and resources to get things done “All the things that happen and you don’t know why”—Anon. 47
  48. 48. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS Politics are inevitable Politics are necessary Politics can’t be eliminated, but they can be managed Don’t assume politics is somebody else’s job 48
  49. 49. MAPPING THE STAKEHOLDER SYSTEM OF YOURPROJECT Key to managing the politics of your project So you focus your energy on influencing the right people So you don’t forget anyone So you can manage opposition and resistance Prerequisite for “selling” your project from start to finish 49
  50. 50. A STAKEHOLDER SYSTEM HAS “CLIENTS” Sponsoring client —person in position to set strategic goals; person who ultimately decides; person best able to break ties Power client —person who grants access to people and resources; person with whom deals are struck Legitimizer —person who protects the status quo; subject matter expert; person who influences acceptance Opinion leader —Person who is receptive to new ideas; recognized as “up and coming” Career influencer —your boss or bosses Champion – advocates vigorously for the project 50
  51. 51. IDENTIFYING STAKEHOLDERS Who is paying? Who makes “buy” decisions? Who will use the results; who benefits? Who originates? Who defines “success”? Who is an expert? Who loses (credibility, something of value)? Who is open to the new idea? Who is good at stirring up excitement? Who evaluates against the status quo? Who is the first to see flaws or problems? Who will feel the impact? Who does the work? Who will maintain the outcome? Who knows the “big picture”—future direction? 51
  53. 53. INFLUENCE TACTICS Reason – using facts and data  Negotiation – exchange of to develop a logical argument benefits Coalition – mobilize other  Higher authority – gain the people support of higher ups to Friendliness – create good will mobilize others Assertiveness – a direct and  Sanctions – use organizationally forceful approach derived rewards and punishmentsWant to assess your style? See Kipnis, David, and Stuart M. Schmidt.1982. Profiles of organizational influence strategies (POIS).[San Diego, Calif.]: University Associates. 53
  54. 54. MANY PROJECT MANAGERS … Try reason and friendliness first Use assertiveness and higher authority second Underuse coalition and negotiation All tactics are good, when used in the right circumstances and for the right reasons 54
  55. 55. END OF PART 5 – STILL ALIVE? Almost to the finish line By: markwaitkus 55
  56. 56. Failure, resilience and commitment6. FROM SURVIVING TO THRIVING
  57. 57. “FALL DOWN SEVEN TIMES; STAND UP EIGHT”—JAPANESE PROVERB Innovation is essential There are many challenges  Libraries and library sites competing for attention from their communities  No free rides—libraries must deal with open market forces like everybody else Project leadership and team skills are important -- more and more work is done this way in libraries Organizational politics can’t be eliminated but they can be managed It is work worth doing, that you can take great pride in 57
  58. 58. “THE LIBRARY IS A LIVING ORGANISM”—SR RANGANATHAN  With your help, libraries will carry forward, for the next generations, the vital role libraries have played …  Helping their communities turn mere “information” into insight, action, and the progress of knowledge Bartholdi’s LibrarianPhoto: bdcoen CC-BY-NC-ND 58
  59. 59. THANK YOU! KarenCalhoun Good luck to you! 59