Solar powered automatic street light controller report

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Solar powered automatic street light controller report

  1. 1. A PROJECT REPORT ON SOLAR ENERGY BASEDAUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT CONTROLLER SUBMITTED BY AMAR GUPTA MANISHA BAGANI VARUN SHAH
  2. 2. Solar energy based automatic street light controllerCHAMELI DEVI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DECLARATIONWe here by declare that the information provided in this report ison the basis of keen study and hence the information is correct tothe best of our knowledge. We shall be accountable for anymisleading information in any part of this report.` AMAR GUPTA MANISHA BAGANI VARUN SHAHChamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  3. 3. Solar energy based automatic street light controller CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. IC 555 3. Circuit Diagram 4. Schematic Plan 5. Working 6. Components Required 7. Applications 8. Conclusion 9. BibliographyChamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  4. 4. Solar energy based automatic street light controller INTRODUCTION Solar powered automatic street light controller is an very efficient device which regulated the street light working. It automatically turns on when there is dark at the dusk time and turns off at the dawn when the sun is out. Solar powered automatic street light controller is one of the applications of electronics to increase the facilities of life. The use of new electronic theories has been put down by expertise to increase the facilities given by the existing appliance. Here the facility of ordinary street light is increased by the making it controlled automatically. In Solar powered automatic street light controller there is a provision in which the energy required to run the street light is provided by the solar energy.. In this NE 555 IC is wired as Monostable multivibrator. For regulating the input AC supply there is a regulator Section consisting of IC 7812. For detecting the light the LDR is used as the sensor.Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  5. 5. Solar energy based automatic street light controller 555 Timer IC The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. The IC was designed and invented by Hans R. Camenzind. It was designed in 1970 and introduced in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555/NE555 and was called "The IC Time Machine". The 555 gets its name from the three 5-kohm resistors used in typical early implementations. It is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, 1 billion units are manufactured every year. Depending on the manufacturer, it includes over 20 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). The 556 is a 14-pin DIP that combines two 555s on a single chip. The 558 is a 16-pin DIP that combines four slightly modified 555s on a single chip (DIS & THR are connected internally, TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive).Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  6. 6. Solar energy based automatic street light controller Also available are ultra-low power versions of the 555 such as the 7555 and TLC555. The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. The 555 has three operating modes: • Monostable mode: - In this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers; missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, Frequency Divider, Capacitance Measurement, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) etc. • Astable Mode :- Also called as Free Running mode. The 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. • Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: - The 555 can operate as a flip- flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bouncefree latched switches, etc.Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  7. 7. Solar energy based automatic street light controller Internal Schematic of 555 Timers IC Schematic Symbol of 555 Timers ICChamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  8. 8. Solar energy based automatic street light controller SCHEMATIC PLAN Light dependent resistor LDR is used as the light sensor. Its resistance increases in absence of light while it decreases in present of light. NE 555 IC is wired as monostable multivibrator. The trigger to this is signals from potential across 100k resistor. The 230 V AC is stepped down to 12 V by transformer (12V-0-12V). This 12V is regulated by IC 7812 regulator to provide 12V. This 12V is supplied to the whole circuit. IC 7812 is used as the regulator IC which regulates the current and voltage to the IC 555 and the rest of the circuit The output of IC 555 is used to drive a transistor When the transistor conducts it operates the relay and controls the turn on and off of the street light.Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  9. 9. Solar energy based automatic street light controller WORKING The 230 V from AC mains is stepped down to 12V and Regulated by IC 7812. This 12V is used for providing supply to the entire circuit. During the day time condition, the presence of light decreases the resistance of the LDR So the potential drop across the 100Kohm resistor increases so the voltage across the trigger becomes greater than 1/3 of Vcc that is 4 volt so the output becomes zero so the relay remains at off state so the light doesn’t turns off. In dark condition like at night the resistance of the LDR increases so the potential drop across the 100k ohm resistor becomes less than 1/3 Vcc so the IC 555 is triggered and the relay operates to turn on the street light . The solar panel of 12V provides a potential of 12 volts to the circuit which operates upon the IC 555 and ultimately controls the relay to regulate the street lights .This NE 555, which is wired as Monostable multivibrator, is used to trigger the relay.Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  10. 10. Solar energy based automatic street light controller COMPONENTS REQUIRED 1. IC 7812 2. IC 555 3. Carbon film resistors 4. Electrolytic capacitors 5. Ceramic capacitors 6. 230 VOLT AC bulb 7. Diodes 8. Transistor- BC548 9. Solar panel 11. Centre tapped transformerChamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  11. 11. Solar energy based automatic street light controller APPLICATION This system is designed for outdoor application in un-electrified remote rural areas. This system is an ideal application for campus and village street lighting. Street light gives bright light over a semi circular radius of 30 feet. The system is provided with battery storage backup sufficient to operate the light for 10-11 hours daily. The system is provided with automatic ON/OFF time switch for dusk to down operation and overcharge / deep discharge prevention cut-off with LED indicators. Solar Street Lighting System is an ideal lighting system for Roads, Yards, Residential Colonies, Townships, Corporate Offices, Hospitals , Educational Institutions and Rural Electrification. So, in all, installation of this circuit brings luxury to the daily life.Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  12. 12. Solar energy based automatic street light controller CONCLUSION With the knowledge of new techniques in “Electronics”, we are able to make our life more comfortable. One such application of electronics is “Solar energy based automatic street light controller”. Solar powered automatic street light controller is one of the applications of electronics to increase the facilities of life. The use of new electronic theories has been put down by expertise to increase the facilities given by the existing appliance. Here the facility of ordinary street light is increased by the making it controlled automatically This circuit is simple to use and efficient. It can be assembled with ease. It is cheap and hence very economic. It is small in size and can be fixing inside the street light. It saves around 40% of electricity from per street light. So throughout the world if we use this concept then it will eliminate the energy crisis to a larger extent. It is ecofriendly and utilizes the renewable source of energy very well.Chamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management
  13. 13. Solar energy based automatic street light controller BIBLIOGRAPHY • Wikipedia.com • Solargadgets.comChamelidevi Institute of Technology and Management

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