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Summary of debate


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Theory of Debate

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Summary of debate

  2. 2. DEFINITION To defend on one side to the other one by convincing adjudicators and audience in certain systematic, methodic, and logical ways.
  3. 3. • Parliamentary & Non-parliamentary • Parliamentary debates allow Points of Information (POI) while Non-Parliamentary debates do not. • Asian/ Australasian • 3 members to a team • POIS are allowed. • British Parliamentary (World Debates) • 2 member to team and 4 teams in a debate • POIs are allowed DIFFERENT FORMATS OF DEBATES
  4. 4. A DEBATE IS JUDGED ON THE BASIS OF: 1. Matter: What you present (i.e. the content) 2. Manner: How you present (i.e. the style) 3. Method: Organisation/ structure of your presentation
  5. 5. ELEMENTS OF MATTER 1. Definitions: - Set up of the debate 2. Arguments: - Must be logical - Must be relevant 3. Evidences: - Must be relevant - Evidential value (strength) 4. Rebuttals: - Must be logical - Must be relevant - Must be prompt
  6. 6. ELEMENTS OF MANNER/STYLE • Respectable attitude towards the judges and the other team. • Vocal style: volume, clarity, pace, intonation etc. • Use of notes: not to read a written text. • Eye contact. • Body language: hand gestures, pacing, standing etc. • Impression of sincerity. • Humour, wit, appropriate and healthy sarcasm.
  7. 7. ELEMENTS OF METHOD - Team structure - Continuity of team’s theme in all the speeches. - Consistency among all the speakers (no contradictions) - Reinforcement of team members' arguments - Clear & logical separation between arguments. - Individual Structure - Attractive opening/ outline of the speech. - Proper organisation & priority of the arguments. - Organisation of rebuttals. - Appropriate timing of the speech - Summary of the speech. - Responses to the dynamics of the debate - Right thing at the right time. - Ability to follow the progression of and changes in the debate, and to re-act accordingly.
  8. 8. DEFINING A TOPIC • Explain the key-words in the topic. • Identify what you want to prove and what is your stand. This is called the theme of your team. • If there is a measurement involved, set up the yardstick or criteria for such measurement.
  9. 9. RULES OF DEFINITION • It must bear a close relation to the motion. • It must not be truistic. • It must not employ time or place setting. • It must not be based on overly specific knowledge Characteristics of a Proper Definition: • Literal with key-words definition. • Metaphorical definition. • Issue based &/or specified definition (different from time-place setting). Kinds of Definitions:
  10. 10. • You can only challenge a definition if it violates any of the criteria stated earlier. Frequently used terms in challenging definitions are: wholly unreasonable, squirrel, time-place set, truistic. • You cannot challenge a definition simply because you have a more reasonable or better definition. Grounds for Challenge: CHALLENGE OF DEFINITION
  11. 11. CHALLENGE OF DEFINITION • Challenge must come from the leader of the opposition, not later. • Leader of the opposition must provide an alternative definition. • In most of the cases, the teams must introduce an 'even if’ argument. • An `Even if' argument is not possible in some cases. (e.g. truistic definition & definition running counter to the resolution i.e. where govt. has taken the opposition’s case). • In a definition debate, all the speakers except the PM argue the following: • Why challenge? • Validity/ invalidity of the two definitions. • Even if we are to accept the other side's definition, these are the weaknesses of their case. • Positive case under their own definition.
  12. 12. • First, identify what you have to prove under the topic. • Then, identify what helps you to prove it. Put them in the format of an argument or a set of arguments. • Not everything that you know on the subject is relevant. • Anticipate the questions that may be raised against your arguments and see if you have good answers to them. • Block the opportunity for those questions to be raised by addressing them briefly as you explain the argument. • Present the arguments in order of their strength. • Avoid empty rhetoric and emotionalism - be rational. GETTING THE RIGHT ARGUMENTS
  13. 13. • Do not rebut the example, attack the very premise of the argument of the other side. Only then contrary examples can be supplemented. • It is advisable to provide multiple rebuttals to each argument of the other side. • Rebuttals should also be in conformity with your case. • Rebut the rebuttals of your case by the other side in order to defend your case. EFFECTIVE REBUTTALS Attacks (Rebut the Arguments) Defence (Rebut the Rebuttals) Rebuttals
  14. 14. PROPOSITION/ GOVERNMENT: TEAMS’ ROLES: ASIAN/ AUSTRALS To support the motion which involves: • Defining the motion, • Constructing a positive case in favour of the motion, • Providing substantive materials and arguments in support of the case, • Responding to any challenges made to that case by the Opposition. OPPOSITION: To negate the motion which involves: Responding to the Government's definition, Constructing a case in opposition to the motion, Providing substantive material and arguments in support of the (opposition) case, Responding to the arguments delivered by the Government.
  15. 15. • 1st Speaker /Prime Minister • Defines the topic. • Gives the case structure and theme. • Presents own arguments. • Provides a summary of his speech. (What I've given u so far..). • 2nd Speaker • Rebuts. • Reiterates and defends his first speaker’s arguments. • Presents own argument. • Provides a summary of his speech. • 3rd Speaker • Rebuts substantially. • Reiterates and defends his own team's case. • Provides a summary of his speech. • Reply Speaker • Presents a comparative overview of the clash points in the debate proving why his team’s case stands SPEAKERS' ROLES: ASIAN/ AUSTRALS PROPOSITION/ GOVERNMENT:
  16. 16. • 1st Speaker /Opposition Leader • Responds to the definition (i.e. Accepts, Rejects or Clarifies). • Rebuts the Prime Minister’s arguments. • Gives the case structure and theme of his team. • Presents own arguments. • Provides a summary of his speech. • 2nd Speaker • Same as the proposition 2nd speaker • 3rd Speaker • Same as the proposition 3rd speaker • Reply Speaker • Same as the proposition reply speaker OPPOSITION: SPEAKERS' ROLES: ASIAN/ AUSTRALS
  17. 17. POINTS OF INFORMATION (POI) • A POI can be in a question or statement form and should not take more than 15 seconds. • Each speaker should accept at least two POIs. • All three members of the team should try to give POIs, but they must not be disruptive. • POIs are judged on the basis of: - the threat they pose to the strength of the argument of the debater. - value of its wit and humour. • Responses to the POIs are judged on the basis of: • promptness and confidence in answering. • strength of the response. • value of wit and humour in the response.
  18. 18. SUGGESTIONS FOR COACHES Day #1 Understanding a motion together with your debaters. Remember the key words in the motion. Finding the benefits/advantages and disadvantages of the issue behind the motion Discussing them by providing logical reasons
  19. 19. SUGGESTIONS FOR COACHES Day # 2 Reviewing logical reasons Adding facts/data/information to your logical reasons Explaining in one-elaborated speech where there should be benefits followed by logical reasons and facts/data/info. One point of the benefits should be elaborated in this way.
  20. 20. SUGGESTIONS FOR COACHES Day # 3 Returning to the motion and explaining about basic premise of key words. Asking your debaters to find basic premises of some key words.
  21. 21. SUGGESTIONS FOR COACHES Day # 4 Learning to make a good definition. Learning to make a good mechanism (for THW motion only) Learning the role of speakers in a debate team.
  22. 22. SUGGESTIONS FOR COACHES Day # 5 Practicing a debate battle. You act as the adjudicator. Giving your verbal adjudication. Giving suggestions for better improvements in the next battle.