Agriculture Engineering-chptr 11


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Agriculture Engineering-chptr 11

  2. 2. Tillage and CultivationTillageis defined as those mechanical, soil stirring actions carriedon for the purpose of nurturing crops Objective:To provide a suitable environment for seed germination,root growth, weed growth, soil erosion control andmoisture controlTillage machinery: Tools or implements used to obtain the above
  3. 3. Cultivation• is an operation that requires some kind of tool hat will stir the surface of the soil to a shallow depth in such a manner that young weeds will be destroyed and crop growth promoted• usually begins soon after the emergence of young seedlings as weeds generally emerge about the same time as the crop
  4. 4. Tillage ClassificationPrimary tillage Secondary tillage
  5. 5. Primary Tillage more aggressive, deeper operation and usually leaves the surface rough cut and shatters soilImplements:1. Mouldboard and disc plough2. Chisel plough3. Sub soilers4. Rotary tillers or cultivators
  6. 6. Secondary Tillage works the soil to shallow depth levels and firm the soil closes air pockets kill weeds and helps conserve moisture Implements:1. Disc, spring tooth and spike tooth harrow2. Spring and rigid tined cultivators2. Ridgers, bedders or listers4. Roller pockets and roller harrows5. Weed control implement Tillage machines or implements can be further classified into: mounted, semi-mounted, trailed or drawn implements
  7. 7. Mounted implements• Attached to the tractor by 3 point hitch linkages• Implements can be raised or lowered by the hydraulic system• Example: A mounted 3 disc plough
  8. 8. Semi-mounted implements• Attached to the tractor 2 point or 3 point linkage and these implements are normally provided with wheels to help in better performance of the machine• Example: A seed drill – implement can be raised or lowered
  9. 9. Trailed implements• Attached to the tractor’s drawbar and this cannot be raised or lowered• Implement trailed the tractor as it moves• Implements are heavy and usually provided with wheels for easy hitching to the back of tractor and better stability Example: Trailedmoldboard plough
  10. 10. Disc Plow, Rotovator, Harrow and RidgesPLOW One of the oldest agriculture equipments and is generally considered to be the most important tillage tool It is used to cut, turn up and break up soil while turning over weeds
  11. 11. 1. Moldboard Plow Mostly used for primary tillage in seedbed preparationa. One way plow - Design to turn the furrow slices only to the rightb. Two way plow Has 2 sets of opposed bottoms that can be used selectively All furrows can be turned toward the same side of the field by using right hand bottoms for one direction of travel and the left hand bottom on the return Used for plowing irrigated lands since it eliminated back furrows and dead furrows and leaves the field nearly level
  12. 12. 2. Disc PlowDisk plow was brought out in an effort to reduce friction bymaking a rolling bottom instead of a bottom that wouldslide along the furrow Consists of a series of individually mounted, inclined disc blades on a frame supported by wheels Used when moldboard plow does not work satisfactorily: a. hard dry soils b. stony or stumpy fields c. soils containing heavy roots d. loose, push type soils and abrasive soil Built with heavy frame and wheels; in a hard dry soil, a disc plow can be forced into ground by its weight
  13. 13. 3. Disk HarrowUses: i. Controlling weeds, cutting up and mixing stubble or heavy crops with soil ii. For primary tillage in orchards and vineyards as well as in open fields iii. Lighter units used in seedbed preparation sub subsequent to plowing
  14. 14. a. Single Acting Disk Harrow - has two opposed gangs of disc blades, both throwing dirt outward from the center of tilled stripb. Tandem Disk Harrow - has two additional gangs that throw the dirt back toward the center as second operation, thus tilling the soil twice and leaving the field more levelc. Offset Disk Harrow - has one right hand gang (i.e a gang that moves the soil to the right) and one left hang gang, operating in tandem
  15. 15. 4. Cultivator• There are many different combinations of frames and tines (or shovels)• The common types are the standard rigid cultivators (with or without spring), light or heavy spring teeth, and heavy coil spring• Cultivator with tooth equipment is used for weed controls, seedbed preparation and other secondary tillage operations
  16. 16. a. Spike Tooth Harrow – Used for finishing the seedbed by smoothing it and breaking surface clods, particularly in mellow, friable soil – Effective in killing small weeds – Covering broadcasted seeds – Breaking crusts that have formed over newly planted crops
  17. 17. b. Spring Tooth Harrow – Has long curved teeth made from spring steel 6-8 mm thick and usually 19-25 mm wide – Used in rough or stony ground – Useful for loosening and bringing roots of certain obnoxious grasses and weeds to surface – For bringing clods to surface for pulverizationc. Ridgers – Comes under field cultivators – To make a ridger, a moldboard disk can be used
  18. 18. THANK YOU