GATEKEEPING AND CITIZEN JOURNALISM A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF PARTICIPATORY MEDIA A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF PARTICIPA...
Background <ul><li>Internet, technology, & user-generated content (citizen journalism) has been disruptive to traditional ...
Research Holes <ul><li>Beard & Olsen, 1999 - Identify holes related to gatekeeping and the Internet.  Qualitative study ex...
Amani Channel’s Research <ul><li>Examines Gatekeeping Theory (White, 1950) and user-generated content (citizen journalism)...
Amani Channel’s Research <ul><li>Reason for a qualitative study:  Subject matter doesn’t have “firm guidelines or specific...
Findings <ul><li>RQ1: How is technology used to gather user generated media, and what procedures are in place to solicit i...
Findings <ul><li>RQ2:  What are the challenges or benefits related to integrating user produced content into news programm...
Findings <ul><li>RQ3:  What criteria are used to determine if user generated media meets established news standards? </li>...
Conclusion  <ul><li>iReport possibly represents a community gatekeeping model. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple gates: iReport c...
Future Research  <ul><li>Study how other news organizations decide to use content from the web i.e. YouTube or blogs. </li...
Thank You <ul><li>Amani Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate for M.A. Mass Communications, University of South Florida </li...
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How Does CNN's iReport Change Journalism?

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Amani Channel examines CNN's iReport community, and how user-generated content may be changing traditional newsgathering practices.

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How Does CNN's iReport Change Journalism?

  1. 1. GATEKEEPING AND CITIZEN JOURNALISM A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF PARTICIPATORY MEDIA A QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF PARTICIPATORY MEDIA <ul><li>Amani Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis Defense </li></ul><ul><li>M.A. Mass Communiciations </li></ul><ul><li>1/19/10 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Internet, technology, & user-generated content (citizen journalism) has been disruptive to traditional media (Bruns, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars suggest that we are witnessing an end of mass communications (Chaffee & Mertzger, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Future journalists will need to be trained to not only be critical gatekeepers, but also act as listeners, discussion and forum leaders/mediators in an intimate interaction with their audiences ” (Nguyen, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars suggest that a communications paradigm shift is underway (Bruns, 2006; Jenkins, 2006). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research Holes <ul><li>Beard & Olsen, 1999 - Identify holes related to gatekeeping and the Internet. Qualitative study examined Webmasters as gatekeepers. </li></ul><ul><li>Boczkowski, 2004 - Identifies holes related to how technology is affecting news production. </li></ul><ul><li>Bruns, 2008 “Lack of established research tools and methodologies, and because of a limited understanding of how we may define citizen journalism itself. ” (Nguyen, 2006). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Amani Channel’s Research <ul><li>Examines Gatekeeping Theory (White, 1950) and user-generated content (citizen journalism). </li></ul><ul><li>Research Question: How is the adoption of participatory media in a network news organization affecting gatekeeping? </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: Qualitative study involving in depth interviews of CNN’s iReport producers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Amani Channel’s Research <ul><li>Reason for a qualitative study: Subject matter doesn’t have “firm guidelines or specific procedures and is evolving and changing constantly” (Cresswell 1998 p.27). </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathered from long interviews according to McCraken, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>RQ1: How is technology used to gather user-generated media, and what procedures are in place to solicit it? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ2: What are the challenges or benefits related to integrating user-produced content into news programming, and how is the content shared across the web and cable network? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ3: What criteria are used to determine if user generated media meets established news standards? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Findings <ul><li>RQ1: How is technology used to gather user generated media, and what procedures are in place to solicit it? </li></ul><ul><li>iReport community is used to gather potentially credible stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Members upload photos, and video. </li></ul><ul><li>Given community assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally hard news (breaking), human interest stories, and enterprise journalism are most commonly featured. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Findings <ul><li>RQ2: What are the challenges or benefits related to integrating user produced content into news programming, and how is content shared across the web and cable network? </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: Company buy-in; community participation; quality of submissions; CNN’s ability to utilize all of the approved submissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: Community serves as eyes for network; alternative sources; adds new dimension (first person) to stories. </li></ul><ul><li>iReports that are vetted and approved can be used by any CNN or CNN.com producer. The producers decide how content is used. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Findings <ul><li>RQ3: What criteria are used to determine if user generated media meets established news standards? </li></ul><ul><li>iReports must stand up to same rigorous requirements as other network news sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Double check/verify. </li></ul><ul><li>iReporters are questioned about their involvement in the story (what camera, where were you, why? etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Other CNN departments are used to verify if information is consistent. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conclusion <ul><li>iReport possibly represents a community gatekeeping model. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple gates: iReport community, site moderators; community algorithm, iReport producers; CNN & CNN.com producers </li></ul><ul><li>Though the Internet allows more potential sources of information, the process of fact checking remains the same. There is potential to get non-traditionally gathered news through the “gate.” </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge in developing a model or hypothesis is that iReport is unique to CNN. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Future Research <ul><li>Study how other news organizations decide to use content from the web i.e. YouTube or blogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine Brun’s Gatewatching hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine how managerial decisions play into the use of citizen gathered news. </li></ul><ul><li>Study iReport community members to understand if the community reporters are becoming credible news gatherers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thank You <ul><li>Amani Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate for M.A. Mass Communications, University of South Florida </li></ul><ul><li>amani.channel(@)gmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>(404) 213-2121 </li></ul>

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