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Radiographic Artifacts
Dr.Amandeep
L2013V40M
Department Of Veterianry Medicine
GADVASU
Introduction
 Structure or appearance that is not normally present
on the radiograph and is produced by artificial means
...
Classification
• Processing
• Exposure
• Handling & Storage
Classification
 Simplify by dividing them into two broad categories:
◦ those that involve the entire film
◦ those that ar...
Various Artifacts
Improper Exposure
a. White radiograph
Too low mAs or kvp
Under estimated body part measurement
Inc FFD
b. Dark radiograph
Too high mAs or kVp
Over estimated body part measurementde
Dec FFD
Prevention
• Check settings
• Tube to film distance
• Body part measurement
• Avoid use of exhausted developer
Improper developing
a. Too dark b. Too light
– Film may have been in
the developer too long
– Developer temperature
may be too high
– Check th...
c. Unevenly developed
– Chemical levels are uneven resulting in uneven
levels of developing and fixing
– Generally seen at...
Chemicals not Stirred
white
streaky
appearance
over the entire
film
Uneven Chemical Levels
not exposed, is developed,
and not fixed
not exposed, developed,
and partially fixed
exposed, devel...
d. Brown stains
Fog
• Any additional
unwanted density that
results in a gray film
• Loss of contrast which in
turn affects the image detail
Causes
• Excessive pressure
• Heat- film should be stored at <68 F
• Light- from outside source or safelight
• Humidity- s...
Prevention
• Store film in cool place with moderate humidity
• Store vertically & not stack.
• Check for any light leaks
•...
Improper Screen-Film Combination
• Results in poor quality images
• Given screen will emit a certain light spectrum
• Chos...
Grids
• If body part is greater than 10cm thick
• Grid must be leveled, within its focal zone & aligned
with beam
• Grids ...
Grid alignment
Grid alignment
Upside down grid
This results in extreme loss of
primary radiation at the
periphery, with near normal
trans...
Grid cut off
• Grid is not aligned with beam
• Results in absorption of primary radiation
• Image is too light and there i...
Too light and grid lines seen
Motion
• Image is blurred
• Resolution is poor
• May be motion of patient, tube, or cassette
• Problem especially with non...
Motion blurrness
blurry appearance edges are
unsharp
Prevention
• Sedate the animal
• Proper restraint
• Avoid hand holding cassettes
• NEVER hand hold x-ray unit
Screen/Cassette Abnormalities
• Old cassettes
– decreased
film-screen contact
=decreased detail
• Screen craze
– small cra...
Double Exposures
• Film is darker than a single exposure
• May be the same image
– inadvertent double click.
– animal has ...
Double exposure
IMAGE OFF CENTRE
• using the bucky
– not pushed in all the way
– concurrent grid cutoff
• table top
– image not centered o...
TABLE TOP AND BUCKY NOT PUSHED IN
Localized Artifacts
Static Electricity
• two patterns-smudge and tree
• black marks on the film
• electrons are passed to the film during
hand...
STATIC ELECTRICITY
Avoiding Static Electricity
• maintain moderate humidity in the area
• do not slide the film across surfaces-this
excites ...
Debris
• May be associated with the screen, on the cassette
or grid, or on the table or collimator window
• These are whit...
Rough Handling
• Black “crescent” marks
– film has been creased prior to processing
– very common problem
• White “crescen...
Chemical Spills
• Streaks, spills or fingerprints
• Color will depend on specific chemical(s)
involved
• Developer causes ...
Localized Fog-Light Leaks
• Common problem causing black areas (exposed)
• Multiple potential sources
– storage bin light ...
Localized Fog-Pressure
• Dark gray or black artifact
• Localized pressure applied to the film
• May be a result of rough h...
PRESSURE FOG AND EMULSION SCRATCHES
Objects Within the Beam
• Not related to the primary image
• Decreased the quality of the image
• Common sources include t...
Kissing Defect
• Can occur with
automatic or manual developing
• 2 films completely or
partially stick together
• Films ar...
Manual Restraint Artifacts
• Hands in the primary beam
• Gloved hands in the primary beam
• Remember that lead gloves do not
protect your hands within the
primary beam-they only protect
from scatter
Improper Positioning
• Animal not properly positioned
• Body parts such as front or hind legs
superimposed over thorax or ...
Thanks 
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU
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Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU

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Radiographic Artifacts In Animals By Dr.Amandeep GADVASU

  1. 1. Radiographic Artifacts Dr.Amandeep L2013V40M Department Of Veterianry Medicine GADVASU
  2. 2. Introduction  Structure or appearance that is not normally present on the radiograph and is produced by artificial means Detrimental to interpretation by decreasing visualization or altering the appearance of area of interest
  3. 3. Classification • Processing • Exposure • Handling & Storage
  4. 4. Classification  Simplify by dividing them into two broad categories: ◦ those that involve the entire film ◦ those that are localized to one or more areas on the film
  5. 5. Various Artifacts
  6. 6. Improper Exposure
  7. 7. a. White radiograph Too low mAs or kvp Under estimated body part measurement Inc FFD
  8. 8. b. Dark radiograph Too high mAs or kVp Over estimated body part measurementde Dec FFD
  9. 9. Prevention • Check settings • Tube to film distance • Body part measurement • Avoid use of exhausted developer
  10. 10. Improper developing
  11. 11. a. Too dark b. Too light – Film may have been in the developer too long – Developer temperature may be too high – Check the temperature of the developer and adjust time accordingly if hand processing is done. – Film may not have been in the developer long enough – Developer temperature may be too low & time was not adjusted accordingly – Exhausted developer- chemicals
  12. 12. c. Unevenly developed – Chemical levels are uneven resulting in uneven levels of developing and fixing – Generally seen at top of the film when using hand processing – May also see uneven developing if the chemicals are not stirred prior to use (hand processing)
  13. 13. Chemicals not Stirred white streaky appearance over the entire film
  14. 14. Uneven Chemical Levels not exposed, is developed, and not fixed not exposed, developed, and partially fixed exposed, developed, and fixed not exposed, but is developed and fixed
  15. 15. d. Brown stains
  16. 16. Fog • Any additional unwanted density that results in a gray film • Loss of contrast which in turn affects the image detail
  17. 17. Causes • Excessive pressure • Heat- film should be stored at <68 F • Light- from outside source or safelight • Humidity- should be 30-50% • Chemical- over developing • Old film • Certain gases • Scatter radiation
  18. 18. Prevention • Store film in cool place with moderate humidity • Store vertically & not stack. • Check for any light leaks • Safelight must be at proper spectrum & proper distance from counter • Use a grid when necessary
  19. 19. Improper Screen-Film Combination • Results in poor quality images • Given screen will emit a certain light spectrum • Chosen film must be sensitive to that spectrum • Films and screens are often classified as “blue” or “green” & they must match
  20. 20. Grids • If body part is greater than 10cm thick • Grid must be leveled, within its focal zone & aligned with beam • Grids may be portable, or mounted permanently beneath the table
  21. 21. Grid alignment
  22. 22. Grid alignment Upside down grid This results in extreme loss of primary radiation at the periphery, with near normal transmission at the center.
  23. 23. Grid cut off • Grid is not aligned with beam • Results in absorption of primary radiation • Image is too light and there is poor contrast • Grid lines are visible as numerous very narrow parallel lines
  24. 24. Too light and grid lines seen
  25. 25. Motion • Image is blurred • Resolution is poor • May be motion of patient, tube, or cassette • Problem especially with non-sedated animals • Panting causes patient motion
  26. 26. Motion blurrness blurry appearance edges are unsharp
  27. 27. Prevention • Sedate the animal • Proper restraint • Avoid hand holding cassettes • NEVER hand hold x-ray unit
  28. 28. Screen/Cassette Abnormalities • Old cassettes – decreased film-screen contact =decreased detail • Screen craze – small cracks throughout the screen- these areas are underexposed
  29. 29. Double Exposures • Film is darker than a single exposure • May be the same image – inadvertent double click. – animal has not moved. • May be two separate images – generally a film is exposed, forgotten & not developed, then exposed again
  30. 30. Double exposure
  31. 31. IMAGE OFF CENTRE • using the bucky – not pushed in all the way – concurrent grid cutoff • table top – image not centered on the film – will cause no problem with the image
  32. 32. TABLE TOP AND BUCKY NOT PUSHED IN
  33. 33. Localized Artifacts
  34. 34. Static Electricity • two patterns-smudge and tree • black marks on the film • electrons are passed to the film during handling therefore exposing the film • common problem especially in cold dry climates
  35. 35. STATIC ELECTRICITY
  36. 36. Avoiding Static Electricity • maintain moderate humidity in the area • do not slide the film across surfaces-this excites electrons • clean screens with a cleaner containing an anti-static agent
  37. 37. Debris • May be associated with the screen, on the cassette or grid, or on the table or collimator window • These are white artifacts • Closer the debris is to the film, the sharper its margins will appear • Common debris includes hair, and dust particles • Sometimes air is trapped on film
  38. 38. Rough Handling • Black “crescent” marks – film has been creased prior to processing – very common problem • White “crescent” marks – similar cause to black marks but more severe – termed “SOLARISATION”
  39. 39. Chemical Spills • Streaks, spills or fingerprints • Color will depend on specific chemical(s) involved • Developer causes black stains • Fixer causes white stains • Improper rinsing causes brown stains
  40. 40. Localized Fog-Light Leaks • Common problem causing black areas (exposed) • Multiple potential sources – storage bin light leak – cassette light leak – light turned on during the time the film is being fed into the processor
  41. 41. Localized Fog-Pressure • Dark gray or black artifact • Localized pressure applied to the film • May be a result of rough handling • Margins are often irregular and fuzzy
  42. 42. PRESSURE FOG AND EMULSION SCRATCHES
  43. 43. Objects Within the Beam • Not related to the primary image • Decreased the quality of the image • Common sources include the whip on portable machines, restraining devices, iv lines, ECG leads, ET tubes, etc
  44. 44. Kissing Defect • Can occur with automatic or manual developing • 2 films completely or partially stick together • Films are not properly processed • Can see the outline of one film on the other
  45. 45. Manual Restraint Artifacts • Hands in the primary beam • Gloved hands in the primary beam
  46. 46. • Remember that lead gloves do not protect your hands within the primary beam-they only protect from scatter
  47. 47. Improper Positioning • Animal not properly positioned • Body parts such as front or hind legs superimposed over thorax or abdomen • Compromises radiographic evaluation • Positioning is generally more difficult without sedation
  48. 48. Thanks 

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