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Storytime: The Road to Reading Comprehension


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Storytime: The Road to Reading Comprehension

  1. 1. Parents! Are you tired of paying hundreds of dollars for your children to develop reading skills? Want to know how you can get your child reading ready now so they’ll start school with their best foot forward?
  2. 2. Want to know how to do it for free?
  3. 3. YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY Now offering storytime with reading readiness strategies for children ages 0-4 Let us help you help your child!
  4. 4. Ok everyone, you are our most trusted team of librarians! Now that you’ve all heard our new PSA, it’s time for training. Since the first day of library school, we’ve each taken on an obligation: Help develop young minds.
  5. 5. This chapter of your training will show you how to use storytime to develop reading readiness skills in our youngest patrons. So when the time comes, they'll not only love books, they'll be ready to read with superior comprehension. Without further ado, we present to you…
  6. 6. Storytime: The Road to Reading Comprehension Storytime Strategies for Reading Success Presented by: Amanda Choi, Alison Day & Sylvie Rusay
  7. 7. Teaching Comprehension: When to begin? <ul><li>Difficult to know where to begin when teaching for comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>When does meaning making start? How early is too early? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you start and what direction should you take babies and toddlers? Will they or can they interact with text at such a young age?....the answer is YES!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Teaching Comprehension: When to begin? cont. <ul><li>Parents everywhere can tell you that babies and toddlers are perfectly capable of interacting with a text to some degree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But it is more than that. As Maryanne Wolf points out in her book Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain (2007), a child is preparing to read by utilizing any material they come in contact with, from a single word, to the text they see everyday. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reading Comprehension? Literacy? Why bother? They’re just babies . . .
  10. 10. Literacy = Success <ul><li>Literacy is best attained through gradual measures starting at birth. While conventional literacy skills such as reading, writing and spelling are developed later in life, there is a clear and consistent relationship with early literacy skills developed in the years from birth to age 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Low literacy means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher chances of unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less informed about civic affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to meet the health care needs of their families. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to have trouble with the law or be involved in socially harmful activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to vote </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reading Comprehension is a Building Block for Academic Success <ul><li>Developing reading comprehension skills early on can predict later success in reading, writing, and spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Several research studies have demonstrated that early cognitive and linguistic development predict later achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Various measures administered at the preschool and kindergarten levels reveal that patterns of preschool learning are closely linked with reading achievement in the primary grades. (National Early Literacy Panel, 2008). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benefits of Strong Comprehension Skills <ul><li>Children that comprehend well: </li></ul><ul><li>Use their comprehension strategies to deepen and enrich their understanding of what they are reading. This helps understanding of various types of texts, i.e. stories, informational text or poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Are aware of their own thinking processes and make decisions to use different comprehension strategies as they read. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that comprehension is more effort than ability. Studies show that they believe they can understand what they read if they apply the right comprehension strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components of Effective Reading Instruction: A Review of Scientifically Based Reading Research for Teachers. (2004). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Storytime Evolution & The Comprehension Revolution <ul><li>Library storytime plays an important part in helping children learn to read, but this wasn’t always the case </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy-focused storytime (the modern model) became widespread in the US by the mid-1950s (Albright et al., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>This was a response to reading readiness research and theories of the time (Ramsburg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Readiness is the idea that young children need to be mentally prepared to learn to read </li></ul>
  14. 14. Storytime Evolution & The Comprehension Revolution cont. <ul><li>Early reading readiness theories emerged in the 1920s (Ramsburg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>From the 1920s-1950s &quot;Nature&quot; theories predominated (Ramsburg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Nature&quot; theories argue: reading readiness results from natural, biological maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parents and educators were advised not to interfere with nature and to hold off on reading education until a child reached a certain age </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Storytime Evolution & The Comprehension Revolution cont. <ul><li>From the 1950s on &quot;Nurture&quot; theories predominate (Ramsburg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Nurture&quot; theories argue: reading readiness can be fostered and even accelerated by experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parents and educators advised to expose children to books and literature early and to use direct instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Nurture” theories prompted librarians to take an active role in helping children learn to read, resulting in literacy-focused storytimes for the very young. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Storytime Evolution & The Comprehension Revolution cont. <ul><li>Research compiled from 1970-1990 led educators to realize that reading was more than decoding, or the act of systematically turning written words into spoken words by matching written letter or letter-clusters to oral sounds. (Gregory & Cahill, p.515) </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation for reading comprehension is built on certain pre-literacy skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has identified six key pre-literacy skills, which have been widely embraced by librarians and educators </li></ul>
  17. 17. The 6 Reading Readiness Skills* <ul><li>Print Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Print Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Letter Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>* These grew out of landmark report published in 2000 by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) with the National Reading Panel called Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and lts Implications for Reading Instruction. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Print Motivation <ul><li>Is a child's interest in and enjoyment of books (Peck, 2009). It helps to build an intimate relationship between child and text. </li></ul><ul><li>Children developing Print Motivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enjoy being read to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>play with books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pretend to write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask questions about reading and writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enjoy trips to the library (Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Print Motivation: Storytime Strategies <ul><li>Presenter must show that reading is fun by having fun themselves: read books you love </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that children have fun and are involved by choosing age-appropriate materials, reading with emotion and finding ways to encourage participation (ALSC & PLA, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Children love to imitate (Snow, 2007). The video demonstrates that follows shows how imitation can encourage print motivation! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Phonological Awareness <ul><li>Is the awareness of smaller sounds within words i.e. syllables, phonemes, and sounds that start and end words (Peck, 2009; Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Children developing Phonological Awareness can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify and make/anticipate rhymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clap out syllables in a word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognize when words begin with the same sound: dad and dog (Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Phonological Awareness: Storytime Strategies <ul><li>Read stories with alliteration, strong rhymes and distinct rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>With poems and rhymes, pause and let children guess the rhyming word that comes next </li></ul><ul><li>Clap out syllables in words </li></ul><ul><li>Sing songs (ALSC & PLA, 2007) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Vocabulary <ul><li>Refers to a child's word knowledge i.e. connecting words to things, ideas, places, etc. (Peck, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Children with developing vocabularies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>name objects in their world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2 years of age, learn 9-12 new words a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may confuse words that sound similar: cabin vs. cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may combine 2 words together to create a word that describes a concept: last day for yesterday (Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Vocabulary: Storytime Strategies <ul><ul><li>Call attention to and name pictures in books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick out unfamiliar words in stories to discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use synonyms to explain new words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make connections to concepts and vocabulary when reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read fiction and non-fiction to expose children to the widest variety of words (ALSC & PLA, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Narrative Skills <ul><li>Are a child's ability to understand stories and how to tell them/describe events (Peck, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Children developing narrative skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand stories have a beginning, middle and end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describe events in their lives with increasing detail as they get older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>begin to tell stories they've made up themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may use story phrases like &quot;once upon a time&quot; and &quot;the end&quot; (Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Narrative Skills: Storytime Strategies <ul><li>Encourage children to explain or retell events in the story </li></ul><ul><li>Have children help act out a story using props or puppets </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a storytime theme and have a discussion/ask children questions about the theme </li></ul><ul><li>Read a story through with little interruption so children are exposed to story structure (ALSC & PLA, 2007) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Print Awareness <ul><li>is the understanding that print has meaning/that words on a page correspond to spoken language (Peck, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Children developing print awareness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>begin to understand how to use a book: how to hold it, turn pages, read from right to left, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand that words are made of letters and that there are spaces between words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may pretend to read books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know that books contain information and that people read them for a purpose (Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Print Awareness: Storytime Strategies <ul><li>Model how to handle books </li></ul><ul><li>Run finger along text while reading/point to words or letters that stand out in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Call attention to the cover of the book, point to each word as you read the title </li></ul><ul><li>Let children &quot;write&quot; about the book after you finish reading (ALSC & PLA, 2007) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Letter Knowledge <ul><li>is the ability to recognize and name letters of the alphabet as well as knowing the sounds that go with the letters (Peck, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Children developing letter knowledge may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make nonsense marks on a page and call them letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show an interest in writing their names/recognize the letters in their names in other words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know the alphabet song </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write letters upside down or backwards (Morrow & Lamm, 2010) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Letter Knowledge: Storytime Strategies <ul><li>Point out letters and talk about their sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate large foam or magnetic letters so children can see and touch shapes of letters </li></ul><ul><li>Have children form letters with their fingers or bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Use fun alphabet books and songs (ALSC & PLA, 2007) </li></ul>
  30. 30. How Reading Readiness Leads to Reading Comprehension <ul><li>So far we have presented six reading readiness skills. Each helps to develop better reading comprehension in its own way. </li></ul><ul><li>Print Motivation : If children are taught to love reading and embrace books early, they will want to engage with and understand the text. The interest and love developed through print motivation will lead to better comprehension because the child will feel a need to comprehend. Comprehension is the point of reading (National Institute for Literacy, 2009) </li></ul>
  31. 31. How Reading Readiness Leads to Reading Comprehension cont. <ul><li>Vocabulary : The larger a child’s vocabulary is the more they will actually understand of a text. Thus, starting to develop a large vocabulary early, will mean that they are also starting to develop their comprehension skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative Skills : By asking children questions such as, “What do you think will happen next?” or “Why is this character sad”, you are developing their narrative skills. By understanding how to tell a story and that stories are composed of actions and consequences, the child should be able to read a passage from a story and make inferences based on their narrative skills to help comprehend the meaning of that particular passage. This skill is commonly tested in standardized school tests. </li></ul>
  32. 32. How Reading Readiness Leads to Reading Comprehension cont. <ul><li>Print Awareness, Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge : If a child cannot recognize individual letters or individual sounds the child is more likely to mispronounce and guess what word is being used. In such a situation, the child will have no hope of comprehending the meaning of the text. Thus, building such skills early on is crucial to building literacy and reading comprehension skills (Reading Rockets, 2010). </li></ul>
  33. 33. Dialogic Reading: Talk Now, Read Later <ul><li>Dialogic Reading (aka Book Talk) is an important technique for teaching reading readiness skills during storytime </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Grover Whitehurst at the Stony Brook Reading and Language Project (Whitehurst, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Actively involves children in the reading of a book by asking questions while reading in order to create a dialogue about the book </li></ul>
  34. 34. Dialogic Reading: Talk Now, Read Later cont. <ul><li>The primary technique is the </li></ul><ul><li>PEER sequence. The reader: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P rompts the child to say something about the book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E valuates the child's response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xpands the child's response by rephrasing and adding information to it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R epeats the prompt to make sure the child has learned from the expansion (Whitehurst, 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine a page with a picture of a blue flower. The reader points to the flower and asks the child: What is that? (the P rompt). The child responds: flower and the reader tells them: Yes, that's right! (the E valuation). The reader then follows up by saying: It's a blue flower. (the E xpansion). Finally, the reader asks again: What is that? (the R epetition) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Dialogic Reading: Talk Now, Read Later cont. <ul><li>There are five dialogue prompts you can use. Remember them by the acronym CROWD (Whitehurst,1992): </li></ul><ul><li>C ompletion prompts - Reader leaves a blank at the end of a sentence and lets the child fill it in. Works best with stories with rhymes and repetitions (good for encouraging Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>R ecall prompts - Reader asks a question about something that's already happened in the story (good for encouraging Narrative Skills) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Dialogic Reading: Talk Now, Read Later cont. <ul><li>O pen-ended prompts - used to talk about illustrations i.e. Tell me what's happening in this picture. (good for developing Narrative Skills & Vocabulary) </li></ul><ul><li>W h- prompts - usually begin with what, where, when, why, and how questions and focus on illustrations i.e. What is the name of this? (good for developing Vocabulary and Narrative Skills) </li></ul><ul><li>D istancing prompts - ask children to relate the pictures or words in the book to their real-life experiences. For example, looking at a book about pets, the reader can ask children about the pets they have at home. (good for encouraging Narrative Skills) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Other Key Storytime Strategies <ul><li>Monitor for meaning: Realize if you are losing your audience because they do not understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Use schema: Relate the new to the known; use established knowledge to help children understand new information. Make connections with the text and reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Infer: Predict, help young audiences form opinions and draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Create images: Use images and emotions to understand a story. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine importance: What ideas and concepts are most important? (Keene, 2010, p. 70) </li></ul>
  38. 38. A Word About Storytime & Babies <ul><li>Read to babies and point out clues about the story in illustrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening comprehension will lead to reading comprehension </li></ul>Relate pictures to items in the baby’s life. They will understand! Children have an innate ability to construct personal narratives. Making connections encourages them to actively participate and be interested in a book.
  39. 39. <ul><li>The next slide presents a video demonstration of some of the storytime strategies discussed in this presentation. This mock story time was recorded on Sunday September 26, 2010. The reader is Alison Day. Alison is reading to Arianna and Amelia, sisters ages 4 and 3, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>This video demonstrates the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter awareness: through the use of the ABC poster and the ABC song. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print awareness: through the activity with the Arizona tea can, and questions about how to hold the book. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative skills: through the questioning about what will happen next. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print motivation: through offering encouragement and associating a craft with the text. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. References <ul><li>American Library Association. (2007). Reading Readiness Handout Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>American Library Association. (2007a). Early Literacy Observation Checklists . Retrieved from /storytimeapplications/observationchecklists/observationchecklists.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory, A.E. & Cahill, M. A. (2010). Kindergartners Can Do It, Too! Comprehension Strategies for Early Readers. Reading Teacher . 63(6). 515-520. </li></ul><ul><li>Keene, E.O. (2010, March). New Horizons in Comprehension. Educational Leadership. 69-73. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Point Associates. (2004). A Closer Look at the Five Essential Components </li></ul><ul><li>Of Effective Reading Instruction: A Review of Scientifically Based Reading Research for Teachers. Naperville, IL. Retrieved September 22, 2010 from </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups (NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington DC, US Government Printing Office. </li></ul>
  41. 41. References (Con’t) <ul><li>National Institute for Literacy. (2009). Research Definitions Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Peck, P. (2009). Crash Course in Storytime Fundamentals . Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Rockets. (2010). Phonemic Awareness Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Snow, S. (2007). Building Blocks: Building a Parent-Child Literacy Program at Your Library. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. </li></ul><ul><li>Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain . New York, NY: Harper Perennial. </li></ul>