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  1. 1. embargo • Protest strike • Peasant strike • Farm workers’ strike • Refusal of Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations byMock funerals • Demonstrative funerals • Homage at burial places • impressed labor • Prisoners’ strike • Craft strike • Sympathetic strike • Slowdown organizations and institutions • Signed public statements • Declarations Handbook forAssemblies of protest or support • Protest meetings General strike • strike • Working to rule strike • Reporting “sick” (sick in) • of indictment or intention • Group or mass petitions • Slogans, • Teach-ins •Walk-outs • Silence • Renouncing honors • Turning one’s back • Social Nonviolent Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance • Refusal of public support • Literature caricatures, and symbols • Banners, posters, and displayedboycott • Lysistratic nonaction • • Boycott of legislative•bodies • Boycott of Excommunication Suspension of and speeches advocating resistance Action communications • Leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Newspapers andsocial and sports activities • Boycott of social affairs • Student strike and elections • Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents • Removal of own signs • journals • Skywriting and earthwwriting • Deputations • Mock awards •Withdrawal from socialaccept appointed Stay-at-home • to dissolve existing placemarks • Refusal to institutions • officials • Refusal Total personal Group lobbying • Picketing • Mock elections • Displays of flags andnoncooperation Reluctant and slow compliance boycott • organizations • • Sanctuary • Consumers’ • Nonobedience in absence of direct symbolic colors • Wearing of symbols • Prayer and worship • DeliveringNonconsumption of boycotted goods •meeting to disperse • Sitdown • Civil supervision • Refusal of an assemblage or Rent withholding • Refusal to symbolic objects • Protest disrobings • Destruction of own property •rent • Nationalof “illegitimate”boycott • Workers’ boycott • Producers’ disobedience consumers’ laws • Selective refusal of assistance by government Symbolic lights • Displays of portraits • Paint as protest • New signs and A nonviolenceboycott • Blocking of lines of command and information • training handbookof aides • Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycott • Lockout • Refusal Stalling and obstruction • for direct action against names • Symbolic sounds • Symbolic reclamations • “Haunting” officials nuclear weaponsindustrial administrative•noncooperationof JudicialdepositsOak Ridge Mutiny • General assistance Withdrawal • bank noncooperation • TN to pay in • Refusal • Taunting officials • Fraternization • Vigils • Humorous skits and pranks The Oak Ridge Environmentalfees, dues orevasions and delaysRefusal to pay debts or interest •• Severance Quasi legal assessments • • Withholding of diplomatic Peace Alliance relations June • Performances of plays and music • Singing • Marches • Parades •Severance of funds or • Withdrawal from international • International trade of diplomatic relations credit • Domestic embargo organizations • Refusal of Religious processions • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Political mourning •
  2. 2. Contents Introduction 4 • sample agenda Opening Exercises 6 • history circle 7 • timeline 8 • violence/nonviolence spectrum History and Overview of the Principles of Nonviolence 9 • overview 11 • video segments 13 • discussion questions 17 • fear 19 • role playing OREPA Oak Ridge and International Law Issues 25 • international law 27 • court statements Civil Disobedience 33 • affinity groups 36 • consensus decision-making Logistics/Plans for August 38 • scenario 39 • arrest process 43 • jail strategies OREPA thanks 47 • jail in anderson countyMary Dennis LentschLissa McLeod Shelley Exercises for Centering and Closing ○ ○Wascom Kip Williams 50 • centering exercises ○ and Ralph Hutchison ○ 52 • imagining exercise ○ for preparing this 53 • closing exercise ○handbook for nonvio ○ Appendix ○ lent direct action ○ 56 • handout sheets ○ ○ Thanks also to all 65 • international law brochure ○ those groups whose 67 • communication/consensus booklet ○ 71 • CD resister card ○ history and ideas have ○ 72 • songsheet inspired and guided us ○ ○ in Oak Ridge as we ○work for change Many ○ of the pieces in this ○ additional copies of this handbook are available from: ○ booklet we have The Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance ○ adopted or adapted P O Box 5743 ○ ○ from our partners and Oak Ridge, TN 37831 ○ colleagues in the www stopthebombs org ○ ○ movement donations to defray the cost of printing and mailing gratefully accepted 2
  3. 3. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship IntroductionTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- The Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance has provided nonvio- lence trainings for over ten years in conjunction with actions at the Y12 nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. OREPA members contrib- uting to this collection/chronicling of activities have been trainers and facilitators at various trainings and members of the Gathering Community of Nonviolence. The Gathering Community was birthed by OREPA to encourage deeper thinking about and practice of nonviolent resistance. Some of these exercises are our own creations; some have been borrowed and adapted from other sources. All have been used in Oak Ridge to prepare people to take action against the ongoing building of nuclear weapons at Y12 and the military-industrial complex in the United States. This book provides a variety of resources for individuals or organizations who want to hold nonviolence trainings in their own communities. We envision this booklet being used as a starting point for tailoring a nonviolence training that meets your needs. Not every exercise would be appropriate for every training; instead, this is a compilation of exercises we have used at various trainings over the years. These exercises could be used to create a training for: • people planning to come to Oak Ridge for August 6 activities—whether or not they plan to do civil disobedience here—or if they are still undecided about whether they will; • an affinity group coming to Oak Ridge as they prepare themselves for civil disobedience; • giving a background and opportunity to grow in nonviolence for the general public and /or those without much experience in nonviolence; • people with civil disobedience histories wanting to continue their explora- tion of nonviolence as strategy or lifestyle. continued… 3
  4. 4. The exercises and information here ration for nonviolent action. can be selected and adapted for your own timeframe, as well: a day-long History and overview of OREPA, Oak training, a series of shorter trainings or Ridge and International Law issues an evening meeting. We have typically This section contains information created day-long trainings that aim at a about OREPA and operations at Y12 variety of participants—from the that can supplement the Stop the Bombs newcomer to nonviolence to the veteran video at a meeting or training. Also civil resister. included is information on international Each of the chapters focus on a law, how it applies to nuclear weapons different topic of nonviolence training. production, and how civil resisters can use this information in court. Opening exercises Meeting everyone in the room and Civil Disobedience getting a sense of our personal history This section gives basic information is a great way to open a nonviolence on civil disobedience, why do it, civil trainings. There are ice-breaker/ disobedience in Oak Ridge, what introduction exercises. We include a affinity groups are and how they couple we have found especially useful function within a larger action. It alsoThe exercises and in setting the tone for a nonviolence covers the basics of consensus decision ○ ○ training. making—the process OREPA uses for ○information here affinity groups to come to a decision. ○ ○ History and Overview can be selected ○ of the Principles of Nonviolence Logistics/Plans for August 6, 2005 ○ ○ and adapted for This section includes exercises or This section contains information ○ activities for reflection on people and specific to Tennessee law and the ○ your own ○ nonviolence movements, discussion scenario for action for this August, ○ questions on both history topics and including likely charges, consequences, ○ timeframe as ○ challenges within the practice of what to expect, etc. Support people for ○ nonviolent resistance, an exercise on the action can also find information on well: a day long ○ fear and action and exercises in prepa- ○ their role. ○ training a series ○ ○ of shorter ○ ○ SAMPLE AGENDA FOR A DAY-LONG TRAINING ○ trainings or an (9:00am – 4:30 pm) ○ ○ ○evening meeting Gathering/Registration ○ Welcome/ Introduction/ Logistics for the Day A Centering Exercise Opening Exercise: Way to get to know who’s in the room History Circle, Timeline or Nonviolence Spectrum Overview of History and Principles of Nonviolence Includes video segment and discussion questions History/ overview of OREPA, Oak Ridge, International Law Possible special topic discussion: discussion questions or fear exercise Logistics and Legal Issues Specific to August 6 in Oak Ridge Including scenario plans, legal consequences, jail solidarity Formation of Affinity group seeing if there are any people wanting to take that next step Role Plays / Practice Nonviolence Closing Exercise Modify as needed for time and specific topic needs. 4
  5. 5. Exercises for Centering and Closing Preparing as a group for action and not This section includes various just as individuals also builds cohesionexercises, reflections, litanies, songs that within the entire group.could be used in designing a nonvio- Finally, even if you offer a nonvio-lence training. lence training and no one attending decides to participate in the civilAppendices disobedience scenario, the training Throughout this manual, you will helps begin or continue each person’sfind references to sheets that you might journey, helping them build confidencewant to reproduce for use in your and challenge their; these sheets are provided in The Y12 nuclear weapons plantthe back of the manual so you can tear won’t be shut down this year. Milita-them out and make copies. rism, racism and poverty will continue in this country past our individual WE RECOMMEND THAT GROUPS coming action. We need trained, thoughtful,to Oak Ridge prepare themselves with a committed resisters to dismantle thisfull day of training (or series of shorter system. Hosting a nonviolence trainingtrainings) that includes some exercises adds to this movement building.and information from each of the topicsections in this book. We believe that WHILE THIS TRAINING WORKBOOKreflection on and practice of nonvio- includes information on affinity groupslence is very important to the success of and decision making, it does nota nonviolent action, no matter what provide the process or the space for theyour experience level. Even if there are formation of a unique affinity group.people in attendance not planning to We believe that formation is its ownparticipate in civil disobedience, their process and needs time to unfold apartunderstanding of the action and sup- from the time available in this training.port of it strengthens the entire action. The purpose of training is for participants to form a common understanding of the use of nonviolence It gives a forum to share ideas about nonviolence oppression fears and feelings It allows people to meet and build solidarity with each other and provides an opportunity to form affinity groups It is often used as preparation for action and gives people a chance to learn about an action its tone and legal ramifications It helps people decide whether or not they will participate in an action Through role playing people learn what to expect from police officials other people in the action and themselves Handook for Nonviolent Action 5
  6. 6. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worshipTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to Opening exercises • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- HISTORY CIRCLE Time needed: 15 minutes Supplies needed: none This exercise is good for reviewing nonviolent movements in this country and in getting to know a little more about who is in the room. By doing a history circle you get people up and moving, and you acknowledge participants’ history. Beginning the exercise: Ask everyone to make a circle (standing, if able). Explain that this exercise will give you a chance to get to know people’s history, as they choose to acknowledge it. People will identify themselves as belonging to a group by taking a step into the circle. They can self-identify with any of these categories they choose. After each category, return to the circle shape each time. Here are some of the categories we have used. Add or alter as fits your group and the time allotted. Who among us has? Participated in a rally/march/protest during the civil rights movement Been a Conscientious Objector during WW II Participated in protests against Vietnam War Participated in protests against the First Gulf War Been arrested for doing civil disobedience/resistance Spent time in jail or prison for CD/CR Refused to pay war taxes Been to a protest/rally in the last week Attended a World Trade Organization protest Protested against the Contra War Not attended a Nonviolence Training before 6
  7. 7. Participated in protests against bombing of Afghanistan Marched with Martin Luther King, Jr. Been on a peace-making trip to another country—Central America,p Middle East, Russia, etc. Protested nuclear weapons in Oak Ridge, TN Been arrested for protesting nuclear weapons Protested nuclear weapons at a site other than Oak Ridge Done “duck & cover” drills in school Ever served in the military Participated in anti-apartheid movement Been to SOA protest in Columbus GA Crossed the line at SOA Been to Cuba Written a press release Helped organize a fundraiser Ever been to a National party political convention Ever protested at a National Convention (Democratic/Republican) Ever created a piece of art, poetry, music, etc. as a way to protest Consider self an anarchist Ever given money to a group working for social change Ever worked on efforts to improve or strengthen neighborhood Ever seen a stripmine Ever been a welfare recipient Ever lived below the poverty line Identified as a person of color Identified as LGBT Been a parent Has grandchildren Come to the U.S. from another birth country Ever contacted a legislator about legislation Ever spoken at a protest rally Ever performed at a protest rally Planning to go to Oak Ridge for Hiroshima Day protest TIMELINE (meets objectives similar to history circle.) Time needed: 15 minutes for filling out, additional time for people to read it. (This works well to have up for people to fill out as they arrive, and then look over during lunch break or other breaks.) Supplies needed: long paper on wall, prepared with timeline; pens, markers. This is an exercise we have used for people to think about resistance over the continued… 7
  8. 8. past 100 years and to better understand our collective history. We often use this exercise for the first 15 minutes or so after people gather—during the usual “milling time” as people straggle in. You will need paper 6-10 feet in length, taped to the wall, and markers. Thepaper will need a timeline drawn midway from top to bottom across length of thepaper. Divide line with dates (1900, 1910, 1920, etc.) You can place some importantevents on the line or let participants fill it all in. Invite people to fill in political events above the line, and “acts of resistances”below the line. For example, 1914-1918 would have “WWI” on top of line. Underline someone may write “spent 2 years in jail for conscientious objection.” Invite people to look at the line later in the day, noting what people have puton timeline. It is also useful to use it to refer to in doing a review of nonviolencehistory.VIOLENCE/NONVIOLENCE SPECTRUM ACTIVITY Time: 15-30 minutes Supplies Needed: None There are some areas in which we all (or most of us) can agree that somethingis violent or nonviolent. However, this activity reveals that we don’t all have thesame definition of violence or nonviolence. In fact, over time each of us maychange our mind (more than once even) about what we consider violent. We dothis exercise to remind ourselves that peacemaking is an ongoing process and weshould open our hearts and minds to the learning process. It also helps us toremember that we each have a piece of the truth, and that no one has the wholetruth. Facilitator Instructions: Ask people to stand in a (generally) straight line. Designate one end of the line torepresent violent and the other end to represent nonviolent. Read the following list one at atime. After you read each item, ask people to move to the place on the line where they thinkthis item lies. Then ask a few folks to share why they feel the way they do. Then move on tothe next item. Spanking your children. You see someone beating someone else up. You go and hit that person to get them to stop. Spray painting peace and equality messages on the sign at a bomb plant. You’re protesting at the home of Donald Rumsfeld. During the protest a group of people smash the windshield of his car. Voting for legislation that discriminates against a group of people. Voting to go to war. Playing a video game that simulates bombing villages from an airplane. Watching a boxing match. Yelling at a counter protester. Feel free to add to this list. 8
  9. 9. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners, History and Overview••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship of the Principles ofTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to Nonviolence • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- OVERVIEW OF NONVIOLENCE After using the history circle or timeline exercise to get people reflecting on history, we often move into a section where we reflect together on non-violent movements for social change. We have found that a short exercise/presentation, a video, and discussion work well together. Time: 20-30 minutes Supplies needed: handouts – Martin Luther King, Jr. Principles of Nonvio- lence, easel pad, markers, tape if you choose to record responses in discussion. Start with the facilitator asking participants to name times in history when nonviolent action has created change. These may include • Indian independence • Danish resistance in WWII • Abolition of apartheid in South Africa • Abolition of slavery • Women’s suffrage • Labor organizing/ free speech/ the right to organize/ working conditions/ workplace regulation/ worker health and safety • Conscientious Objection • Civil rights/ desegregation/ Voting Rights Act • War tax resistance • Vietnam • Women’s liberation • Nuclear freeze/ Nevada Test Site/ Rocky Flats • The environmental movement • The United Farm Workers • Pittston coal strike • Nestlé boycott/infant formula • Central America/ Witness for Peace and Pledge of Resistance/ sanctuary move- ment • South Africa divestment campaigns • ACT UP! • Gulf War • School of Americas • Trident to Life/ Nukewatch/ Ploughshares/ Y12/ Stop the Bombs • Globalization/ the World Bank/ International Trade • Afghan war • International mobilization against US war on Iraq The facilitator then makes a brief presentation of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s principles of nonviolence. (If you want to distribute copies, there is a master of this handout in the Appendix.) continued… 9
  10. 10. 1) Nonviolence is a way of life for courageous people. It is active nonviolent resistance to evil. It is aggressive spiritually, mentally and emotionally. It is always persuading the opponent of the righteousness of your cause.2) Nonviolence seeks to win friendship and understanding. The end result of nonviolence is redemption and reconciliation. The purpose of nonviolence is the creation of the Beloved Community.3) Nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice, not people. Nonviolence holds that evil doers are also victims. The nonviolent resister seeks to defeat evil, not people.4) Nonviolence holds that suffering can educate and transform. Nonviolence accepts suffering without retaliation. Nonviolence accepts violence if necessary, but will never inflict it. Nonviolence willingly accepts the consequences of its acts. Unearned suffering is redemptive and has tremendous educational and transforming possibilities. Suffering can have the power to convert the enemy when reason fails.5) Nonviolence chooses love instead of hate. Nonviolence resists violence of the spirit as well as the body. Nonviolent love is spontaneous, unmotivated, unselfish and creative. Nonviolent love gives willingly, knowing that the return might be hostility. Nonviolent love is active, not passive. Nonviolent love is unending in its ability to forgive in order to restore community. Nonviolent love does not sink to the level of the hater. Love for the enemy is how we demonstrate love for ourselves. Love restores community and resists injustice. Nonviolence recognizes the fact that all life is interrelated.6) Nonviolence believes that the universe is on the side of justice. The nonviolent resister has deep faith that justice will eventually win. Nonviolence believes that God is a God of justice and love. continued… 10
  11. 11. Present OREPA’s Nonviolence Guidelines: Combining these principles with similar guidelines from a base Christian communityin Latin America, OREPA has created its own Nonviolence Guidelines. People participat-ing in Hiroshima Day activities in Oak Ridge will be asked to follow these guidelines. (Ifyou want to distribute copies, there is a master of this handout at the back of this book.) Be nonviolent in tone as well as action. Show respect for all people; each person has a piece of the truth. Always leave the other a face-saving way out. In difficult moments, behave as a disciple of nonviolence. Try to make human contact with your antagonist, meeting them on the level of your common humanity. Do not hide anything, Tell the truth. Be firm and unyielding in your commitment to nonviolence and your action for peace. Be courageous. Choose to love. Ask: On hearing/reading these guidelines and principles, which one speaksmost to you and why? Give participants a few moments to answer. Highlightplaces of agreement and disagreement.VIDEO SEGMENTS: Time Needed: 20-30 minutes (depending on video and amount of discussion) Supplies Needed: video to be shown, TV/VCR We have found that showing a video segment can often help participants move fromthinking about nonviolence mainly in their “heads” to connecting to their “heart” orfeelings. We choose one video segment to show and invite reflection afterwards on whatprinciples of nonviolence were highlighted in the video and what meaning that has for usand our action(s). This is certainly not an all-inclusive listing of video material; it is a sampling ofwhat we have used at past nonviolence trainings. If you have trouble finding anyof these, give a call and we can help you. Listed below are segments from videos that we have used and discussionquestions that can go with each segment. 1. Passbook burning scenes from the movie Gandhi. This is from South Africawhen Gandhi worked as an attorney there and first began to formulate nonviolentstrategies for dealing with unjust situations. An amazing example of courage. Discussion: How does this action that Gandhi takes fit into the principle that Kingcreated that says: Nonviolence holds that suffering can educate and transform? Whatsustains a person to take such an action? 2. The Salt March of 1931 in India, scenes from the movie Gandhi. We usuallystart this segment from the scene on the second video where Gandhi is talking withthe reporter (Mr. Walker, played by Martin Sheen) at his home by the sea. We thenrun for 15 minutes or so through the end of the occupation attempt at the saltworks factory where the reporter calls in a story and says, “Whatever moralascendancy the West may have had has been lost here today.” continued… 11
  12. 12. This section chronicles Gandhi’s creation of the March and the British government’s response, including a great line about the nonviolent resister as the one who is in control, not the oppressor. Discussion: What was the point of the action at the salt works? Was there any larger point to the great suffering inflicted? Does this speak to you in any way as you prepare for an action in Oak Ridge? 3. The overthrow of the Pinochet government in Chile, from A Force More Powerful video series. We show the entire segment on Chile from this series. This segment includes discussions about violent v. nonviolent overthrows, overcoming fear and repression, and great organizing. It is generally available through public libraries. Discussion: At one point in this film several people reflect on the point at which the forces for government reform had to make a choice about whether they would engage in violent resistance, as other countries in Central and South America had, or whether they would choose nonviolent resistance. Do you feel they made the right choice? Why or why not? Is there always a “right choice”? Who should make those decisions? 4. The Danish Resistance in World War II, from A Force More Powerful video series. This segment raises questions about whether property damage is part of a nonviolent movement. We generally show the section from where the resistance is running off papers underground (in defiance of the occupying Nazis) to the end. Discussion: Are actions resulting in property damage still “nonviolent” if no life is taken? Is property damage ever justified? Always justified? What do King’s principles have to say on this point? 5. The Nashville Sit-ins 1960 from the Eyes on the Prize documentary series. This explores how students prepared themselves to meet violence in the early sit-in movement and the role of training. We usually show a segment that starts with Diane Nash and the sit-in movement in Nash- ville and runs through Mayor Ben West agreeing to desegregate lunch counters. On the Ain’t Afraid of Your Jails segment. This tape is often available in public libraries. Discussion: What nonviolence principles were most reflected in this video piece on the sit-ins? What strikes you the most about seeing this footage (as opposed to knowing the story)? 5. Mississippi Voter Registration and the role fear played in Freedom on My Mind. The segment we have shown starts with Bob Moses and the death of Herbert Lee and runs through Ida Mae’s reflections on how, despite her fear, she couldn’t give up. Discussion: How does fear affect people? What role does fear play in maintaining the status quo? How (or why) do people take action despite their fears? Reflect on the principle that asserts that nonviolence is an active, not a passive, force for courageous people. Do you agree or disagree? Why? 6. Interviews with the “Greensboro Four” on the 45th anniversary of the first lunch-counter sit-ins, from a PBS special. This segment tells the story of how the sit-ins first began, how unplanned they were, and the courage and fear involved in stepping out. Discussion: Does this interview surprise you? Why? Did you know that Diane Nash the tactic of lunchcounter sit-ins was just dreamed up one evening? What did other peopleEyes on the Prize do to support the actions of the Greensboro Four and spread the movement? Were there factors in place that enabled the movement to use this action? What are things we can do to help our actions have broader effects? 12
  13. 13. 7. Women’s Suffrage movement, from Women in the 20th Century: SocialChange. This segment is not an introductory piece on nonviolence, but shows lesserknown pieces of this movement, including jail solidarity. It also explores the racismand classism in this movement and the role that different groups (radicals andmoderates) played in pushing the 19th amendment. Discussion: What pieces of racism or classism did you see in the movement forsuffrage? How are these factors still in place in movements today? What actions can wetake to challenge racism and classism and build stronger movements? Reflect on howdifferent groups played different roles in winning the right to vote. Is that true in othermovements? What part do you find yourself playing and why?DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Time needed: 30 minutes per question discussed Supplies needed: copy of discussion question for each group—see handoutsat back of section for copy-ready questions. If you want report backs, provideeach group with paper (large or small) and pens or markers. In the past, we have read the questions to the group and asked them to break intodiscussion groups according to the one question that most interests them. We have givendiscussion groups thirty minutes to discuss their question, and we have scheduled an hourfor the activity so that people have the opportunity to discuss two of the questions. It maybe helpful to have a spokesperson from each discussion share some of her/his group’s mainpoints when all the groups reconvene. Here are some questions we have used, followed by some quotes to considerduring discussions. The quotations help make sure that there are several sides ofeach question considered by the whole group. 1. In efforts to achieve peace and justice, history is full of both violent andnonviolent revolutions. Is violent resistance to injustice ever justified? Can youbring about justice and peace through violent means? Can you supportrevolutionary struggles for liberation without supporting the means? “I do not believe in short-violent-cuts to success. However much I maysympathize with and admire worthy motives, I am an uncompromisingopponent of violent methods even to serve the noblest causes. Experienceconvinces me that permanent good can never be the outcome of untruth andviolence.” ~ Gandhi “What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the home- 13
  14. 14. less, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism orthe holy name of liberty or democracy?” ~ Gandhi “One pinpoint of clarity was that it was time for us to grow out of the shortpants of barbarism, of settling things by violence, and at least to get into the kneebreeches of honestly seeking and trying ways more fitted to our state as humans.” ~ Juanita Nelson “I have little hope of the freedom of the slave by peaceful means. A longcourse of peaceful slaveholding has placed the slaveholders beyond the reach ofmoral and humane considerations—The only penetrable point of a tyrant is thefear of death.” ~ Frederick Douglass “I do not wish to kill or be killed, but I can foresee circumstances in whichboth of these things would be by me unavoidable.” ~ Henry David Thoreau 2. Nonviolence has been used by those who believe in it as a way of life andthose that see it only as a strategy for political action. Can nonviolence be usedeffectively as only a tactic? Must it be a way of life? For everyone practicing it?For only the leaders? “One of the reasons so many people have developed strong reservationsabout the peace movement is precisely that they do not see the peace they seek inthe peacemakers themselves. Often what they see are fearful and angry peopletrying to convince others of the urgency of their protest. The tragedy is thatpeacemakers often reveal more of the demons they are fighting than the peacethey want to bring about.” ~ Henri Nouwen “The essence of nonviolence is love. Out of love and the willingness to actselflessly, strategies, tactics and techniques for a nonviolent struggle arise natu- rally. Nonviolence is not a dogma, it is a process.” ~ Thich Nhat Hahn “We live in a violent society, a violent world; that is, a world in which force is a vital mechanism used to keep the economic and social system intact. The laws of the land are supported by the use of violence; that is, the use of physical force to make people obey the law. This is the premise you have to start with. If you oppose things in that system, then all those powers of violence can be used to force you into line. As part of a minority group, you shouldn’t think in terms of playing the game by their rules, of using violence to get what you want, even if you don’t have any philosophical problem with it. On a level of strategy it’s quite obvious that you have to try and work out ways of creating social change which avoid coming intoviolent conflict with that power of the state.” ~ Myles Horton 14
  15. 15. “I don’t think any one event, or any one day, or any one action, or any oneconfrontation wins or loses a battle. You keep that in mind and be practical aboutit. It’s foolish then to try and gamble everything on one roll of the dice—which is what violence really gets down to. I think the practical person has abetter chance of dealing with nonviolence than people who tend to bedreamers or who are impractical. We’re not nonviolent because we wantto save our souls. We’re nonviolent because we want to get somesocial justice for the workers. If all you’re interested in is goingaround being nonviolent and so concerned about saving yourself, atsome point the whole thing breaks down—you say to yourself,‘Well, let them be violent, as long as I’m nonviolent.’ Or youbegin to think it’s okay to lose the battle as long as youremain nonviolent, the idea is that you have to win and benonviolent. That’s extremely important! You’ve got to be nonviolent—and you’vegot to win with nonviolence! What do the poor care about strange philosophies ofnonviolence if it doesn’t mean bread for them?” ~ Cesar Chavez 3. Nonviolent practitioners contend that the strength of nonviolence comesfrom taking on suffering. How do we absorb pain and suffering when we createsocial disorder so great that something must yield. For example, what good do weaccomplish by taking actions that get us arrested? “You [the eight fellow clergymen who opposed the civil rights action] are quiteright in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action.Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension thata community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront theissue.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. “Somehow we must be able to stand up before our most bitter opponents andsay: ‘We shall match your capacity to inflict suffering by our capacity to enduresuffering. We will meet your physical force with soul force. Do to us what you willand we will still love you.’” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 4. What are the limits of nonviolence? One of OREPA’s nonviolence guidelinesis “Be nonviolent in tone as well as action.” Does this apply to people only? Also toproperty? Are there cases where property damage is necessary or justified? “Sabotage, resulting in impairing the traffic or property of a railway system, isalways ‘immoral’ from a capitalist’s standpoint because it is opposed to his [her]interests. On the other hand, discharging and blacklisting 3,000 railway employeesfor their activity in a strike is ‘immoral’ from the workers’ standpoint; and sabo-tage becomes a ‘moral weapon’ to remedy that condition. Sabotage as a weapon ofwarfare against the employers is no more ‘immoral’ than taking the first of May asa holiday without asking the bosses for it.” ~ Ben Williams, IWW organizer “In all the riots, taken together, the property damage reached colossal propor-tions (exceeding a billion dollars). Yet the physical injury inflicted by the Negroes 15
  16. 16. upon white people was inconsequential by comparison. The bruising edge of theweapon of violence in Negro hands was employed almost exclusively againstproperty—not persons.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 5. What are the limits of nonviolence? Who are acceptable targets? Whatamount of suffering for others is okay? Is it justifiable for OREPA to take actions inthe Oak Ridge community that inconvenience community members, not justworkers at Y12? “[The workers] were on strike for three days. It was a general strike as far asthe railroads were concerned. It tied up transportation and communication fromParis to all the seaport towns. The strike had been on three days when the govern-ment granted every demand of the workers.” ~ William Haywood, on a strike in France in 1911 “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tensionthat a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confrontthe issue.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. “We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful wordsand actions of the bad people, but for the appalling silence of the good people.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 6. One of the principles of nonviolence is that everyone has a piece of the truth.What does that mean for how we treat people as individuals and as politicalfigures? Is there a difference? “The nonviolent approach does not immediately change the heart of theoppressor. It first does something to the hearts and souls of those committed to it.It gives them new self-respect; it calls up resources of strength and courage thatthey did not know they had. Finally it reaches the opponent and so stirs his [her]conscience that reconciliation becomes a reality.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 16
  17. 17. FEAR Time needed: 45 minutes Supplies needed: candles, matches, copy of readings for each reader Fear is a powerful emotion that can limit our actions, often without us reallyunderstanding what we’re afraid of. Once we understand our fears, our responsi-bility doesn’t end. This is an exercise/reflection that invites participants to hear how other people—human rights advocates—have faced their own fears and still taken action. Italso asks participants to clarify their own fear. If in a large group, break people into circles of 10 – 12 people each. Light acandle in the center of each circle and invite people to get comfortable. Explain that we are going to spend the next 30 – 45 minutes thinking aboutfear. Ask participants to close their eyes and imagine themselves going to OakRidge in August. “Imagine yourself in Oak Ridge, you commemorate the victims of Hiroshima in the dawn light at the gates of Y12, tying peace cranes on the fence and listening to the bell tolling for the victims. You rally at Bissell Park and join hundreds and thousands (!!) in a march through Oak Ridge to the ○ ○ gates of Y12. “Courage is a way ○ “Notice the signs, and the puppets, and the banners. Look who is ○ ○ marching—grandparents, children, peace walkers, people who look like you of life Working ○ and people who don’t. Imagine that in the afternoon you join others in a ○ and struggling is ○ blockade of the gates of Y12, sitting in the road, arms linked. ○ “Imagine you are arrested by the police and taken to jail. As you imagine ○ how you become ○ these scenes, open yourself up to your fears. What things scare you? What ○ makes you uncomfortable? Sit with these feelings for a few minutes.” happy When you Give participants some time to be quiet and reflective. Then invite them to ○ ○ ○ ○ look back on yourlisten to the words of these men and women. Read each quote (one person may ○ life you should ○read all or you may have a different reader for each), leaving a few minutes of ○silence at the end of each reading. These readings come from Speak Truth to Power: ○ have changed the ○Human Rights Defenders who are Changing our World, by Kerry Kennedy Cuomo. ○ world somehow ” ○ ○ Senal Sarihan ○ Ms. Sarihan is a teacher, lawyer, union organizer, mother from Turkey. She has ○ ○been imprisoned and tortured for her writing and political activities. Courage is a way of life. Working and struggling is how you become happy. When youlook back on your life, you should have changed the world somehow. Of course humans arescared; being scared is a very human feeling. But you can’t live being scared. You have toovercome. And you know that those who are against you are really scared of you. You arenot doing this because of courage, you’re not ever thinking about courage. It has simplybecome your way of like. Sometimes I am really scared – for my children. But how nice itwill be if they have a mother that they can be proud of. So I struggle, until the end, so thatthey can be proud of me. Bobby Muller Bobby Muller is a Nobel Peace Prize winner for the Campaign to Ban LandMines and a Vietnam veteran. Courage for me means swimming against the tide. To go on in the face of adversity. Tobe willing to expose yourself to failure and ridicule. You have to be conscious of the fact that continued… 17
  18. 18. you’re at risk and aware of what you can lose – to then go forward is a courageous act. To just act blindly, that’s not courageous. Loss is not only reputation and money, it’s security and possibly your life. And if you go in and face those risks and threats I think that’s greatness. You’re doing it not because you’re gonna get applauded at some point down the road or rewarded but because it’s right. Marian Wright Edelman Ms Edelman is the founder of Children’s Defense Fund and was active in the Civil Rights movement, particularly in Mississippi. Courage is just hanging in there when you get scared to death. One of the things that I remember about Dr. King is how as a young person he could always look scared to death. Look at his face in many of his pictures, he is depressed. He often did not know what he was going to do next. I remember him saying how terrified he was of the police dogs in the back of the car when he was being taken out to rural Georgia after being arrested. And in my little college diary, the first time I met him, I must have written down half of the speech he gave, about how you don’t have to see the whole stairway to take the first step. You can be scared but shouldn’t let it paralyze you. And he used to say over and over again, “If you can’t run, walk; if you can’t walk, crawl; if you can’t crawl, just keep moving.” That reflects courage. There comes a point in life when you look around and decide that this is not what life’s about. It is not what God meant for you. And you have to change things. And if that means dying, that’s fine. But it is not living. Otis Moss used ○ If I were sitting an analogy recently that the worst thing to happen to a bird is not to kill it, it’s to clip its ○ ○ wings, to clip its tongue. Many people were terrified in the civil rights days but terror is a ○ by myself part of living in an unjust system. I felt that when I went to Crossroads, the Cape Town ○ ○ camp out in South Africa. When I saw those young people, I saw myself thirty years ○ isolated I would earlier, and I knew they would just not stop. That’s courage – acting despite it all. ○ ○have gone crazy ○ Helen Prejean ○ Sr. Helen Prejean is a Catholic religious who works with death row inmates ○ But the minute I ○ and their families. ○ see a half dozen How did Hemingway put it? “Courage is grace under pressure,” Courage for me is ○ ○ very close to integrity. It means doing what you need to. Acting. Getting out there to ○of my colleagues change things. I don’t call it courage when I accompany someone to execution. That is an ○ ○ act of love. Though they may be courageous in the way they go to their death, holding on well it’s a jolly ○ to their dignity when they die. But for me, courage comes more in tackling the American ○ ○ day—I don’t feel system and believing and hoping in people so that we continue to change things. Courage ○ is that steadfastness to continue – even if it means that you are going to be threatened. ○ scared at all ○ Like when we did our first walks in Louisiana we would get these threatening calls, “You ○ bleeding-heart liberal, you murder-loving people,” or “I’m gonna give a donation to the ○ group in the form of quarters that are going to be melted down into bullets.” And cars stopped, and people gave you the finger, and they yelled at you. Because violence really does trigger violence. The whole thing of execution is “Get him, get him.” My dream is that human rights is what’s going to bring us into the new millennium, that the more and more we grow into the sense of community, our respect for each other, the dignity of people, that we can learn much better how to build a society. It comes back to me, the goodness, and that goodness inspires, energizes. You know how when Jesus was executed he said “Father forgive them, they know not what they are doing?” I really think that lack of consciousness and awareness is what makes us so insensitive to each other, and so we do these things to each other. If we bring people to consciousness and their own best hearts, they will respond. And so that is what we have to do. Asma Jahangir Ms. Jahangir and her sister Hina Jilani are at the forefront of women’s and human rights movements in Pakistan. Ms. Jahangir has been the subject of violent attacks and surveillance for years. I honestly tell you, I have been able to overcome fear. It was not easy. But every time I 18
  19. 19. felt frightened I would go to the home of the Human Rights Commission’s director. I wouldinvite all our friends there and we would have a good laugh. A sense of humor and thewarmth of the people around has made me survive. If I were sitting by myself, isolated, Iwould have gone crazy. But the minute I see a half-dozen of my colleagues, well, it’s a jollyday—I don’t feel scared at all. Of course, our families have to pay the price for our commit-ment, I feel no guilt about it at all. I have thought about it very carefully. I think that if I die tomorrow my children will be well looked after. They have a verygood father. They have three grandparents who are still alive. They have an aunt who is notmarried. They are nearly grown, my children: 23, 21 and 17. So in terms of building theirvalues (which is what I was most interested in as their mother), they’ve got that. They haveto learn to live in a society that is very brutal and very violent. There is no guarantee foranything, and I think my children understand that now, appreciate it. They are veryworried for me. I have had to sit them down, and explain to them, and even sometimes jokewith them and say, “Okay, now what I am going to do is get myself insurance, so when Idie you will be rich kids.” They have gone through psychological trauma but they havedealt with it. It has made them stronger people. Once seven armed people came into my mother’s house (where [my sister] Hina lives),looking to kill me and my children. And they took my brother, my sister-in-law, my sisterand their kids as hostages. Hina had fortunately just left the house in the morning with mymother. We always joke with her that it was one hour to mincemeat. But is was really veryscary. That was one time that I was really upset about my family, extremely upset. And I appreciate very much that my brother and sister, especially, because they are nothuman rights activists, have never said, “Give up.” Never, ever have they said that thisdanger they experienced was because of me. That has been such a source of strength for me.They make me feel so proud. How can they be so decent about it? How can they be sounderstanding? It makes me more brave that there are people like them in this world. Closing: Invite people to share fears as they want. What is your greatest fear about participating in the action at Y12? How did hearingany of these people change your thoughts or feelings?ROLE PLAYING Time needed: 20 minutes for Hassle Lines 20 minutes per affinity group scenario role play. Supplies needed: nothing for Hassle Lines written instructions for scenarios, if you want to use them (can just orally instruct each group) After talking about the principles of nonviolence and what they mean to uspersonally, we have used role-playing exercises to practice using theprinciples. People some times have a hard time getting into the roles,but these exercises are helpful in identifying our fears about directaction and about engaging with people who don’t agree with us. Hasslelines allow short explorations of how to remain personally nonviolent intense situations. The affinity group role plays allow people to practicesupporting each other in situations as they unfold. Both are usefulexplorations and exercises. HASSLE LINE ROLE PLAY Hassle lines are short exercises, especially if you are disciplinedabout the de-briefing time. Even though they are quick, they can beintense; passions tend to surface quickly. Explain that during the hassle 19
  20. 20. line exercise participants might identify that moment in a tense situation wherethey are about to break from their nonviolent commitment—when someonepushes your button or takes it a little bit too far. It is good to feel where that pointis and learn to handle it, to train ourselves, to develop some “muscle memory” wecan rely on when we are in a real situation. HASSLE LINE SCENARIOS 1. You are at a demonstration calling for an end to nuclear weapons, and a counter-protester begins to hassle you for what you’re doing. 2. You are standing at a demonstration in Oak Ridge calling for an end to nuclear weapons manufacture at the Y12 plant, and a member of the community begins to hassle you for being there and disturbing the peace of the commu- nity. 3. You are legally and peacefully protesting nuclear weapons production, and a police officer begins to threaten you with violence or with arrest.Facilitator instructions: Have people form two lines, facing each other. Each person standing in theline should be facing one partner in the other line. Each line will take one side ofthe scenario, ie. protesters on the left and counter protesters on the right. Afterassigning roles, allow fifteen seconds or so to get in character. Instruct the groupsto interact with each other in their “character” for the next two minutes. (If yousee things getting too intense, or if you see people running out of steam, you maystop early). At the end of that time, take a few minutes to debrief the experience. After each role-play, we take a minute or two to debrief. Ask each side how it felt to be in their role. (Usually, the roles we are most uncomfortable with are the hardest for us.) Ask the hasslers if a protestor did something that disarmed them and was particularly effective. Ask protesters if the hasslers did something that pushed their buttons and made them want to react violently (or caused them to act violently). Ask everyone to reflect on what tactics or techniques or responses they saw or experienced that they might use themselves in a hostile situa- tion. Reverse the roles, either using the same “scenario” or a different one. Allowinteraction for 3-4 minutes, followed by debriefing again. AFFINITY GROUP SCENARIOS Scenarios/The scene 1. You are at Y12 on Hiroshima Day. There is a group of peaceful demonstra-tors walking past a group of counter-protesters as part of the march from BissellPark to Y12. The counter-protesters call themselves “Citizen Soldiers for theAtomic Bomb.” Their cars are decorated with slogans like “USS VENGEANCE.”They believe that the Bomb is their right, a gift from God that saved their ownfamily members’ lives. They call on the “God of justice” to strikedown their 20
  21. 21. opponents. The counter-protesters begin to harrass people who are walking bythem. 2. You are at Y12 on Hiroshima Day. There is an affinity group risking arreston the highway. They have linked arms and are sitting in the middle of the road.There are observers on the side of the road. There is a group of police who arearresting the protesters. The police begin roughing up protesters as they arrestthem. When one protester complains, the police knock her to the ground and beginto strike her with billy clubs. 3. You are at Y12 on Hiroshima Day. There is a group of protesters blocking aroadway and a group of supporters on the side of the road, supporting the action.There are police observing all this. Suddenly, people among the supporters on theside of the road begin to provoke the crowd to violence. Facilitator instructions: Divide the group into two or three sections, dependingon the needs of the scenario. Take each group aside and give them their roles. Don’ttell each group what the other will be doing, just encourage them to act out thecharacters they’ve been given. Part of the value of the exercise is to experiencewhat happens. After giving each group a couple minutes to get set, begin the scenario.Allow it to run for 5 minutes or so, as you see what people are going to do. Stop itbefore people get hurt and when it seems there has been enough action for goodlearning and discussion. Following the scenario, debrief as a group. Take each group within thescenario and ask them what happened, how they felt, what their experience waslike. After each group has had a chance to debrief, ask participants to reflect andshare what things happened that escalated the violence, what happened thathelped diffuse violence, and how did they or could they act in ways to support andprotect each other when they are really in such a situation. Be sure that everyone has a chance to debrief. 21
  22. 22. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worshipTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott ofOREPA, Oak Ridge elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” issues and International Law laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- O ak Ridge Tennessee is a city deeply commit ted to violence People don’t walk around whomping each other over the head in the Wal Mart parking lot here (at least not any more than in other places) Our violence is more subtle and more outrageous We make thermonuclear weapons of mass destruction This work of hell is only possible because of the support— active or tacit—of the community In town there is a virtual taboo on discussing the Bomb—a silence in effect since the Manhattan Project The Oak Ridge Environmental effective Our work compelled the Peace Alliance was founded in on Department of Energy to provide principles of nonviolence Initially increased protection of the public and OREPA was a coalition of individuals drove environmental cleanup decisions; and groups who planned simply to hold we also helped spur institutional a demonstration which would include changes in the federal government to the first ever civil disobedience at the enhance effective public participation Oak Ridge bomb plant Five people in cleanup decisions were arrested on August In headlines declared that For the next several years OREPA Oak Ridge was no longer manufactur held demonstrations which included ing nuclear weapons—OREPA’s focus nonviolent direct action OREPA also became almost entirely environmental evolved into a powerful voice for the We still advocated dismantlement and environment—we schooled ourselves in storage of weapons and weapon enough science and history and we materials in Oak Ridge organized enough to be a force to be In DOE announced it was reckoned with We were scrupulously back in the bomb business—Oak Ridge careful with facts did our homework made the high tensile strength used media artfully were fiercely nosecone for the B turning an old dedicated to our principles and were gravity bomb into a new earth pen 22
  23. 23. etrating bomb the first such nuke in Action commemorating sixty yearsthe US arsenal since the destruction of Hiroshima and In response OREPA began to Nagasaki by US atomic bombs Indevelop the Stop the Bombs campaign addition to cosponsoring the PeaceIn a series of actions (seven during Walk from Oak Ridge to the Unitedthe year) brought a variety of voices to Nations this spring OREPA is preparingOak Ridge to protest bomb building— for a series of events leading up to andmothers fathers artists people of including August —a film series anfaith women—more than fifty people Interfaith convocation on the Globalwere arrested during the year Nuclear Crisis a puppet workshop and In the campaign decided to more We will hostfocus on two major actions each year hibakushaand to devote time energy and people survivors of theresources to educating and organizing Hiroshima bombagainst bomb production in Oak Ridge ingMartin Sheen narrated a video for us OREPA isand we hired an organizer and here we pleased to be theare Attendance at Y actions has primary sponsor ofgrown consistently to more than the Stop the BombsIn April people risked arrest— campaign Our parttwenty one were finally charged by the is educating (we’ll dostate and four by the federal govern more thanment As one local lawyer said of the presentations thisfederal charges “Obviously you are year) organizing andmaking a big difference They are really mobilizing people toscared ” address the global nuclear crisis We hope they have reason to be It is energizing to see people rising up—Not scared of violence We are not a to put the movement back in the peacethreat to the health and safety of movementworkers or security people and we are In addition to organizing the Stopnot really a threat to the bombs them the Bombs campaign OREPA alsoselves But we are a threat to nuclear works to build nonviolent commupolicy and eventually we hope we will nity—we hold weekly peace vigilsbe a threat to the support this commu monthly potlucks publish a dailynity has for bomb building reflection booklet and maintain the Since thousands of people Peace House in Oak Ridgehave come to Oak Ridge and more than Since our founding OREPA has have been arrested in civil disobedi been firmly committed to nonviolenceence actions In OREPA is partici in all of our activitiespating in the Year of Remembrance and In October of the federal governmentseized acres of land in Roane and Anderson counties in east Tennessee Thepeople who lived there were removed from their property and the communities ofElza Scarboro and Wheat were replaced by bulldozers and mud—and eventuallyfour huge industrial complexes devoted to creating materials for the world’s firstatomic bomb It was the Manhattan Project Most of the people who worked on ithad no idea; Oak Ridge was a town born in secrecy Today that time is celebratedwith The Secret City Festival each year Three major facilities survived the end of the Oak Ridge Reservationwar years and became instrumental in enriched uranium through gaseousthe pursuit of nuclear power—for war diffusion Uranium enrichment at Kand for peace The K site on the west continued… 23
  24. 24. officially ended in ; today buildings dismantlement at Y some stored inare being decommissioned and the site unsafe conditionsis being “privatized;” DOE operates an Y can’t fulfill its dismantlementincinerator there and waste companies mission because we are busy buildingimport waste from states to process more bomb parts Under the DOE’sand treat it on its way to disposal “Stockpile Life Extension Program” Y The Oak Ridge National Lab is performing life extension upgradesknown during the war years as X on our current nuclear arsenal Agingwas home to the world’s first full scale warheads are disassembled the cannedoperating nuclear reactor It’s original subassemblies returned to Y andpurpose was to create plutonium for parts are refurbished or replaced withbombs and it served as a model for the new parts When finished the newhuge reactors that would be built at warhead is certified reliable forHanford in Washington state After yearsthe end of WWII the lab diversified Itbuilt experimental reactors producedradioisotopes for a variety of purposestrained physicists with hands on M any people who live in Oak Ridge are ambivalent aboutreactor experience and produced bomb building The work at Y is seenmaterials for nuclear weapons as necessary to maintaining economic But it is Y that carries stability—a myth that has power The on the wartime legacy truth is that Y could continue to of death Y produced operate at full capacity for or more the enriched uranium years if it was dismantling our nuclear that fueled Little Boy arsenal; and cleaning up the legacy the bomb that de mess of the past will take that long as stroyed Hiroshima By well Y had found a Even those who oppose bomb different role—building production though are reluctant to the “canned subassem talk about it publicly The WWII ethos bly” for the thermo the original don’t ask don’t tell policy nuclear bomb Also still prevails in Oak Ridge even to the known as the “second point of hampering environmental and ary ” the canned subas public health efforts on occasion sembly made of Outsiders find Oak Ridge perplex enriched and depleted ing unless they are familiar with theuranium beryllium lithium deuteride dynamic of a company town When aand other classified materials is the newspaper series documented suspipart of the physics package that turns cions of health impacts from wastean atomic bomb into a thermonuclear operations the local government choseholocaust to hire a public relations firm to combat Y has produced the secondary for the allegations rather than push for aevery nuclear weapon in the US thorough study to make sure thearsenal public’s health is fully protected Y has other missions as well In its Visiting Oak Ridge in Assiswork for others program Y produces tant Secretary of Energy for Defenseparts for Department of Defense Programs Vic Reis visited Y to celprojects—Seawolf submarines and ebrate a restart of operations and saidattack jets for instance “As long as this community supports Y is also the nation’s storehouse the mission of Y we will be here ”for enriched uranium And Y has as Supporting the mission means notpart of its mission the job of disman asking questions—asking questions cantling retired nuclear weapons This risk your security clearance or yourcrucial mission usually goes undone brother in law’s or your neighborsand there is currently a ten year And without a security clearance youbacklog of retired warheads awaiting can’t work 24
  25. 25. And there are benefits Supporting half of them do not live in Oak Ridgethe mission means having the best Anderson or Roane counties (The Cityschools in the state of Tennessee and of Oak Ridge has aroundswimming in the “superpool” in the residents) But for those who do worksummertime there the jobs—median income of Of the nearly people who  —can hardly be matched in eastwork on the Oak Ridge Reservation TennesseeINTERNATIONAL LAW & NUCLEAR WEAPONS The Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance (OREPA) believes that the Depart-ment of Energy and BWXT are in violation of international law and international treatiesat the Y12 nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Materials Needed Use letter size copies (appendix) to make enlarged copies of 3 charts: TheNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; Findings of the International Court of Justice;Article VI, Constitution of the U.S. Make copies of the brochure: International Law & Nuclear Weapons to handout (brochure is in Appendix). Copy of one or more “Excerpts from Court Statement” Directions Use the 3 large charts for giving information about International Law. Provide opportunity for discussion and/or questions. Select one or more of theCourt Statements to be read loudly and slowly by individuals from the group. Hand out the brochure on “International Law & Nuclear Weapons.” Facilitator presents information something along these lines There are 4 basic documents for our belief that the United States is violat-ing international law and treaties by making bombs at Y12 in Oak Ridge. The firstthree of these documents provide the legal foundation for action; the fourthestablishes an obligation to act. 25
  26. 26. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty—In 1968 the United States entered, with 150 other nations (now up to 189), into the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT), promising to pursue negotiations leading to complete disarmament at an early date. The NPT entered into force in March, 1970. Article VI of the NPT imposes an obligation on those states which possessed nuclear weapons in 1970—“All parties to the treaty undertake to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective mea- sures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.”—to achieve a precise result: Nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. Article VI requires states to achieve nuclear disarmament through good faith negotiations. Talking is not enough, the talk must lead to action. Findings of the International Court of Justice—-In 1996, the International Court of Justice (World Court), the highest and most authoritative court in the world on the questions of International Law issued an opinion that held that “the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law ○ We understand applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rule of humani- ○ ○ tarian law.” The World Court further admonished the maintenance and building of ○ the Nuremberg nuclear weapons as a violation of Article VI of the NPT. In the Court’s view, ○ ○ “elimination of nuclear weapons is the only adequate response to the dilemma and ○ Principles to hold risks posed by the nuclear age.” ○ ○ individual citizens ○ United States Constitution—-International treaties and agreements have the ○ ○ responsible for force of law in the United States. Article VI of the U.S. Constitution asserts that the ○ Constitution and “all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority ○ actions of the of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the judges in every ○ ○ state shall be bound thereby.” ○state in which they In other words, international treaties are binding on the government, its ○ ○ courts, and the citizens of the United States. They are not just international law; live if those ○ they have become our law. ○ ○citizens have a free ○ The Nuremberg Charter defines crimes against peace as preparations for wars of ○ moral choice ○ aggression or wars that violate international treaties. War crimes are violations of ○ the customs or laws of war, including but not limited to: “wanton destruction of ○ cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity.” Crimes against humanity are defined in the Nuremberg Charter as “inhumane acts committed against any civilian population.” The use of weapons being built at Y12 would violate all three of these prin- ciples. And Principle Seven, the last one, says that simple complicity in the commis- sion of a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity is itself a crime under the international law. We understand the Nuremberg Principles to hold individual citizens respon- sible for actions of the state in which they live if those citizens have a free moral choice. Not only are those who actively participate in Peace crimes, War Crimes or Crimes Against Humanity held responsible, but those who are complicit in such crimes are equally culpable. Dr. Karen Parker, international law expert, states that a four-point test of a weapon’s legal status is based on the laws of war found in binding international treaties. Taken together, the Geneva Conventions, the Hague Regulations and the Nuremberg Charter form the basis of Dr. Parker’s test: 1) Weapons must be limited to the war zone; 2) Weapons must not continue to kill long after a war has ended; 3) Weapons must not be unduly inhumane; and 4) Weapons may not cause long-term damage to the natural environment. continued… 26