Wilson Disease Amanda Waltman Christopher De Miranda Michelle Pinto- Martinez David Draper Period 2 Group 5
What is Wilson Disease ? Wilsons disease is a rare genetic disease that requires the patient to inherit two abnormal copies of the gene ATP7B. In other words both parents must be carriers (have one abnormal copy of this gene). The chances of getting this disease is about 1 in 40,000 people world wide. The chances of being a carrier is about 1 in 90. It affects men, women and all races equally. Wilson disease Is a genetic disorder that prevents the body from expelling excess copper. Copper builds up in the liver, brain, kidneys, and eyes. Over time the copper causes irreversible organ damage. If left untreated this can be fatal.
Signs & SymptomsLiver swelling of the liver or spleen jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes fluid buildup in the legs or abdomen a tendency to bruise easily FatigueNeurologic problems with speech, swallowing, or physical coordination tremors or uncontrolled movements muscle stiffness behavioral changesOther Anemia low platelet or white blood cell count slower blood clotting, measured by a blood test high levels of amino acids, protein, uric acid, and carbohydrates in urine premature osteoporosis and arthritis
Kayser-Fleischer Rings Kayser-Fleischer rings are brown/gold rings (generally a little lighter than rust) that form around the edge of the iris and cornea. They appear in both eyes Caused by copper deposits in stroma.
When do symptoms appear? Where does it affect? Symptoms generally It affects the liver, brain, appear between ages 6 to kidneys and eyes. 40, but can start as early as 2 and as late as 72. In the eyes it affects the iris, cornea, and stroma. When you see symptoms may depend on your diet
What causes Wilson Disease? Wilson disease is caused by the inability to filter copper from the body. This is brought on by two pairs of mutated ATP7B gene. Copper builds up over time inside the body, causing copper damage.
Diagnosis Wilson disease is diagnosed by a number of laboratory and physical test. They look for Kayser-ischer rings. A special light called a slit lamp is used to look for Kayser-Fleischer rings in the eyes. Kayser-Fleischer rings are present in almost all people with Wilson disease who show signs of neurologic damage but are present in only 50 percent of those with signs of liver damage alone Laboratory test measure the amount of copper in the blood stream.
Treatment The first thing they do is remove the excess copper in the body. The drugs d-penicillamine (Cuprimine) and trientine hydrochloride (Syprine) release copper from organs into the bloodstream. People with Wilson disease should reduce their dietary copper intake. They should not eat shellfish or liver, as these foods may contain high levels of copper Pregnant women should take a lower dose of d-penicillamine or trientine hydrochloride during pregnancy to reduce the risk of birth defects
Resources Schilsky, M.D, M. (2009, May ). Wilson Disease. Retrieved from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/wilson/ Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, August 2). Wilsons disease. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/AboutThisSite/AM00057 K Gilroy, R., & Katz, J. (2011, December 9). Wilson disease . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/183456- overview Lorincz, M., & Huq, M. (2011, March 29). Wilson disease. Retrieved from http://www.medlink.com/medlinkcontent.asp