CHAPTER 16 GRAMMAR,
Perfect Passive System
PERFECT PASSIVE INDICATIVE
• The perfect passive is the perfect passive participle (the 4th principal
part) plus a form of sum.
•There are two translations: was _____ed and has been _____ed
paro, parare, paraui, paratus
paratus sum I was prepared, have been prepared
paratus es You were prepared, have been prepared
paratus est He/She/It was prepared, has been prepared
parati sumus We were prepared, have been prepared
parati estis You all were prepared, have been prepared
parati sunt They were prepared, have been prepared
PERFECT PASSIVE IN A SENTENCE
• The participle portion of the verb declines and will agree with the
Dido deserta est. Dido has been deserted.
• Passive verbs are usually followed by an ablative either with a/ab
(agent) or without (means).
Quintus a patre vocatus est. Quintus was called by his
epistola manu scripta est. The letter was written by hand.
EXERCISE 16.7 #1-2 AND 16.8 #1-2
1. o nautae, a deo iussi sumus ab Africa nauigare.
2. nonne a reginā bene recti estis, o ciues?
1. ciues omnes tumultibus (terrere).
2. urbs ab hostibus (capere).
FUTURE PERFECT AND
Future Perfect Passsive
I will have been
You will have been
He/She/It will have
We will have been
You all will have been
They will have been
paratus eram I had been prepared
You had been
He/She/It had been
We had been
You all had been
They had been
• This participle is formed by removing the ending on the fourth
principle part (-um) and adding –urus:
paratum -> paraturus, -a, -um
• The future participle has first and second declension endings and
declines like magnus, -a, -um.
• Translate as ‘about to _____’
EXERCISE 16.10 #1-3
1. maritum suum iterum uisura, Scintilla laetissima erat.
2. Caesar theatrum intrauit mortem obiturus.
3. Quintum Romam relicturum Heliodorus ualere iussit.
16.7.1: O sailors, we have been ordered by the god to sail from
16.7.2: Surely you all have been ruled well by the queen, o citizens?
16.8.1: All the citizens have been scared by the riots.
16.8.2: The city has been captured by the enemies.
16.10.1: About to see her husband again, Scintilla was very happy.
16.10.2: Caesar, about to die, entered the theater.
16.10.3: Heliodorus ordered Quintus, about to leave Rome, to be