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The Kitty Genovese Murder
Katie Wallace
Psychology 2301
May 9, 2013
Mrs. Strickland
Silent Witnesses: The Kitty Genovese Murder 1. After the 1964 murder of Kitty Genovese, John
Darley and Bibb Latane were in shock as the rest of the city/world that a 28 year old lady could be
stabbed in a neighborhood with about 38 by standers or more and say or do nothing. Why didn't
anyone try and help her? How could people stand by and watch this go on? People speculated that
the failure of people to get involved might be due more to the influence (socially) that bystanders
have on each other. To test this theory, Darley and Latane, two psychologists, decided to conduct a
study. "Diffusion of Responsibility" Everyone hopes that someone else will be the first to step up ...
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I would have yelled while calling the police at the same time. I can't imagine me having that on my
conscious for the rest of my life. "I could have done something, I could have called, and I chose to
do nothing and now this lady is dead." How the 38 people still sleep at night, I have no clue. There
was a window of opportunity for Kitty to still be alive, and the fact that no one could even call the
police disgusts me. It took the police 2 minutes to arrive. Winston stayed in his car for 10 minutes. I
would have called. There is no excuse why any of these neighbors didn't
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Exploring a Classic Case in Social Psychology Essay
Individual Programmatic Assessment: Exploring a Classic Study in Social Psychology
Christina Parker
PSYCH 620
October 28, 2013
Stacy Hernandez
Individual Programmatic Assessment: Exploring a Classic Study in Social Psychology
Social psychology first examined the phenomena later termed "bystander effect" in response to a
1964 murder. The murder of a young woman with as many as 38 witnesses and none who helped
until it was too late. The bystander effect is individuals seeing an emergency situation but not
helping. There are many reasons why individuals do not respond: diffusion of responsibility, not
noticing or unsure if it is an emergency, and not wanting to be liable if the person still dies are a few.
The Study ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Implications and Situationism The study by Darley and Latane leaves society with the knowledge
that everyone who is witnessing an emergency is most likely thinking the same thing "someone else
will call for help or has already" so "Always act as if you are the only person there" (Darely &
Latane, 1968). The concept of situationism is the driving force behind bystander effect. Situationism
is "social behavior is, to a larger extent than people commonly realize, a response to people's social
context, not a function of individual personality" (Fiske, 2010, p. 7). Individuals first have to decide
if they are witnessing an emergency. Then they need to decide if they have a responsibility to act
which is when situationism comes in. If there are hundreds of witnesses each individual see the
situation from a different perspective and responsibility to act is diffused among the crowd. On the
other hand if one individual sees an emergency and believes there is no one else to help the
responsibility rests on him or her. The context of the situation will determine how an individual will
react, but people should consider the reality of everyone believing someone else will react and no
one reacting. Kitty Genovese would still be alive if even one person would have called the cops
when the first attack started.
Cultural Aspects Would the study results be the same if the participants were from a different
cultural,
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The Diffusion Of Responsibility Theory
There have been many cases in which bystanders have appeared to do nothing at crime scenes. The
most famous of one is the case of Kitty Genovese when she was stabbed to death outside a busy
neighbourhood and no one came to her help even though there were plenty of witnesses. This raises
the question what has changed in our understanding of Bystander behaviour? By knowing this we
will be able to find out more about how and why we as humans do it. I chose the diffusion of
responsibility theory and the ambiguity theory to see if I can find out if any of our behaviour has
changed. I have done this by analysing and evaluating studies by Latané and Darley, Piliavin et al,
Shotland and Straw and Fischer et al. I found their studies and analysed them and then evaluated
them. There are more studies on that have been done that have the diffusion of responsibility theory
in compared to ambiguity in but that was down to how we as humans try and put responsibility as of
others on someone else than ourselves and also the fact that we don't always feel like we can help in
the situation.
What has changed in our understanding of Bystander behaviour?
Examination session:
Psychology – Extended essay
Introduction
This essay is investigating what has changed in our understanding of Bystander behaviour. The most
well–known bystander effect example is the one of Kitty Genovese in 1964 when she was brutally
murdered and no one came to her help even though supposedly
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In The Unlikely Event Of A Water Landing
"In the Unlikely Event of a Water Landing" If you witness a crime, find yourself in danger or
someone is in need of some kind of help, you should take initiative to help or call for help. A crime
scene, someone in need of some serous help but the help never gets there. In her chapter "In the
Unlikely Event of a Water Landing," from the book Opening Skinner's Box, Lauren Slater states,
"People, the witnesses, those who flicked on their lights, could both hear and see. They did nothing.
There were thirty–eight witnesses in all, watching from their windows as a woman was stabbed and
snuffed." (96) If at least one person would have taken initiative to call for help when they would
hear the cries, when this horrendous crime was taking place the
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Bystander Effect Essay
What are causes behind the "bystander effect"?
"The Bystander effect" is the psychological occurrence that is related to the social intervention
among people. It is filled with anecdotes of people of who stood back when help is needed,
preferring to wait for someone else to act. According to author, the probability of accepting help
decreases with an increment in the quantity of spectators. There are different causes of the bystander
effect and these causes only depends on the perception of the individual and the way people take up
the situation. Most common causes are diffusion of responsibility, symbolic interactionism and fear
of becoming target or getting indulged in criminal case. Firstly, bystander effect is seen in case of
emergency surrounded by number of people. This create the situation of confusion that is diffusion
of responsibility such that we may expect that others will help, so we don't have to. They may even
be better qualified to help, we may assume, so we ought to give them a chance to mediate. ... Show
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Bystanders around the situation changes the meaning of the situation for instance, if we found
someone lying on the street we might think that person is drunk or some other person will think that
person might be tired or may be that person is being hit by some health problem or accident .
Further, this perception also affects the reaction of the person to particular situation that is how to
take up the present scenario. Particularly when we're in a vague circumstance, we look to others to
make sense of how we ought to comprehend the circumstance and what we ought to do. On the off
chance that in a crisis circumstance we see that no one else is helping, we may imagine that we
shouldn't either. Possibly it is not by any means an emergency, or perhaps there is nothing that
should be
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Cruelty, By Stanley Milgram
Mohammad Asif Mohammad Prof: S.Bridges Essay 5 April 19, 2016 Cruelty The amount of cruelty
one possess varies individually depending on the situations an individual has experienced
throughout their life. This is why Milgram received such shocking results in his obedience
experiment and why only a few reacted in Darley and Latane 's studies. Although cruelty is within
from birth, the test subjects in Milgram 's, Darley and Latane 's experiment had no intentions of
being cruel because they believed they were simply following orders and still fighting a personal
conflict which is to respond or not to a situation, while still conforming to the norms of social
etiquette. Cruelty is something that is innate. It is not something we learn but rather something that
is nurtured into existence. Individually, cruelty levels differ from one to another as each being may
have experienced different situations causing them to react differently. In the experiment conducted
by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist who wanted to test the level of cruelty a normal citizen would
go to when instructed by a person of authority. He brought in many different people as the test
subjects and as we see from the results how each persons obedience to inflict pain on someone else
differed amongst the subjects, we understand this is the results of their cruelty that is within. This
experiment was set up in a room where there was a teacher who was the test subject and a learner
who was an
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The Bystander Effect: A Case Study
In 1964, New York, Catherine "Kitty" Genovese was stabbed to death on her doorstep––a murder
the New York Times called "a frozen moment of dramatic, disturbing social change." Thirty–seven
witnesses failed to come to her aid claiming they "didn't want to get involved." (Gansberg, 1964).
Whilst this claim has since been dismissed (Pelonero, 2016), ironically, her sensational case
provoked a public outcry and launched a sociological theory known as the "Bystander Effect." The
bystander effect is by and large viewed as a well–established experiential phenomenon in social
psychology (e.g., Darley & Latané, 1968; Latané & Darley, 1968; Latané & Nida, 1981), wherein an
individual, who is witness to another person in distress and requires assistance, ... Show more
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Hortensius, Schutter and de Gelder (2016), carried out four experiments with the aim to investigate
the influence of bystanders on the responses of individuals to an emergency. They examined the
differential effects of trait sympathy and personal distress on the willingness to help with bystanders
present. The outcome demonstrated that despite the fact that personal distress and sympathy
anticipated generally quicker reactions to an emergency when no bystanders were present, personal
distress was most reliably predictive of a reduction in action preparation when bystanders were
present during a crisis. For the most this research provides further evidence to the bystander effect
but the use of video clips, would make it easier for participants to feel empathy (Singer, & Lamm,
2009) which deducts from the validity of the results – the current study aims to eliminate this by
using written
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Social Media And The Bystander Effect
In April of 2017, a hardworking doctor was forced to leave and lugged off a plane for no apparent
reason; soon after, a video of the incident was posted online, causing outrage throughout our media–
enhanced world. A woman's hopeless cry for help was not enough, and although several passengers
recorded the horrific episode, no one intervened nor did anyone help the passenger that had been
treated so awfully. Technology gives us emotional and physical comfort, whether that be in
expressing feelings or chiming in on a controversial current event, in an age where social media has
an immense impact on our habits on and off the web; yet in reality, our phones, computers, and
tablets are turning us into active bystanders allowing and perhaps even amplifying the bystander
effect. The diffusion of responsibility is a poison that begins with cell phone usage and spreads to
social media. Today, people are too reliant on technology and fail to comprehend that social media is
not social activism. The Bystander Effect was first demonstrated by psychologists Bibb Latané and
John Darley in 1968, four years after the brutal murder (encompassing thirty or more witnesses) of
Kitty Genovese. It is a social phenomenon in which observers believe that someone else in a group
will intervene and offer help to a victim in need (1). According to these psychologists, there are two
important factors attributed to this phenomenon, social influence and a perceived diffusion of
responsibility. Social
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Darley And Bibb Latane Experiment
John M. Darley and Bibb Latané conducted a social experiment that they titled the "Bystander
Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility" experiment. The purpose of this study
was to see how quickly bystanders would respond to an emergency to provide aid. Also studied was
how different factors like the number of other bystanders would influence how quickly people
responded to the emergency. Darley and Latané's hypothesis was that the more bystanders to an
emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid
(Darley & Latané, p. 377). The study was conducted using college students. Fifty–nine female and
thirteen male students in introductory psychology courses at New York University ... Show more
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First, the study not only measured the speed at which the participants responded to the emergency,
they also factored in other variables that might have affected the outcome. With the results they
received from the participants, they ran different variations as mentioned in the previous paragraph
that had to do with the gender of the participants, the medical competence of the participants, and
even the personality of the participants to see what might affect the participant's response to the
emergency. It was smart to include all these smaller, but potentially significant, variables that might
affect the outcome. Second, the procedure of the experiment was well thought through. They
managed to find a way to isolate the participants so that they were only vaguely aware of the others
who were aware of the emergency and remove the experimenter from the room so that the "seizure"
was perceived as real. The procedure was effective in producing the results that were needed for this
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Bystander Effect Essay
The bystander effect is a concept that concludes that when the number of bystanders is increased in
an emergency situation, the less likely any of the bystanders will assist the victim. Kitty Genovese
was murdered in front of her New York apartment and about 38 residents witnessed yet decided not
to assist by calling police, or trying to stop her attacker. Kitty's death, sparked a concern for many
people and got social psychologists to question if it is in the human nature to not help those in need,
it also led to the findings of other elements that are related to the reasons why the bystander effect
occurs in large groups compared to when someone witnesses an accident by themselves.
One of the main reasons why the bystander effect occurs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
When a bystander has decided to help, they must decide what kind of help is appropriate for the
situation. For example, if somebody collapses and a bystander does not know CPR, but decides to
assist, they should probably assist by calling for emergency services and trying to find another
bystander that can provide CPR. Often time's bystanders will not assist because they are afraid they
might make matters worse, or place themselves in danger if the situation is considered dangerous.
This is where, as a society, we can work on informing more people on how to assist others who may
be in an alarming situation such as a stroke, allergic reaction, choking, alcohol and water poisoning,
seizures and much more. If an individual is confident enough to perform these procedures then they
will be more likely to assist an individual who needs their help. In addition, since this individual has
decided to help, others will follow and try to assist in any way possible. In conclusion, if more
people are trained or conditioned to an immediate reaction when they see someone in trouble, they
will be more likely to help since they will have the confidence as they will be knowledgeable on
how to care for those in danger. Thus they will break the social influence and step out of the group
to ensure everyone is
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The Problem Of Social Psychology
Social psychology is the study of how people think, feel, and act as a result of being present among
others. At times, a direct contact is not required to fully influence a person. The imagined or implied
presence of others is sufficient to carry out a full effect on another person. Examples to portray how
the impact of others can have an authority over the way we function socially can be found almost
anywhere around us. The media is filled with many examples from recent headlines that may offer
an illustration of this phenomenon. In recent news, the National Public Radio (NPR), a non–profit
membership media organization, aired an interview discussing Syria 's bloody civil war. With more
than four million people who have fled the country thus far, it has easily been named one of the
worst refugee situations in history. Millions more have also been displaced within Syria. Although
we rarely hear from the people inside, NPR was able to air an interview it conducted with one of the
citizens who lives in the broken country. Saeed al–Batal, a photographer and filmmaker who did not
use his real name for security reasons, reveals how horrific the experiences currently are in Syria. In
this paper, the transcript of the interview will be used portray how, even when situations are clearly
appalling and catastrophic, the presence of others effects people's contributions and willingness to
help. It will also be used to psychologically understand why people help, why people do not, when
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Analyzing The Bystander Effect Of The Kitty Genovese Murder
Kitty Genovese was a woman from New York City who was stabbed to death three separate times
outside her apartment building in Kew Gardens. The first two times being outside her apartment,
and finally finishing her off the assailant returned stabbing her on the floor at the foot of the stairs.
Much controversy arose from the Kitty Genovese murder, due to how public the murder was, and
how no one stood up for her, or even alerted the police. After Kitty Genovese's murder, questions
began to arise, why didn't anyone take action, how was the assailant able to stab her three times in
public, and why weren't the police or ambulances called sooner? All these questions could be
answered by a syndrome, titled after the Kitty Genovese murder, as the "Bystander Effect". ... Show
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In the experiment they tested the responsiveness of individuals and how they reacted under stress
when first, alone, and then second within a crowd. Each time the people that were under pressure
and alone reacted in a higher rate than those in the crowds. Researchers have justified people's non
responsiveness within a crowd, with diffusion of responsibility, in which people are less likely to
take action within a crowd, because they feel someone else will take responsibility. On March 14
1964, Kitty Genovese was the ultimate test subject for the Bystander Syndrome, having been
stabbed twice in public and left to die on her apartment stairs, but the question that remains
unanswered, under matters of a life, is the silence of the crowd truly due to diffusion of
responsibility? Or lack of interest and
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Bystander Apathy Research Paper
Bystander apathy is a strange psychological effect that has been observed over several years. It
happens when a person is in a large group of people and an emergency is occurring. Although under
different circumstances the person will have the reasonable reaction and assist the person in need.
However when in a large group of people the people who are observing the emergency go through
an occurrence called "diffusion of responsibility". This causes them to think that because of the
amount of people around the emergency, one of them will act, allowing them to be inactive. This is
an issue as this causes every person around the area think that others will act, therefore, nobody acts
as a result.
The most common example of bystander apathy is
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The Theory Of The Bystander Effect
The two articles I have chosen to read and discuss about are over the theory of the bystander effect.
Reason being for why I have chosen to talk about this topic is because I myself am individual that if
I were to see someone in danger would offer help. It astonishes me how many people do not offer
any help if they are around others either because of fear or they do not want to be the first one to
help. In the first article, Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility by
Darley, J.M., & Latane, B., talks about an occurrence that happened in New York City, where a
young woman was stabbed to death. The attacker whom killed Kitty Genovese, the young lady, took
longer than half an hour to kill her. Within 38 people whom watched her be killed none lifted a
finger to save the woman's life, because of what supposedly could happen to them for talking. The
hypothesis in this article suggested that the more bystanders there is around an emergency the less
likeliness any one will assist someone in need of aid. The participants that were apart of this study
were from New York University and enrolled in introduction psychology courses where they were
told that they would have to take apart of the experiment as a class requirement. The total number of
subjects who participated were 89, 59 were females and the other 30 were males. In this research the
purpose was to put a group of students together in–group sizes, which were two (Subject & victim),
three (S,
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Diffusion Of Responsibility In Lord Of The Flies
Darley and Latane, use the concept of diffusion of responsibility to explain the psychology behind
why no one stepped in to help in either scenarios. According to Slater, diffusion of responsibility is
explained as "The more people witnessing an event, the less responsible any one individual feels
and, indeed, is because responsibility is evenly distributed among the crowd" (Slater, 102).
Basically, the greater amount of spectators decreases the chances for the an individual to aid the
victim in an emergency situation. A sole witness is less likely to respond if there are multiple
witnesses around in comparison to scenario being one on one. The reason being that, the individual
no longer feels as though they are the only ones responsible considering multiple witnesses are now
as involved as they are. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
An incident begins when the boys are assured to have found the 'beast', an imaginational monster
who they believe roams the island. What the young boys were unaware of during the time was that
they had ignorantly mistaken Simon, a young boy, for the beast. Throughout the episode of Simon's
massacre neither Ralph or Piggy, who were spectators stepped in to attempt and stop Simons
homicide. Darley and Latane diffusion of responsibility would serve a legitimate explanation for the
boys actions. None of them stepped in to help to because they assumed and depended for someone
else would now that they were now involved. Now on the other hand, based on the theory if it would
have been the case where Simon was being attacked and there was only one witness instead of a
group there is a higher chance he would have been
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Examples Of Altrruism In A Streetcar Named Desire
I have always depended on the kindness of strangers – Blanche DuBois, A Streetcar Named Desire
Definition of Empathy and Altruism
Empathy derives from the German word Einfühlung, meaning to feel the suffering and troubles of
another from within (Clarke, 2014). The empathic concern that enlivens us to action and to alleviate
the perils, poverty or punishments borne by another. Humans devoid of empathy are bereft of
compassion and immune to the needs and welfare of another.
The renowned researcher Stephen Post defined altruism as "Unselfish delight in the wellbeing of
others and engagement in acts of care on their behalf". I would add that authentic altruistic
expression demands the wellbeing of another as paramount, often to the detriment ... Show more
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Daniel Batson (1989) and his associates found out that regardless of anticipated mood enhancement,
high–empathy subjects helped more than low–empathy subjects. In other words, high–empathy
subjects would still helped more either under easy escape conditions or even when they could
probably get good mood to relieve from negative state without helping. Therefore, they concluded
that, obviously, something other than relieving negative state was motivating the helping behavior of
the high–empathy subjects in their studies. It contradicted with the theory proposed by Robert
Cialdini (1987) which supported that empathy–altruism hypothesis was actually the product of an
entirely egoistic desire for personal mood
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The Bystander Effect
"Thirty–Eight Who Saw Murder But Didn't Call the Police" is unfortunately a true story about
citizens who witnessed their neighbor being assaulted and didn't take action. The neighbor's
negligence perturbed me, and I had to look into it. The Samuel Merritt University refers to it as "The
Bystander Effect" and explains it as "a diffusion of responsibility . . . the more people there are to
witness an event, the less each individual feels personally responsible for doing something" (Samuel
Merritt University, "Bystander Intervention & Prevention"). This article about Kitty Genovese and
her selfish neighbors reminded me of a dispute I once saw between a small group and an individual.
It wasn't the fight that startled me, but the group of apprehensive
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Kitty Genovese's Murder Case
Two weeks after Kitty Genovese's murder case. The reporter of the New York Times, Martin
Gansberg, assigned a story with a shocking headline: "Thirty–Seven Who Saw Murder Didn't Call
Police." A story began with the strong description: "For more than half an hour 38 respectable, law–
abiding citizens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens
(Martin Gansberg)." This case had became concerned about people's lack of concern.
Why the witnesses demonstrated a lack of reaction towards the victim's need for help? In 1968, two
Social psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley came up with a concept called "The Bystander
Effect", which supposed "the presence of diffusion of responsibility" and "social influence".
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Bystander Intervention In Emergencies: Diffusion Of Error...
In the journal article " The Bystander Intervention In Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility" by
John M. Darley and Bibb Latane performed the study in order to see how individuals the bystanders
would react in a serious situation where a victim is being harmed or is in painful situation. The
researchers wanted to determine how the bystander(s) fulfilled their responsibility in a conflict with
other observers being around the same conflict. The research question of this study is that how do
individuals react and respond to a conflict, while being responsible to assit help? The researchers
stated the hypothesis as, " The more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly,
any one bystander will intervene to provide the aid" (Darley & Latane, ... Show more content on
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The participants are college students, which include fifty–nine females and thirteen males (Darley &
Latane, 1968) from New York University. In this study intercom system equipment is used, which
records the participants discussion through the usage of a microphone. The participants were
anonymous as they were placed in separate individual room. The participants were asked to share
their college life problems to strangers. First the subjects were requested to provide some
background information about their life before explaning their problems. Then the subject(s)
discussed their problems in turns, while one of the subject manifested a seizure. The experimenter
recorder the time and the speed the subjects took to report the emergency. The results of this study
was that the larger the group size becomes the less respoblilty is shown by the subjects with slower
reaction rate. The experimenters stated, "The victim is considerably more likely to have gotten help
from one or two observers than from five during the first minute of the fit (Darley & Latane,
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Kitty Genovese Research Paper
On March 13, 1964, Catherine Susan Genovese, better known as "Kitty" Genovese was murdered
outside her apartment building in New York. Kitty screamed for her life as she was stabbed
repeatedly; reportedly 38 of her neighbors heard her cries. The shocking part of this tragedy is that
none of the neighbors called the police as Kitty experienced torture for more than a half–hour. Her
death although tragic, was a key event is psychological history by demonstrating the sad reality of
the bystander effect, the swaying of an individual to help someone due to the presence of others. *
Additionally, her death displays the importance of being educated on bystander intervention and
speaking up when you notice a potentially harmful event occurring. Bystander ... Show more
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One day, the person who was sitting in front of me left to presumably go to the restroom. When they
returned, they were so elated that their friend had held their seat that they said to their friend, "Wow
thanks bro! You my n*gga!". Me being an African American and them white, immediately I
interpreted that this was a problem. I was extremely offended and assembled personal responsibility
to speak up for the other Black people around me who may have not felt brave enough to educated
that student. After thinking about the situation and the many ways it could play out depending on the
attitude of the person, I felt it would be best for me to be direct and address the problem myself
rather than involving other peers or my professor. Also, I decided it would be more effective for me
to intervene after class so that the student would not be uncomfortable or decide to make a scene in
front of 300 people. After class ended, I politely approached the student and asked them if they had
used the n–word to make sure that I did not misinterpret what was said. They hesitantly admitted
their fault and I proceeded to let them know that I was offended and how they could have potentially
been harmed if someone else had heard what they said. * After they repeatedly apologized, we went
our separate ways.
Overall I do not believe my intervening made a difference, at least not
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Bystander Intervention Research Paper
Running Head: EFFECT OF RESPONSIBILITY ON BYSTANDER INTERVENTION 1 Bystander
Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility John M. Darley, Bibb Latanѐ Milad
Marghoob–Zamany (301 314 568) Psyc 201w Research Methods Submitted to: Camille
Weinsheimer Running Head: EFFECT OF RESPONSIBILITY ON BYSTANDER
INTERVENTION 2 Introduction The objective of this study was to indicate the reasons as to why
such demoralizing and inhumane lack of intervention was given to the young women who was
stabbed to death in a residential area of New York City. Researchers presumed the reasons as to why
bystanders refused to intervene, ranged from imbrute demeanor, unwanted liability and the
application of unperceived aid. These considerations lead researchers to develop the hypothesis that
the more bystanders that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The results of this experiment contrasted with those of the Berkowitz, Klanderman and Harris 1964
finding. Their findings presumed that males tend to acquire more responsibility when helping other
in emergencies. The role of personality traits or gender did not predict the speed at which a
bystander is inclined to intervene in an emergency, since both men and women had report speeds
that were similar. Furthermore, bystander intervention could be influenced by another participants
response to the emergency. This leads us to the idea that if people understand situational pressures,
they may have a greater chance of overcoming it. In addition, participants in the two–person group
managed to overcome their interpersonal conflict and reported the seizure. Participants who knew
that other participants were present, the cost of not reporting the seizure was reduced, allowing them
to resolve their own conflict; The conflict was between letting the victim suffer or rushing to help
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The Bystander Revolution : How Social Media Shapes And...
The Bystander Revolution: How Social Media Shapes and Reduces the Bystander Effect
The purpose of this paper is to examine how social media affects and can affect the bystander effect,
which is the idea that individuals will not offer help to victims when other people are present under
the assumption that another person will help the victim. After examining the classic example of the
bystander effect, examples of social media preventing or lessening the effect will be explored. These
examples will highlight the role social media can play in diminishing the bystander effect and
attempt to explain why it can help. The bystander effect was first observed by the media and social
psychologists in 1964 through the case of Kitty Genovese, a 28–year old woman. On her way home
from work, Genovese was stabbed multiple times over the course of 30 minutes. The murderer was
able to leave the scene multiple times and come back to stab Genovese more. While this was
happening, 38 people observed this from their window. Despite the number of people who viewed
the incident, no one reported this incident was happening to the authorities. While this was written
off as an effect from living in a large city by the media, psychologists John Darley and Bibb Latané
realized something else was occurring: the bystanders all realized that other people were watching
and assumed that another person would report the incident. This caused social inhibition amongst all
of the viewers which in
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Bystander Superpower
Kaya Pudlo
May 5th, 2016
Social Psychology
Speaking Up – A Modern Superpower
Recently, a young student from DePaul University in Chicago was attacked on a train. Jessica
Hughes was on the Blue Line, also known as the "L", when two men attacked her during the day
(Holmes). Hughes was not the only passenger on the train, and was screaming for help, so why
didn't anybody step up to help her? After a lengthy discussion with my mom about this topic and
after hearing her scoff and claim that she would have helped, I told her about the clear, silent culprit
– the bystander effect. According to Psychology Today, "The bystander effect occurs when the
presence of others discourages an individual from intervening in an emergency situation." The
problem ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
My suggestion would be to have a bystander intervention training as a standard in schools as well as
work places. As a sophomore at Marquette, we received mandatory bystander intervention training
in our residence halls. A police officer came in and described several emergency situations, and told
us how we can intervene without putting ourselves in danger. Even this short, hour long lecture
instilled a new confidence in me, and I feel that I could be of help if an emergency situation was to
arise. Even simply knowing about the bystander effect can give people a different perspective in
everyday life. In crowded cities like Chicago, this is essential because of the prevalence of violence.
If someone is hurt or there is a clear crisis happening, everyone has the human right to be helped.
Being an active bystander can be as simple as calling the police, and this act may just end up saving
someone's life. It is important that everyone knows that they can be a target one day (Kleinsasser, et
al). Many people forget that this happens everyday, and it can one day happen to them. I know I'd
rather call the police and have it not be an emergency than to see an innocent life taken away by an
act of random violence. You can make a positive impact on someone's life, and that should be more
than enough justification to help someone in need.
"The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing
anything." –Albert
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The Bystander Effect On Social Psychology
General Aims: What is your general topic area? Inform the reader briefly of the overall topic and
why it is of interest.
The general topic area is about The Bystander Effect. John M.Darley and Bibb Latane research
about the bystander effect based on the story of Kitty Genovese. Also known as individuals are less
likely to help in a situation in the presence of others (Greitemeyer and Mugge, 201 p.116). When
doing this literature research for the bystander effect, it discover that different types of emergency
situations impact how individuals react. It was discover that the main focus was on the idea of
feeling responsible for a situation and actions that occur as a result. The interest of learning about
the different emotions of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
For this research, emotions was the main focus on the bystander effect theory. Shalom H. Schwartz
and Avi Gottlieb (1980) found that the reactions of the participants could interfere with the decisions
being made during any situation. (Schwartz and Gottlieb, 1968). This research was able to show that
emotions do play a role in our decision making in any situations.
Schwartz, S. H., & Gottlieb, A. (1980). Bystander anonymity and reactions to emergencies. Journal
Of
Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 418–430. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.39.3.418
Latan, B. And Darley, J. M. Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968, 10, 215–221.
Hypothesis and Specific Aims: What idea does that research give you that you want to check out? In
other words, state your hypothesis, including your theoretical IV and DV. It should be clear how this
is different from what is already known.
The hypothesis for this experiment was: Do our emotions specifically those of empathy or personal
distress, interfere with our actions in a given situation? It was discovered that this question fit
perfectly with the Bystander Effect Theory based on the idea that emotions could occur in any time
of the day and still could affect one's decisions making during any situations. The independent
variable for this experiment is emotions. The dependent variable for this experiment is whether or
not the participants help.
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The Bystander Effect In Lord Of The Flies By William Golding
Picture this. Someone is on their daily 3.5km run and as they pass the bus stop a woman grabs her
chest and collapses. There are crowds of people passing by her but no one's stopping to help. They
probably aren't going to stop and help, because no one is stopping they are going to think if those
many people aren't stopping to help then she is fine, they might also be thinking someone else will
help her. Now picture this that same person is out just for a walk around the park and they hear
someone cry out for help, no one's around but them so they probably would go over and help them.
These situations are representing the bystander effect. John Darley and Bibb Latane came up with
the bystander effect, the bystander effect states that the more people that are present the less likely
anyone is to help someone in need. The bystander effect can be connected to the characters in
William Golding's Lord of the flies. People just stand by in emergency situations when other people
are around, and them no helping the victim can have some serious consequences.
People wait for social cues before they decide how they should act. An example of this is, Kitty
Genovese was murdered and 38 of her neighbours witnessed her getting murdered and heard her
screaming for help, yet none of those 38 people helped her or even called the police until a while
after she was dead ( Sonia Shechet Epstein ) . In William Golding's lord of the flies, the boys go on a
pig hunt and Roger pretends to be the
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Diffusion Of Responsibility Essay
Now a days, since September 11th, it has become common to go into panic mode over the smallest
things. We have become over protective and scared, as well we should after a horrific event like that.
It can be so bad that we don't bother to extend our help to a fellow being because we are terrified at
some sort of back lash. Although it's better to harbor on the safe side, a lot of people can over react
while others don't react at all.
Isn't it human nature to have empathy for one another, to help out whenever one needs it? I may not
be the sweetest person around but I'd like to think I would definitely help one in need, however that
maybe. On the night Kitty Genovese was gruesomely murdered no one came to her rescue, not even
a phone call during her cries for help. This was when John Darley and Bibb Latane, two young ...
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We are always being told that there is safety in numbers but with their findings we are less likely to
help when we are in a bigger group, we are either leaders or we are followers. Spreading out
responsibility throughout the crowd is a good way to cause someone their life. If someone had been
brave enough to pick up the phone at the first sign of distress and just call the police the night of
Kitty was killed, that could have saved her but instead for whatever reason unknown they froze.
Thinking someone else will call the police, let another person take responsibility. It's kind of the
same thing that happens at work, when the boss says who will take on that project and no one steps
up, cowering in the back hoping someone will take it before the boss picks them. It's bad enough we
already doubt ourselves in personal perspectives and to have to question oneself about the
willingness to extend help to others makes things even
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Kitty Genovese
You're on your way home when the screaming starts. You look up, trying to identify the source of
the noise. Out of the corner of your eye you see a young woman running across a nearby parking lot,
pursued by a young man of around 30. He catches up with her as she reaches her apartment
building, and draws a knife, stabbing her twice in the back. She screams for help, and despite at least
38 witnesses passing by, none comes. The woman is left to die. That is the story of 29 year old Kitty
Genovese, murdered March 13, 1964, Queens, New York.
To be honest, if I was one of those 38 witnesses, I'm not sure what I would do. It would be a
situation completely foreign to me. I mean, how often do you see someone drowning? Being
attacked? Those situations ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Forget crime for a second. Think back to a time when you felt out of place. Was it arriving at an
event overdressed, or underdressed? In class being unsure of yourself? Visiting a foreign country? In
these situations, our first instinct is to look to others. What is the majority doing? I'll copy them.
If a situation is ambiguous, we become unsure of ourselves, and when we're unsure of ourselves,
we're not likely to act on instinct. Instead, we desire to conform. Say you're at the beach. Someone is
splashing around in the water. You're unsure whether or not they're in danger and are unsure what to
do. You begin looking around to judge how others are responding to the situation. If they seem calm,
you assume the person is just playing around. But if they look panicked, you will take the situation
more seriously.
Instinct is cast aside because if we follow what everyone else's doing, they can't all be wrong, right?
'It's not my responsibility.'
The more people present in a given situation, the less responsible I feel for whatever plays out.
Similarly, the more witnesses there are at a crime scene, the less likely we are to help. There is a
diffusion of responsibility, which prevents us from taking action. If we're the only person standing
witness to a crime, we'd feel like it's 100% our responsibility to get help. But if there's 20 people,
then only 5% responsibility placed on us, and is someone else more qualified to handle the
situation? Do they want
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The Death Of Kitty Genovese
The reason for this study was due to the death of Kitty Genovese in New York City. She was a
young woman who was murdered by Winston Mosley in observance of many spectators who saw
the incident from their bedroom windows of an apartment complex. Media went into a frenzy stating
that 38 people witnessed the attack but did nothing to assist and did not call law enforcement,
however, the story was misconstrued and it was later found that there were significantly less than 38
people observing and at least once person called law enforcement.
The Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility study 's main goal was to
uncover whether the amount of people in emergency situations decreased the speed of reporting due
to the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The subject would later on in the conversation begin to slur his or her speech and go into a
"seizure."
Although having the subjects in isolation allowed the study to be conducted successfully and created
realism for the experiment what was not taken into consideration is that fact that in many emergency
situations there are usually others you can speak with in regards to actions that should be taken. In
this experiment, the subjects were isolated and unable to communicate with one another. While the
subject began his seizure the naïve subject was unable to gain reassurance in regards to their mental
dilemma of helping or continuing with the experiment.
There were three group variables, which consisted of a two–person group (the real subject and the
subject who would have the "seizure"). Three–person group (real subject, subject who would have a
"seizure" and a confederate voice) and a size–person group (real subject, subject who would have a
"seizure" and four confederates.) The subjects were given six minutes to respond to the emergency.
If the subject did not come out to retrieve the research assistant from the hall the experiment was
terminated after six minutes and the subject was debriefed.
The main independent variable was the
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Bystander Effect Essay
The Bystander Effect is a controversial theory given to social phenomenon where the more potential
bystanders there are, the less likely any individual is to help in emergency situations. A traditional
explanation for the cause of the Bystander Effect is that responsibility diffuses across the multiple
bystanders, diluting the responsibility of each. (Kyle et al.) The Bystander effect, also known as the
Genovese Syndrome, was named after the infamous murder of "Kitty" Catherine Genovese in 1964,
on the streets of New York in front of thirty–seven witnesses. After studying the Genovese
syndrome and doing research on how this phenomenon occurs even today, it is clear The Bystander
Effect is not just a theory, but actually fact.
It wasn't ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
An eyewitness told detectives that he contemplated calling the police and instead, called a friend to
get advice on what he should do. After confiding in his friend, the man decided to get help and had
an elderly women make the call. The man sheepishly told the police " I didn't want to get involved."
(Gansberg) Six days later, police arrested Winston Moseley, a 29–year–old machine operator for the
murder of Kitty Genovese. Law enforcement was unsure if they should hold the eyewitnesses
responsible for failure to report the crime that resulted in the murder. After investigations, most
witnesses admitted they were too afraid to call, or gave other arbitrary reasons for not reporting the
crime. Detectives interviewed a couple that admitted to hearing the screams and even witnessed the
crimes. When asked why they didn't contact the police the wife replied, "I don't know" (Gansberg).
Another witness told the police he didn't report the crime because he was too tired and went back to
bed. Detectives were able to capture the suspect rather quickly because the residents of the
neighborhood were capable of providing detailed information leading to the arrest of Moseley. It
was this event that lead to the discovery of The Genovese Syndrome, otherwise known as The
Bystander Effect. The Bystander Effect refers to the phenomenon that an individual 's likelihood of
helping decreases when passive bystanders are present in a critical situation. (Darley and Latane
250)
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Kitty Genovese: The Bystander Effect
The Murder Of Kitty Genovese/ The Bystander Effect
This is one of the most interesting cases in psychology as this murder case was never meant to be an
experiment. However, her murder helped come across a vey interesting study. The post– murder
research was conducted by John Darley and Bibb Latane in 1964. On March 13, 1964, Kitty
Genovese was murdered in front of her home. She parked her car a number of feet from her
apartment. "Thirty –eight neighbours of Kitty Genovese were aware about the murder that was
taking place during that time and yet all of them chose to do nothing in rescue of the assaulted girl.
Two social psychologists started asking questions why the witnesses demonstrated a lack of reaction
towards the victim's need ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In times of medical emergencies, people might think that maybe a doctor is present in the scene and
the patient will be better off with the help of the doctor. Some people may be too self–conscious that
they don't want to give off negative images to other bystanders. To avoid this from happening, these
individuals simply do not respond to the emergency. Fears linked to perception can also be an
explanation of bystander effect. Such fears include being surpassed by a superior helper, or being
rejected when offering one's help, or having to deal with legal consequences of offering inferior or
worsening assistance. This experiment was useful as it helped gain knowledge on a new social
psychological theory. This is one of those experiments that had a huge influence on the
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The Bystander Apathy And Effect
Bystander Apathy and Effect
The bystander effect, or the person standing on the side, is a social mental phenomenon that refers to
happenings where people do not offer any help to another person that needs it, when other people
are present. The percentage of people that help is inverted and hung the number of bystanders. In
other words, the more bystanders that are their, the less likely it is that any one of them will help.
They may also be afraid of being pushed away or ignored by a bigger or better helper, offering
unwanted assistance, or dealing with the the legal consequences of offering inferior and maybe
dangerous assistance (Wikipedia Contributors).
On Friday 13 March in 1964, 28–year–old Catherine Genovese was arriving home in her ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
If the person interacts they must notice the event first, they must realize the situation as an
emergency, and they must decide that it is their responsibility to take action. At each of these small
steps, the bystander to an emergency can remove themselves from the decision process and then not
want to help. They can fail to notice the event, fail to realize the event as an emergency, or can fail
to do the responsibility to react. If each one of the other bystanders seem to fake the event to be
non–serious, it changes and makes the perceptions of anyone and clouds potential helping
behaviour! At each of these small steps, the bystander at an emergency can remove themselves from
the decision process and then not help. They can look like they didn't notice the event, look like they
didn't realize the event was happening, or don't have to take the responsibility to react. The
bystander effect has attracted much research attention. Some people on websites post up videos on
people doing bad things to other people and look for the people who don't do anything to help that
person out. A primary aim of the current topic was to identify situations or emergencies in which the
bystander effect would be most likely to occur ("Bystander
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Darley And Latane Case Study
Darley and Latané's Training Manual – A Five–Stage Approach Darley and Latané were looking for
what would happen if there is no authority present during a crisis. In these two five–stage
experiments, Darley and Latané investigated witness behavior. In the late, busy streets of New York,
a young woman was brutally raped and murdered. The crime lasted a painful thirty–five minutes.
During that time span, thirty–eight people saw the crime being committed. The majority of the
witnesses turned off their lights as if no tragic event occurred. By the end of the night, one person
called the police. The behavior of the bystanders evoked the attention of the psychologists to
discover why humans react the way they do in a cry for help. The two experiments
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Bystander Effect
2
In the Bystander Effect video, there were people present at the incident but none of the bystanders
helped the participants in the study. "Bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be
less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present" (Myers,2014, p. 495). The study was done in
Liverpool Street Station in London a busy side of town. The first participant was named Peter he
laid on the side walk for more than twenty minutes asking from help from bystanders and no one
would help him. Peter did not fit in with the environment in the Liverpool Street Station. Peter was
not dressed up he had on blue jeans with a black jacket with tennis shoes. The second participant
named Ruth was dressed in blue skirt with a black jacket and she was laying unresponsive on the
steps of the Liverpool Street ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
People wanted to help Ruth but they were to afraid. Ruth laid there more than four minutes without
help because every bystander was trying to see who would help Ruth first. Once a bystander decides
to walk up and ask Ruth was everything ok she started to draw other bystanders attention after the
man approached her. Peter returned for a second time dressed business casual with shirt and tie
which blended in with the Liverpool Street Station environment. As bystander passed it only took 6
seconds for someone to approach Peter and give assistance. Peter blended in well with the
environment by the way he dressed in accordance with the way all other bystanders was dressed.
Therefore, they shy away from given him the assistance he needed. This is what "psychologists call
the diffusion of responsibility when it is much easier to let someone else get involved first"
(Coolpsychologist.,
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Passive And Selfless Concern For The Bystander Effect
Abstract
Altruism is the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well–being of others.
Otherwise known as "the bystander effect", it is unfortunately exposed more via social networks and
online websites in the present time. For instance, there is surveillance camera footage online which
shows a small two year old girl getting run over by a van in China. Almost ten minutes go by as 18
people walk or drive past without any intentions of helping; some pedestrians looked and kept
walking, others even created a path to avoid the motionless toddler. Eventually an older woman
comes to the child's aid but a few hours later he did not make it. With this short surveillance footage
in mind, the final paper will focus on the past, present and future of the Bystander effect. The
bystander effect has been found across a variety of experimental conditions, such as simulated
asthma attacks (Harris & Robinson, 1973) and car breakdowns (Hurley & Allen, 1974). Similar to
the bystander effect case mentioned above, others will be introduced briefly to gain another
perspective. I will share my research theories and studies that I conducted and will continue to study.
Keywords: Bystander Effect, Vitim, Altruism, Studies
Historical Analysis Paper
Past
The bystander effect has long been a social taboo that many people often can say confidently that
they will be of assistance, when in actuality statistics have shown they will more than likely to
become a bystander once
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Response To 'Diffusion Of Responsibility'
The Barrier I have chosen from this week is. They could not afford to give a larger donation. Within
the passage I was very reluctant to see how Peter would argue this one. however, he did not
disappoint in chapter 4, two point's was made that really stood out to me, the first is "Diffusion of
Responsibility"." That we are much less likely to help if the responsibility of helping dose not rely
entirely on us". Sing mentioned in the book the horrible story of Kitty Genovese, how 38 heard or
saw the murder but have done nothing to help. in this case all people had to do was pick up the
phone and report it, however no one did. The other argument made was "the sense of fairness" that
no one like to be the one cleaning up after everyone else stands around. The highlight for me was
the the Question 55 "Imagine writing your first big cheque to UNICEF or Oxfam, and running into
your neighbours coming back from the Caribbean, looking relaxed and tanned, telling you about
their great adventures sailing and scuba diving. Personally i know how I would feel jealous; but sing
made a really good point here, are we as humans willing to receive less so others can receive more.
If I say yes to this question I would be a lier, the sense of fairness is something I grapple with before
giving. This in my opinion and good argument, or explanation of why people believe "they can't
afford to give a larger donation". ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Thinking of the other things I can do with the money, and others wants I can fulfill; such as new
weather shoes or the latest trends. Sing makes really good argument, within the book that is very
successful in having me re–think my approach, to
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Comparing Different Approaches Of The Bystander Effect
This essay will 'compare and contrast' two approaches made in investigating the 'bystander effect'. It
will discuss in some depth as to what exactly is meant by the bystander effect, illustrating when this
concept was first shown and why. An outline will be made of the different methods used, those
being experiments and discourse analysis, explaining each one in turn, within the framework of two
cases. The first being the murder of 'Catherine Genovese,' 1964.and the second 'James Bulger' 1993.
The essay will then show examples of the differences and similarities between each method.
Concluding with a summary of findings into the two approaches to investigating the Bystander
Effect.
First 'The Bystander Effect', states 'that individuals are less likely to intervene in emergency
situations when other people are present'. Latne & Darley, (1970) cited in Byford J.( 2014 pp 232).
Simply put, where emergency situations arise, if more than one person is present the likelihood of
someone in distress being helped reduces. This is the 'diffusion of responsibility' effect were each
bystander feels less obliged to help because the responsibility seems to be divided with others
present'. (Byford J., 2014 pp233) An example of Bystander Apathy shown within a video (The Open
University 2016).
How did this come about? In 1964 New York, Catherine Genovese, was murdered near her home.
She Called for help. 38 residents heard this but apart from one shouting out 'to leave the girl alone'
no
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Bystander Effect Essay
The Bystander Effect
The Bystander effect is a controversial theory given to social phenomenon where the more potential
helpers there are, the less likely any individual is to help. A traditional explanation for this Bystander
Effect is that responsibility diffuses across the multiple bystanders, diluting the responsibility of
each. (Kyle et al.) The Bystander effect, also known as the Genovese Syndrome, was created after
the infamous murder of "Kitty" Catherine Genovese in 1964, on the streets of New York in front of
thirty–seven witnesses. After studying the Genovese syndrome and doing research on how this
phenomenon occurs today, it is clear The Bystander effect is not theory, but actually fact.
It wasn't until Martin Gansberg wrote ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
An eyewitness told police that he contemplated calling the police and instead called a friend to get
advice on what he should do. The man crossed the apartment building and had an elderly women
make the call. The man sheepishly told the police " I didn't want to get involved" (Gansberg, 1964).
Six days later, police arrested Winston Moseley, a 29–year–old machine operator. In addition to
being convicted of Murder of Catherine Genovese, Moseley also admitted to killing two other
women in the past year during his investigation. Law enforcement was unsure to hold the
eyewitnesses responsible for failure to report the crime that resulted in the murder. After
investigations with witnesses most admitted they were too afraid to call, or gave other arbitrary
reasons for not reporting the crime. Detectives interviewed a couple that admitted to hearing the
screams and even witnessed the crimes. When asked why they didn't contact the police the wife
replied, "I don't know" (Gansberg, 1964). Another witness told the police he overheard the screams
and he didn't report it because he was tired and went back to bed. Detectives were able to capture the
suspect rather quickly, because the residents of the neighborhood were capable of providing detailed
information leading to the arrest of Moseley. It was this event, that created The Genovese
Syndrome, otherwise known as The bystander effect; The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon
that an individual 's likelihood of helping
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The Sunflower By Simon Wiesenthal Essay
Vince Lombardi, an American football player, and a coach, once said, "Leaders aren't born, they are
made. And they are made just like anything else, through hard work." With these words, Lombardi
highlights that people are nurtured to become a leader and a follower. For instance, Lombardi asserts
that a person is trained, whether to be a leader, or a follower, through eagerness and determination.
The book, The Sunflower, written by Simon Wiesenthal, an author and a Jewish holocaust survivor,
who focuses on one of the most controversial topics during and after World War II, forgiveness. In
this book, Weisenthal talked about a questionable case in which Karl, an SS soldier who murdered
plentiful of people, asked Weisenthal for forgiveness for all the pain he had done towards all the
people that were affected by him. When it comes to the topic of whether people are born to become
leaders or followers or is one trained by the environment, most people will readily agree that people
are conditioned to become a leader or a follower, where this agreement usually ends, however, is on
the question of, "What makes a person a leader?" Whereas some are convinced that people are
natural born leaders. Becoming a leader consists with a few reasons such as developed leadership
skills, the bystander apathy, and the diffusion of responsibility.
Leadership is a honorary degree that contains many practices to which can truly affect his/her
position into leading others. Leadership can be a
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Social Behavior And Social Change
In today's society, a person is expected to offer help to those that require it, especially during an
emergency. As a race, there is an expectancy to look out for one another. Researchers believe that
there appear to be basic mechanisms in social animals which in turn make us want to help others
(Deacon, 2013, p106). Instead, social behaviour and cultural influences that begin to be formed in
early infancy, have a profound affect on the factors that determine whether or not to get involved
during an emergency. Early exposure to pro–social models as well as the moral standards of a
parent, contribute to the choices that a bystander will make when faced with a situation that requires
their intervention. Darley and Latane (1968) hypothesised that helping behaviour can also be
determined by the size of the crowd surrounding the emergency. The resulting study revealed that
pro–social behaviour became less likely as group size increased and this was termed as the
"Bystander Effect". Other factors such as the role of social influence, dictates an individual 's fear of
acting in a way that could be considered out of the norm. The motivation for personal glory can also
contribute to the decisions made by a witness to an emergency. This essay will focus on the factors
which determine whether or not a person will intervene in an emergency.
Beginning in early infancy, children are exposed and introduced to helpful models and taught about
pro–social norms. These ideas and behavioural
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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The Kitty Genovese Murder

  • 1. The Kitty Genovese Murder Katie Wallace Psychology 2301 May 9, 2013 Mrs. Strickland Silent Witnesses: The Kitty Genovese Murder 1. After the 1964 murder of Kitty Genovese, John Darley and Bibb Latane were in shock as the rest of the city/world that a 28 year old lady could be stabbed in a neighborhood with about 38 by standers or more and say or do nothing. Why didn't anyone try and help her? How could people stand by and watch this go on? People speculated that the failure of people to get involved might be due more to the influence (socially) that bystanders have on each other. To test this theory, Darley and Latane, two psychologists, decided to conduct a study. "Diffusion of Responsibility" Everyone hopes that someone else will be the first to step up ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I would have yelled while calling the police at the same time. I can't imagine me having that on my conscious for the rest of my life. "I could have done something, I could have called, and I chose to do nothing and now this lady is dead." How the 38 people still sleep at night, I have no clue. There was a window of opportunity for Kitty to still be alive, and the fact that no one could even call the police disgusts me. It took the police 2 minutes to arrive. Winston stayed in his car for 10 minutes. I would have called. There is no excuse why any of these neighbors didn't ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Exploring a Classic Case in Social Psychology Essay Individual Programmatic Assessment: Exploring a Classic Study in Social Psychology Christina Parker PSYCH 620 October 28, 2013 Stacy Hernandez Individual Programmatic Assessment: Exploring a Classic Study in Social Psychology Social psychology first examined the phenomena later termed "bystander effect" in response to a 1964 murder. The murder of a young woman with as many as 38 witnesses and none who helped until it was too late. The bystander effect is individuals seeing an emergency situation but not helping. There are many reasons why individuals do not respond: diffusion of responsibility, not noticing or unsure if it is an emergency, and not wanting to be liable if the person still dies are a few. The Study ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Implications and Situationism The study by Darley and Latane leaves society with the knowledge that everyone who is witnessing an emergency is most likely thinking the same thing "someone else will call for help or has already" so "Always act as if you are the only person there" (Darely & Latane, 1968). The concept of situationism is the driving force behind bystander effect. Situationism is "social behavior is, to a larger extent than people commonly realize, a response to people's social context, not a function of individual personality" (Fiske, 2010, p. 7). Individuals first have to decide if they are witnessing an emergency. Then they need to decide if they have a responsibility to act which is when situationism comes in. If there are hundreds of witnesses each individual see the situation from a different perspective and responsibility to act is diffused among the crowd. On the other hand if one individual sees an emergency and believes there is no one else to help the responsibility rests on him or her. The context of the situation will determine how an individual will react, but people should consider the reality of everyone believing someone else will react and no one reacting. Kitty Genovese would still be alive if even one person would have called the cops when the first attack started. Cultural Aspects Would the study results be the same if the participants were from a different cultural, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. The Diffusion Of Responsibility Theory There have been many cases in which bystanders have appeared to do nothing at crime scenes. The most famous of one is the case of Kitty Genovese when she was stabbed to death outside a busy neighbourhood and no one came to her help even though there were plenty of witnesses. This raises the question what has changed in our understanding of Bystander behaviour? By knowing this we will be able to find out more about how and why we as humans do it. I chose the diffusion of responsibility theory and the ambiguity theory to see if I can find out if any of our behaviour has changed. I have done this by analysing and evaluating studies by Latané and Darley, Piliavin et al, Shotland and Straw and Fischer et al. I found their studies and analysed them and then evaluated them. There are more studies on that have been done that have the diffusion of responsibility theory in compared to ambiguity in but that was down to how we as humans try and put responsibility as of others on someone else than ourselves and also the fact that we don't always feel like we can help in the situation. What has changed in our understanding of Bystander behaviour? Examination session: Psychology – Extended essay Introduction This essay is investigating what has changed in our understanding of Bystander behaviour. The most well–known bystander effect example is the one of Kitty Genovese in 1964 when she was brutally murdered and no one came to her help even though supposedly ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. In The Unlikely Event Of A Water Landing "In the Unlikely Event of a Water Landing" If you witness a crime, find yourself in danger or someone is in need of some kind of help, you should take initiative to help or call for help. A crime scene, someone in need of some serous help but the help never gets there. In her chapter "In the Unlikely Event of a Water Landing," from the book Opening Skinner's Box, Lauren Slater states, "People, the witnesses, those who flicked on their lights, could both hear and see. They did nothing. There were thirty–eight witnesses in all, watching from their windows as a woman was stabbed and snuffed." (96) If at least one person would have taken initiative to call for help when they would hear the cries, when this horrendous crime was taking place the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Bystander Effect Essay What are causes behind the "bystander effect"? "The Bystander effect" is the psychological occurrence that is related to the social intervention among people. It is filled with anecdotes of people of who stood back when help is needed, preferring to wait for someone else to act. According to author, the probability of accepting help decreases with an increment in the quantity of spectators. There are different causes of the bystander effect and these causes only depends on the perception of the individual and the way people take up the situation. Most common causes are diffusion of responsibility, symbolic interactionism and fear of becoming target or getting indulged in criminal case. Firstly, bystander effect is seen in case of emergency surrounded by number of people. This create the situation of confusion that is diffusion of responsibility such that we may expect that others will help, so we don't have to. They may even be better qualified to help, we may assume, so we ought to give them a chance to mediate. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Bystanders around the situation changes the meaning of the situation for instance, if we found someone lying on the street we might think that person is drunk or some other person will think that person might be tired or may be that person is being hit by some health problem or accident . Further, this perception also affects the reaction of the person to particular situation that is how to take up the present scenario. Particularly when we're in a vague circumstance, we look to others to make sense of how we ought to comprehend the circumstance and what we ought to do. On the off chance that in a crisis circumstance we see that no one else is helping, we may imagine that we shouldn't either. Possibly it is not by any means an emergency, or perhaps there is nothing that should be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Cruelty, By Stanley Milgram Mohammad Asif Mohammad Prof: S.Bridges Essay 5 April 19, 2016 Cruelty The amount of cruelty one possess varies individually depending on the situations an individual has experienced throughout their life. This is why Milgram received such shocking results in his obedience experiment and why only a few reacted in Darley and Latane 's studies. Although cruelty is within from birth, the test subjects in Milgram 's, Darley and Latane 's experiment had no intentions of being cruel because they believed they were simply following orders and still fighting a personal conflict which is to respond or not to a situation, while still conforming to the norms of social etiquette. Cruelty is something that is innate. It is not something we learn but rather something that is nurtured into existence. Individually, cruelty levels differ from one to another as each being may have experienced different situations causing them to react differently. In the experiment conducted by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist who wanted to test the level of cruelty a normal citizen would go to when instructed by a person of authority. He brought in many different people as the test subjects and as we see from the results how each persons obedience to inflict pain on someone else differed amongst the subjects, we understand this is the results of their cruelty that is within. This experiment was set up in a room where there was a teacher who was the test subject and a learner who was an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. The Bystander Effect: A Case Study In 1964, New York, Catherine "Kitty" Genovese was stabbed to death on her doorstep––a murder the New York Times called "a frozen moment of dramatic, disturbing social change." Thirty–seven witnesses failed to come to her aid claiming they "didn't want to get involved." (Gansberg, 1964). Whilst this claim has since been dismissed (Pelonero, 2016), ironically, her sensational case provoked a public outcry and launched a sociological theory known as the "Bystander Effect." The bystander effect is by and large viewed as a well–established experiential phenomenon in social psychology (e.g., Darley & Latané, 1968; Latané & Darley, 1968; Latané & Nida, 1981), wherein an individual, who is witness to another person in distress and requires assistance, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Hortensius, Schutter and de Gelder (2016), carried out four experiments with the aim to investigate the influence of bystanders on the responses of individuals to an emergency. They examined the differential effects of trait sympathy and personal distress on the willingness to help with bystanders present. The outcome demonstrated that despite the fact that personal distress and sympathy anticipated generally quicker reactions to an emergency when no bystanders were present, personal distress was most reliably predictive of a reduction in action preparation when bystanders were present during a crisis. For the most this research provides further evidence to the bystander effect but the use of video clips, would make it easier for participants to feel empathy (Singer, & Lamm, 2009) which deducts from the validity of the results – the current study aims to eliminate this by using written ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Social Media And The Bystander Effect In April of 2017, a hardworking doctor was forced to leave and lugged off a plane for no apparent reason; soon after, a video of the incident was posted online, causing outrage throughout our media– enhanced world. A woman's hopeless cry for help was not enough, and although several passengers recorded the horrific episode, no one intervened nor did anyone help the passenger that had been treated so awfully. Technology gives us emotional and physical comfort, whether that be in expressing feelings or chiming in on a controversial current event, in an age where social media has an immense impact on our habits on and off the web; yet in reality, our phones, computers, and tablets are turning us into active bystanders allowing and perhaps even amplifying the bystander effect. The diffusion of responsibility is a poison that begins with cell phone usage and spreads to social media. Today, people are too reliant on technology and fail to comprehend that social media is not social activism. The Bystander Effect was first demonstrated by psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley in 1968, four years after the brutal murder (encompassing thirty or more witnesses) of Kitty Genovese. It is a social phenomenon in which observers believe that someone else in a group will intervene and offer help to a victim in need (1). According to these psychologists, there are two important factors attributed to this phenomenon, social influence and a perceived diffusion of responsibility. Social ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Darley And Bibb Latane Experiment John M. Darley and Bibb Latané conducted a social experiment that they titled the "Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility" experiment. The purpose of this study was to see how quickly bystanders would respond to an emergency to provide aid. Also studied was how different factors like the number of other bystanders would influence how quickly people responded to the emergency. Darley and Latané's hypothesis was that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid (Darley & Latané, p. 377). The study was conducted using college students. Fifty–nine female and thirteen male students in introductory psychology courses at New York University ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... First, the study not only measured the speed at which the participants responded to the emergency, they also factored in other variables that might have affected the outcome. With the results they received from the participants, they ran different variations as mentioned in the previous paragraph that had to do with the gender of the participants, the medical competence of the participants, and even the personality of the participants to see what might affect the participant's response to the emergency. It was smart to include all these smaller, but potentially significant, variables that might affect the outcome. Second, the procedure of the experiment was well thought through. They managed to find a way to isolate the participants so that they were only vaguely aware of the others who were aware of the emergency and remove the experimenter from the room so that the "seizure" was perceived as real. The procedure was effective in producing the results that were needed for this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Bystander Effect Essay The bystander effect is a concept that concludes that when the number of bystanders is increased in an emergency situation, the less likely any of the bystanders will assist the victim. Kitty Genovese was murdered in front of her New York apartment and about 38 residents witnessed yet decided not to assist by calling police, or trying to stop her attacker. Kitty's death, sparked a concern for many people and got social psychologists to question if it is in the human nature to not help those in need, it also led to the findings of other elements that are related to the reasons why the bystander effect occurs in large groups compared to when someone witnesses an accident by themselves. One of the main reasons why the bystander effect occurs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When a bystander has decided to help, they must decide what kind of help is appropriate for the situation. For example, if somebody collapses and a bystander does not know CPR, but decides to assist, they should probably assist by calling for emergency services and trying to find another bystander that can provide CPR. Often time's bystanders will not assist because they are afraid they might make matters worse, or place themselves in danger if the situation is considered dangerous. This is where, as a society, we can work on informing more people on how to assist others who may be in an alarming situation such as a stroke, allergic reaction, choking, alcohol and water poisoning, seizures and much more. If an individual is confident enough to perform these procedures then they will be more likely to assist an individual who needs their help. In addition, since this individual has decided to help, others will follow and try to assist in any way possible. In conclusion, if more people are trained or conditioned to an immediate reaction when they see someone in trouble, they will be more likely to help since they will have the confidence as they will be knowledgeable on how to care for those in danger. Thus they will break the social influence and step out of the group to ensure everyone is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. The Problem Of Social Psychology Social psychology is the study of how people think, feel, and act as a result of being present among others. At times, a direct contact is not required to fully influence a person. The imagined or implied presence of others is sufficient to carry out a full effect on another person. Examples to portray how the impact of others can have an authority over the way we function socially can be found almost anywhere around us. The media is filled with many examples from recent headlines that may offer an illustration of this phenomenon. In recent news, the National Public Radio (NPR), a non–profit membership media organization, aired an interview discussing Syria 's bloody civil war. With more than four million people who have fled the country thus far, it has easily been named one of the worst refugee situations in history. Millions more have also been displaced within Syria. Although we rarely hear from the people inside, NPR was able to air an interview it conducted with one of the citizens who lives in the broken country. Saeed al–Batal, a photographer and filmmaker who did not use his real name for security reasons, reveals how horrific the experiences currently are in Syria. In this paper, the transcript of the interview will be used portray how, even when situations are clearly appalling and catastrophic, the presence of others effects people's contributions and willingness to help. It will also be used to psychologically understand why people help, why people do not, when ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Analyzing The Bystander Effect Of The Kitty Genovese Murder Kitty Genovese was a woman from New York City who was stabbed to death three separate times outside her apartment building in Kew Gardens. The first two times being outside her apartment, and finally finishing her off the assailant returned stabbing her on the floor at the foot of the stairs. Much controversy arose from the Kitty Genovese murder, due to how public the murder was, and how no one stood up for her, or even alerted the police. After Kitty Genovese's murder, questions began to arise, why didn't anyone take action, how was the assailant able to stab her three times in public, and why weren't the police or ambulances called sooner? All these questions could be answered by a syndrome, titled after the Kitty Genovese murder, as the "Bystander Effect". ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the experiment they tested the responsiveness of individuals and how they reacted under stress when first, alone, and then second within a crowd. Each time the people that were under pressure and alone reacted in a higher rate than those in the crowds. Researchers have justified people's non responsiveness within a crowd, with diffusion of responsibility, in which people are less likely to take action within a crowd, because they feel someone else will take responsibility. On March 14 1964, Kitty Genovese was the ultimate test subject for the Bystander Syndrome, having been stabbed twice in public and left to die on her apartment stairs, but the question that remains unanswered, under matters of a life, is the silence of the crowd truly due to diffusion of responsibility? Or lack of interest and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Bystander Apathy Research Paper Bystander apathy is a strange psychological effect that has been observed over several years. It happens when a person is in a large group of people and an emergency is occurring. Although under different circumstances the person will have the reasonable reaction and assist the person in need. However when in a large group of people the people who are observing the emergency go through an occurrence called "diffusion of responsibility". This causes them to think that because of the amount of people around the emergency, one of them will act, allowing them to be inactive. This is an issue as this causes every person around the area think that others will act, therefore, nobody acts as a result. The most common example of bystander apathy is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. The Theory Of The Bystander Effect The two articles I have chosen to read and discuss about are over the theory of the bystander effect. Reason being for why I have chosen to talk about this topic is because I myself am individual that if I were to see someone in danger would offer help. It astonishes me how many people do not offer any help if they are around others either because of fear or they do not want to be the first one to help. In the first article, Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility by Darley, J.M., & Latane, B., talks about an occurrence that happened in New York City, where a young woman was stabbed to death. The attacker whom killed Kitty Genovese, the young lady, took longer than half an hour to kill her. Within 38 people whom watched her be killed none lifted a finger to save the woman's life, because of what supposedly could happen to them for talking. The hypothesis in this article suggested that the more bystanders there is around an emergency the less likeliness any one will assist someone in need of aid. The participants that were apart of this study were from New York University and enrolled in introduction psychology courses where they were told that they would have to take apart of the experiment as a class requirement. The total number of subjects who participated were 89, 59 were females and the other 30 were males. In this research the purpose was to put a group of students together in–group sizes, which were two (Subject & victim), three (S, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Diffusion Of Responsibility In Lord Of The Flies Darley and Latane, use the concept of diffusion of responsibility to explain the psychology behind why no one stepped in to help in either scenarios. According to Slater, diffusion of responsibility is explained as "The more people witnessing an event, the less responsible any one individual feels and, indeed, is because responsibility is evenly distributed among the crowd" (Slater, 102). Basically, the greater amount of spectators decreases the chances for the an individual to aid the victim in an emergency situation. A sole witness is less likely to respond if there are multiple witnesses around in comparison to scenario being one on one. The reason being that, the individual no longer feels as though they are the only ones responsible considering multiple witnesses are now as involved as they are. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... An incident begins when the boys are assured to have found the 'beast', an imaginational monster who they believe roams the island. What the young boys were unaware of during the time was that they had ignorantly mistaken Simon, a young boy, for the beast. Throughout the episode of Simon's massacre neither Ralph or Piggy, who were spectators stepped in to attempt and stop Simons homicide. Darley and Latane diffusion of responsibility would serve a legitimate explanation for the boys actions. None of them stepped in to help to because they assumed and depended for someone else would now that they were now involved. Now on the other hand, based on the theory if it would have been the case where Simon was being attacked and there was only one witness instead of a group there is a higher chance he would have been ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Examples Of Altrruism In A Streetcar Named Desire I have always depended on the kindness of strangers – Blanche DuBois, A Streetcar Named Desire Definition of Empathy and Altruism Empathy derives from the German word Einfühlung, meaning to feel the suffering and troubles of another from within (Clarke, 2014). The empathic concern that enlivens us to action and to alleviate the perils, poverty or punishments borne by another. Humans devoid of empathy are bereft of compassion and immune to the needs and welfare of another. The renowned researcher Stephen Post defined altruism as "Unselfish delight in the wellbeing of others and engagement in acts of care on their behalf". I would add that authentic altruistic expression demands the wellbeing of another as paramount, often to the detriment ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Daniel Batson (1989) and his associates found out that regardless of anticipated mood enhancement, high–empathy subjects helped more than low–empathy subjects. In other words, high–empathy subjects would still helped more either under easy escape conditions or even when they could probably get good mood to relieve from negative state without helping. Therefore, they concluded that, obviously, something other than relieving negative state was motivating the helping behavior of the high–empathy subjects in their studies. It contradicted with the theory proposed by Robert Cialdini (1987) which supported that empathy–altruism hypothesis was actually the product of an entirely egoistic desire for personal mood ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. The Bystander Effect "Thirty–Eight Who Saw Murder But Didn't Call the Police" is unfortunately a true story about citizens who witnessed their neighbor being assaulted and didn't take action. The neighbor's negligence perturbed me, and I had to look into it. The Samuel Merritt University refers to it as "The Bystander Effect" and explains it as "a diffusion of responsibility . . . the more people there are to witness an event, the less each individual feels personally responsible for doing something" (Samuel Merritt University, "Bystander Intervention & Prevention"). This article about Kitty Genovese and her selfish neighbors reminded me of a dispute I once saw between a small group and an individual. It wasn't the fight that startled me, but the group of apprehensive ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Kitty Genovese's Murder Case Two weeks after Kitty Genovese's murder case. The reporter of the New York Times, Martin Gansberg, assigned a story with a shocking headline: "Thirty–Seven Who Saw Murder Didn't Call Police." A story began with the strong description: "For more than half an hour 38 respectable, law– abiding citizens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks in Kew Gardens (Martin Gansberg)." This case had became concerned about people's lack of concern. Why the witnesses demonstrated a lack of reaction towards the victim's need for help? In 1968, two Social psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley came up with a concept called "The Bystander Effect", which supposed "the presence of diffusion of responsibility" and "social influence". ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Bystander Intervention In Emergencies: Diffusion Of Error... In the journal article " The Bystander Intervention In Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility" by John M. Darley and Bibb Latane performed the study in order to see how individuals the bystanders would react in a serious situation where a victim is being harmed or is in painful situation. The researchers wanted to determine how the bystander(s) fulfilled their responsibility in a conflict with other observers being around the same conflict. The research question of this study is that how do individuals react and respond to a conflict, while being responsible to assit help? The researchers stated the hypothesis as, " The more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide the aid" (Darley & Latane, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The participants are college students, which include fifty–nine females and thirteen males (Darley & Latane, 1968) from New York University. In this study intercom system equipment is used, which records the participants discussion through the usage of a microphone. The participants were anonymous as they were placed in separate individual room. The participants were asked to share their college life problems to strangers. First the subjects were requested to provide some background information about their life before explaning their problems. Then the subject(s) discussed their problems in turns, while one of the subject manifested a seizure. The experimenter recorder the time and the speed the subjects took to report the emergency. The results of this study was that the larger the group size becomes the less respoblilty is shown by the subjects with slower reaction rate. The experimenters stated, "The victim is considerably more likely to have gotten help from one or two observers than from five during the first minute of the fit (Darley & Latane, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Kitty Genovese Research Paper On March 13, 1964, Catherine Susan Genovese, better known as "Kitty" Genovese was murdered outside her apartment building in New York. Kitty screamed for her life as she was stabbed repeatedly; reportedly 38 of her neighbors heard her cries. The shocking part of this tragedy is that none of the neighbors called the police as Kitty experienced torture for more than a half–hour. Her death although tragic, was a key event is psychological history by demonstrating the sad reality of the bystander effect, the swaying of an individual to help someone due to the presence of others. * Additionally, her death displays the importance of being educated on bystander intervention and speaking up when you notice a potentially harmful event occurring. Bystander ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... One day, the person who was sitting in front of me left to presumably go to the restroom. When they returned, they were so elated that their friend had held their seat that they said to their friend, "Wow thanks bro! You my n*gga!". Me being an African American and them white, immediately I interpreted that this was a problem. I was extremely offended and assembled personal responsibility to speak up for the other Black people around me who may have not felt brave enough to educated that student. After thinking about the situation and the many ways it could play out depending on the attitude of the person, I felt it would be best for me to be direct and address the problem myself rather than involving other peers or my professor. Also, I decided it would be more effective for me to intervene after class so that the student would not be uncomfortable or decide to make a scene in front of 300 people. After class ended, I politely approached the student and asked them if they had used the n–word to make sure that I did not misinterpret what was said. They hesitantly admitted their fault and I proceeded to let them know that I was offended and how they could have potentially been harmed if someone else had heard what they said. * After they repeatedly apologized, we went our separate ways. Overall I do not believe my intervening made a difference, at least not ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Bystander Intervention Research Paper Running Head: EFFECT OF RESPONSIBILITY ON BYSTANDER INTERVENTION 1 Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility John M. Darley, Bibb Latanѐ Milad Marghoob–Zamany (301 314 568) Psyc 201w Research Methods Submitted to: Camille Weinsheimer Running Head: EFFECT OF RESPONSIBILITY ON BYSTANDER INTERVENTION 2 Introduction The objective of this study was to indicate the reasons as to why such demoralizing and inhumane lack of intervention was given to the young women who was stabbed to death in a residential area of New York City. Researchers presumed the reasons as to why bystanders refused to intervene, ranged from imbrute demeanor, unwanted liability and the application of unperceived aid. These considerations lead researchers to develop the hypothesis that the more bystanders that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The results of this experiment contrasted with those of the Berkowitz, Klanderman and Harris 1964 finding. Their findings presumed that males tend to acquire more responsibility when helping other in emergencies. The role of personality traits or gender did not predict the speed at which a bystander is inclined to intervene in an emergency, since both men and women had report speeds that were similar. Furthermore, bystander intervention could be influenced by another participants response to the emergency. This leads us to the idea that if people understand situational pressures, they may have a greater chance of overcoming it. In addition, participants in the two–person group managed to overcome their interpersonal conflict and reported the seizure. Participants who knew that other participants were present, the cost of not reporting the seizure was reduced, allowing them to resolve their own conflict; The conflict was between letting the victim suffer or rushing to help ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. The Bystander Revolution : How Social Media Shapes And... The Bystander Revolution: How Social Media Shapes and Reduces the Bystander Effect The purpose of this paper is to examine how social media affects and can affect the bystander effect, which is the idea that individuals will not offer help to victims when other people are present under the assumption that another person will help the victim. After examining the classic example of the bystander effect, examples of social media preventing or lessening the effect will be explored. These examples will highlight the role social media can play in diminishing the bystander effect and attempt to explain why it can help. The bystander effect was first observed by the media and social psychologists in 1964 through the case of Kitty Genovese, a 28–year old woman. On her way home from work, Genovese was stabbed multiple times over the course of 30 minutes. The murderer was able to leave the scene multiple times and come back to stab Genovese more. While this was happening, 38 people observed this from their window. Despite the number of people who viewed the incident, no one reported this incident was happening to the authorities. While this was written off as an effect from living in a large city by the media, psychologists John Darley and Bibb Latané realized something else was occurring: the bystanders all realized that other people were watching and assumed that another person would report the incident. This caused social inhibition amongst all of the viewers which in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Bystander Superpower Kaya Pudlo May 5th, 2016 Social Psychology Speaking Up – A Modern Superpower Recently, a young student from DePaul University in Chicago was attacked on a train. Jessica Hughes was on the Blue Line, also known as the "L", when two men attacked her during the day (Holmes). Hughes was not the only passenger on the train, and was screaming for help, so why didn't anybody step up to help her? After a lengthy discussion with my mom about this topic and after hearing her scoff and claim that she would have helped, I told her about the clear, silent culprit – the bystander effect. According to Psychology Today, "The bystander effect occurs when the presence of others discourages an individual from intervening in an emergency situation." The problem ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... My suggestion would be to have a bystander intervention training as a standard in schools as well as work places. As a sophomore at Marquette, we received mandatory bystander intervention training in our residence halls. A police officer came in and described several emergency situations, and told us how we can intervene without putting ourselves in danger. Even this short, hour long lecture instilled a new confidence in me, and I feel that I could be of help if an emergency situation was to arise. Even simply knowing about the bystander effect can give people a different perspective in everyday life. In crowded cities like Chicago, this is essential because of the prevalence of violence. If someone is hurt or there is a clear crisis happening, everyone has the human right to be helped. Being an active bystander can be as simple as calling the police, and this act may just end up saving someone's life. It is important that everyone knows that they can be a target one day (Kleinsasser, et al). Many people forget that this happens everyday, and it can one day happen to them. I know I'd rather call the police and have it not be an emergency than to see an innocent life taken away by an act of random violence. You can make a positive impact on someone's life, and that should be more than enough justification to help someone in need. "The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything." –Albert ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. The Bystander Effect On Social Psychology General Aims: What is your general topic area? Inform the reader briefly of the overall topic and why it is of interest. The general topic area is about The Bystander Effect. John M.Darley and Bibb Latane research about the bystander effect based on the story of Kitty Genovese. Also known as individuals are less likely to help in a situation in the presence of others (Greitemeyer and Mugge, 201 p.116). When doing this literature research for the bystander effect, it discover that different types of emergency situations impact how individuals react. It was discover that the main focus was on the idea of feeling responsible for a situation and actions that occur as a result. The interest of learning about the different emotions of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For this research, emotions was the main focus on the bystander effect theory. Shalom H. Schwartz and Avi Gottlieb (1980) found that the reactions of the participants could interfere with the decisions being made during any situation. (Schwartz and Gottlieb, 1968). This research was able to show that emotions do play a role in our decision making in any situations. Schwartz, S. H., & Gottlieb, A. (1980). Bystander anonymity and reactions to emergencies. Journal Of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 418–430. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.39.3.418 Latan, B. And Darley, J. M. Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968, 10, 215–221. Hypothesis and Specific Aims: What idea does that research give you that you want to check out? In other words, state your hypothesis, including your theoretical IV and DV. It should be clear how this is different from what is already known. The hypothesis for this experiment was: Do our emotions specifically those of empathy or personal distress, interfere with our actions in a given situation? It was discovered that this question fit perfectly with the Bystander Effect Theory based on the idea that emotions could occur in any time of the day and still could affect one's decisions making during any situations. The independent variable for this experiment is emotions. The dependent variable for this experiment is whether or not the participants help. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. The Bystander Effect In Lord Of The Flies By William Golding Picture this. Someone is on their daily 3.5km run and as they pass the bus stop a woman grabs her chest and collapses. There are crowds of people passing by her but no one's stopping to help. They probably aren't going to stop and help, because no one is stopping they are going to think if those many people aren't stopping to help then she is fine, they might also be thinking someone else will help her. Now picture this that same person is out just for a walk around the park and they hear someone cry out for help, no one's around but them so they probably would go over and help them. These situations are representing the bystander effect. John Darley and Bibb Latane came up with the bystander effect, the bystander effect states that the more people that are present the less likely anyone is to help someone in need. The bystander effect can be connected to the characters in William Golding's Lord of the flies. People just stand by in emergency situations when other people are around, and them no helping the victim can have some serious consequences. People wait for social cues before they decide how they should act. An example of this is, Kitty Genovese was murdered and 38 of her neighbours witnessed her getting murdered and heard her screaming for help, yet none of those 38 people helped her or even called the police until a while after she was dead ( Sonia Shechet Epstein ) . In William Golding's lord of the flies, the boys go on a pig hunt and Roger pretends to be the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Diffusion Of Responsibility Essay Now a days, since September 11th, it has become common to go into panic mode over the smallest things. We have become over protective and scared, as well we should after a horrific event like that. It can be so bad that we don't bother to extend our help to a fellow being because we are terrified at some sort of back lash. Although it's better to harbor on the safe side, a lot of people can over react while others don't react at all. Isn't it human nature to have empathy for one another, to help out whenever one needs it? I may not be the sweetest person around but I'd like to think I would definitely help one in need, however that maybe. On the night Kitty Genovese was gruesomely murdered no one came to her rescue, not even a phone call during her cries for help. This was when John Darley and Bibb Latane, two young ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We are always being told that there is safety in numbers but with their findings we are less likely to help when we are in a bigger group, we are either leaders or we are followers. Spreading out responsibility throughout the crowd is a good way to cause someone their life. If someone had been brave enough to pick up the phone at the first sign of distress and just call the police the night of Kitty was killed, that could have saved her but instead for whatever reason unknown they froze. Thinking someone else will call the police, let another person take responsibility. It's kind of the same thing that happens at work, when the boss says who will take on that project and no one steps up, cowering in the back hoping someone will take it before the boss picks them. It's bad enough we already doubt ourselves in personal perspectives and to have to question oneself about the willingness to extend help to others makes things even ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Kitty Genovese You're on your way home when the screaming starts. You look up, trying to identify the source of the noise. Out of the corner of your eye you see a young woman running across a nearby parking lot, pursued by a young man of around 30. He catches up with her as she reaches her apartment building, and draws a knife, stabbing her twice in the back. She screams for help, and despite at least 38 witnesses passing by, none comes. The woman is left to die. That is the story of 29 year old Kitty Genovese, murdered March 13, 1964, Queens, New York. To be honest, if I was one of those 38 witnesses, I'm not sure what I would do. It would be a situation completely foreign to me. I mean, how often do you see someone drowning? Being attacked? Those situations ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Forget crime for a second. Think back to a time when you felt out of place. Was it arriving at an event overdressed, or underdressed? In class being unsure of yourself? Visiting a foreign country? In these situations, our first instinct is to look to others. What is the majority doing? I'll copy them. If a situation is ambiguous, we become unsure of ourselves, and when we're unsure of ourselves, we're not likely to act on instinct. Instead, we desire to conform. Say you're at the beach. Someone is splashing around in the water. You're unsure whether or not they're in danger and are unsure what to do. You begin looking around to judge how others are responding to the situation. If they seem calm, you assume the person is just playing around. But if they look panicked, you will take the situation more seriously. Instinct is cast aside because if we follow what everyone else's doing, they can't all be wrong, right? 'It's not my responsibility.' The more people present in a given situation, the less responsible I feel for whatever plays out. Similarly, the more witnesses there are at a crime scene, the less likely we are to help. There is a diffusion of responsibility, which prevents us from taking action. If we're the only person standing witness to a crime, we'd feel like it's 100% our responsibility to get help. But if there's 20 people, then only 5% responsibility placed on us, and is someone else more qualified to handle the situation? Do they want ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. The Death Of Kitty Genovese The reason for this study was due to the death of Kitty Genovese in New York City. She was a young woman who was murdered by Winston Mosley in observance of many spectators who saw the incident from their bedroom windows of an apartment complex. Media went into a frenzy stating that 38 people witnessed the attack but did nothing to assist and did not call law enforcement, however, the story was misconstrued and it was later found that there were significantly less than 38 people observing and at least once person called law enforcement. The Bystander Intervention in Emergencies: Diffusion of Responsibility study 's main goal was to uncover whether the amount of people in emergency situations decreased the speed of reporting due to the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The subject would later on in the conversation begin to slur his or her speech and go into a "seizure." Although having the subjects in isolation allowed the study to be conducted successfully and created realism for the experiment what was not taken into consideration is that fact that in many emergency situations there are usually others you can speak with in regards to actions that should be taken. In this experiment, the subjects were isolated and unable to communicate with one another. While the subject began his seizure the naïve subject was unable to gain reassurance in regards to their mental dilemma of helping or continuing with the experiment. There were three group variables, which consisted of a two–person group (the real subject and the subject who would have the "seizure"). Three–person group (real subject, subject who would have a "seizure" and a confederate voice) and a size–person group (real subject, subject who would have a "seizure" and four confederates.) The subjects were given six minutes to respond to the emergency. If the subject did not come out to retrieve the research assistant from the hall the experiment was terminated after six minutes and the subject was debriefed. The main independent variable was the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Bystander Effect Essay The Bystander Effect is a controversial theory given to social phenomenon where the more potential bystanders there are, the less likely any individual is to help in emergency situations. A traditional explanation for the cause of the Bystander Effect is that responsibility diffuses across the multiple bystanders, diluting the responsibility of each. (Kyle et al.) The Bystander effect, also known as the Genovese Syndrome, was named after the infamous murder of "Kitty" Catherine Genovese in 1964, on the streets of New York in front of thirty–seven witnesses. After studying the Genovese syndrome and doing research on how this phenomenon occurs even today, it is clear The Bystander Effect is not just a theory, but actually fact. It wasn't ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... An eyewitness told detectives that he contemplated calling the police and instead, called a friend to get advice on what he should do. After confiding in his friend, the man decided to get help and had an elderly women make the call. The man sheepishly told the police " I didn't want to get involved." (Gansberg) Six days later, police arrested Winston Moseley, a 29–year–old machine operator for the murder of Kitty Genovese. Law enforcement was unsure if they should hold the eyewitnesses responsible for failure to report the crime that resulted in the murder. After investigations, most witnesses admitted they were too afraid to call, or gave other arbitrary reasons for not reporting the crime. Detectives interviewed a couple that admitted to hearing the screams and even witnessed the crimes. When asked why they didn't contact the police the wife replied, "I don't know" (Gansberg). Another witness told the police he didn't report the crime because he was too tired and went back to bed. Detectives were able to capture the suspect rather quickly because the residents of the neighborhood were capable of providing detailed information leading to the arrest of Moseley. It was this event that lead to the discovery of The Genovese Syndrome, otherwise known as The Bystander Effect. The Bystander Effect refers to the phenomenon that an individual 's likelihood of helping decreases when passive bystanders are present in a critical situation. (Darley and Latane 250) ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Kitty Genovese: The Bystander Effect The Murder Of Kitty Genovese/ The Bystander Effect This is one of the most interesting cases in psychology as this murder case was never meant to be an experiment. However, her murder helped come across a vey interesting study. The post– murder research was conducted by John Darley and Bibb Latane in 1964. On March 13, 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered in front of her home. She parked her car a number of feet from her apartment. "Thirty –eight neighbours of Kitty Genovese were aware about the murder that was taking place during that time and yet all of them chose to do nothing in rescue of the assaulted girl. Two social psychologists started asking questions why the witnesses demonstrated a lack of reaction towards the victim's need ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In times of medical emergencies, people might think that maybe a doctor is present in the scene and the patient will be better off with the help of the doctor. Some people may be too self–conscious that they don't want to give off negative images to other bystanders. To avoid this from happening, these individuals simply do not respond to the emergency. Fears linked to perception can also be an explanation of bystander effect. Such fears include being surpassed by a superior helper, or being rejected when offering one's help, or having to deal with legal consequences of offering inferior or worsening assistance. This experiment was useful as it helped gain knowledge on a new social psychological theory. This is one of those experiments that had a huge influence on the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. The Bystander Apathy And Effect Bystander Apathy and Effect The bystander effect, or the person standing on the side, is a social mental phenomenon that refers to happenings where people do not offer any help to another person that needs it, when other people are present. The percentage of people that help is inverted and hung the number of bystanders. In other words, the more bystanders that are their, the less likely it is that any one of them will help. They may also be afraid of being pushed away or ignored by a bigger or better helper, offering unwanted assistance, or dealing with the the legal consequences of offering inferior and maybe dangerous assistance (Wikipedia Contributors). On Friday 13 March in 1964, 28–year–old Catherine Genovese was arriving home in her ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If the person interacts they must notice the event first, they must realize the situation as an emergency, and they must decide that it is their responsibility to take action. At each of these small steps, the bystander to an emergency can remove themselves from the decision process and then not want to help. They can fail to notice the event, fail to realize the event as an emergency, or can fail to do the responsibility to react. If each one of the other bystanders seem to fake the event to be non–serious, it changes and makes the perceptions of anyone and clouds potential helping behaviour! At each of these small steps, the bystander at an emergency can remove themselves from the decision process and then not help. They can look like they didn't notice the event, look like they didn't realize the event was happening, or don't have to take the responsibility to react. The bystander effect has attracted much research attention. Some people on websites post up videos on people doing bad things to other people and look for the people who don't do anything to help that person out. A primary aim of the current topic was to identify situations or emergencies in which the bystander effect would be most likely to occur ("Bystander ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Darley And Latane Case Study Darley and Latané's Training Manual – A Five–Stage Approach Darley and Latané were looking for what would happen if there is no authority present during a crisis. In these two five–stage experiments, Darley and Latané investigated witness behavior. In the late, busy streets of New York, a young woman was brutally raped and murdered. The crime lasted a painful thirty–five minutes. During that time span, thirty–eight people saw the crime being committed. The majority of the witnesses turned off their lights as if no tragic event occurred. By the end of the night, one person called the police. The behavior of the bystanders evoked the attention of the psychologists to discover why humans react the way they do in a cry for help. The two experiments ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Bystander Effect 2 In the Bystander Effect video, there were people present at the incident but none of the bystanders helped the participants in the study. "Bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present" (Myers,2014, p. 495). The study was done in Liverpool Street Station in London a busy side of town. The first participant was named Peter he laid on the side walk for more than twenty minutes asking from help from bystanders and no one would help him. Peter did not fit in with the environment in the Liverpool Street Station. Peter was not dressed up he had on blue jeans with a black jacket with tennis shoes. The second participant named Ruth was dressed in blue skirt with a black jacket and she was laying unresponsive on the steps of the Liverpool Street ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... People wanted to help Ruth but they were to afraid. Ruth laid there more than four minutes without help because every bystander was trying to see who would help Ruth first. Once a bystander decides to walk up and ask Ruth was everything ok she started to draw other bystanders attention after the man approached her. Peter returned for a second time dressed business casual with shirt and tie which blended in with the Liverpool Street Station environment. As bystander passed it only took 6 seconds for someone to approach Peter and give assistance. Peter blended in well with the environment by the way he dressed in accordance with the way all other bystanders was dressed. Therefore, they shy away from given him the assistance he needed. This is what "psychologists call the diffusion of responsibility when it is much easier to let someone else get involved first" (Coolpsychologist., ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Passive And Selfless Concern For The Bystander Effect Abstract Altruism is the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well–being of others. Otherwise known as "the bystander effect", it is unfortunately exposed more via social networks and online websites in the present time. For instance, there is surveillance camera footage online which shows a small two year old girl getting run over by a van in China. Almost ten minutes go by as 18 people walk or drive past without any intentions of helping; some pedestrians looked and kept walking, others even created a path to avoid the motionless toddler. Eventually an older woman comes to the child's aid but a few hours later he did not make it. With this short surveillance footage in mind, the final paper will focus on the past, present and future of the Bystander effect. The bystander effect has been found across a variety of experimental conditions, such as simulated asthma attacks (Harris & Robinson, 1973) and car breakdowns (Hurley & Allen, 1974). Similar to the bystander effect case mentioned above, others will be introduced briefly to gain another perspective. I will share my research theories and studies that I conducted and will continue to study. Keywords: Bystander Effect, Vitim, Altruism, Studies Historical Analysis Paper Past The bystander effect has long been a social taboo that many people often can say confidently that they will be of assistance, when in actuality statistics have shown they will more than likely to become a bystander once ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. Response To 'Diffusion Of Responsibility' The Barrier I have chosen from this week is. They could not afford to give a larger donation. Within the passage I was very reluctant to see how Peter would argue this one. however, he did not disappoint in chapter 4, two point's was made that really stood out to me, the first is "Diffusion of Responsibility"." That we are much less likely to help if the responsibility of helping dose not rely entirely on us". Sing mentioned in the book the horrible story of Kitty Genovese, how 38 heard or saw the murder but have done nothing to help. in this case all people had to do was pick up the phone and report it, however no one did. The other argument made was "the sense of fairness" that no one like to be the one cleaning up after everyone else stands around. The highlight for me was the the Question 55 "Imagine writing your first big cheque to UNICEF or Oxfam, and running into your neighbours coming back from the Caribbean, looking relaxed and tanned, telling you about their great adventures sailing and scuba diving. Personally i know how I would feel jealous; but sing made a really good point here, are we as humans willing to receive less so others can receive more. If I say yes to this question I would be a lier, the sense of fairness is something I grapple with before giving. This in my opinion and good argument, or explanation of why people believe "they can't afford to give a larger donation". ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Thinking of the other things I can do with the money, and others wants I can fulfill; such as new weather shoes or the latest trends. Sing makes really good argument, within the book that is very successful in having me re–think my approach, to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Comparing Different Approaches Of The Bystander Effect This essay will 'compare and contrast' two approaches made in investigating the 'bystander effect'. It will discuss in some depth as to what exactly is meant by the bystander effect, illustrating when this concept was first shown and why. An outline will be made of the different methods used, those being experiments and discourse analysis, explaining each one in turn, within the framework of two cases. The first being the murder of 'Catherine Genovese,' 1964.and the second 'James Bulger' 1993. The essay will then show examples of the differences and similarities between each method. Concluding with a summary of findings into the two approaches to investigating the Bystander Effect. First 'The Bystander Effect', states 'that individuals are less likely to intervene in emergency situations when other people are present'. Latne & Darley, (1970) cited in Byford J.( 2014 pp 232). Simply put, where emergency situations arise, if more than one person is present the likelihood of someone in distress being helped reduces. This is the 'diffusion of responsibility' effect were each bystander feels less obliged to help because the responsibility seems to be divided with others present'. (Byford J., 2014 pp233) An example of Bystander Apathy shown within a video (The Open University 2016). How did this come about? In 1964 New York, Catherine Genovese, was murdered near her home. She Called for help. 38 residents heard this but apart from one shouting out 'to leave the girl alone' no ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Bystander Effect Essay The Bystander Effect The Bystander effect is a controversial theory given to social phenomenon where the more potential helpers there are, the less likely any individual is to help. A traditional explanation for this Bystander Effect is that responsibility diffuses across the multiple bystanders, diluting the responsibility of each. (Kyle et al.) The Bystander effect, also known as the Genovese Syndrome, was created after the infamous murder of "Kitty" Catherine Genovese in 1964, on the streets of New York in front of thirty–seven witnesses. After studying the Genovese syndrome and doing research on how this phenomenon occurs today, it is clear The Bystander effect is not theory, but actually fact. It wasn't until Martin Gansberg wrote ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... An eyewitness told police that he contemplated calling the police and instead called a friend to get advice on what he should do. The man crossed the apartment building and had an elderly women make the call. The man sheepishly told the police " I didn't want to get involved" (Gansberg, 1964). Six days later, police arrested Winston Moseley, a 29–year–old machine operator. In addition to being convicted of Murder of Catherine Genovese, Moseley also admitted to killing two other women in the past year during his investigation. Law enforcement was unsure to hold the eyewitnesses responsible for failure to report the crime that resulted in the murder. After investigations with witnesses most admitted they were too afraid to call, or gave other arbitrary reasons for not reporting the crime. Detectives interviewed a couple that admitted to hearing the screams and even witnessed the crimes. When asked why they didn't contact the police the wife replied, "I don't know" (Gansberg, 1964). Another witness told the police he overheard the screams and he didn't report it because he was tired and went back to bed. Detectives were able to capture the suspect rather quickly, because the residents of the neighborhood were capable of providing detailed information leading to the arrest of Moseley. It was this event, that created The Genovese Syndrome, otherwise known as The bystander effect; The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon that an individual 's likelihood of helping ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. The Sunflower By Simon Wiesenthal Essay Vince Lombardi, an American football player, and a coach, once said, "Leaders aren't born, they are made. And they are made just like anything else, through hard work." With these words, Lombardi highlights that people are nurtured to become a leader and a follower. For instance, Lombardi asserts that a person is trained, whether to be a leader, or a follower, through eagerness and determination. The book, The Sunflower, written by Simon Wiesenthal, an author and a Jewish holocaust survivor, who focuses on one of the most controversial topics during and after World War II, forgiveness. In this book, Weisenthal talked about a questionable case in which Karl, an SS soldier who murdered plentiful of people, asked Weisenthal for forgiveness for all the pain he had done towards all the people that were affected by him. When it comes to the topic of whether people are born to become leaders or followers or is one trained by the environment, most people will readily agree that people are conditioned to become a leader or a follower, where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of, "What makes a person a leader?" Whereas some are convinced that people are natural born leaders. Becoming a leader consists with a few reasons such as developed leadership skills, the bystander apathy, and the diffusion of responsibility. Leadership is a honorary degree that contains many practices to which can truly affect his/her position into leading others. Leadership can be a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Social Behavior And Social Change In today's society, a person is expected to offer help to those that require it, especially during an emergency. As a race, there is an expectancy to look out for one another. Researchers believe that there appear to be basic mechanisms in social animals which in turn make us want to help others (Deacon, 2013, p106). Instead, social behaviour and cultural influences that begin to be formed in early infancy, have a profound affect on the factors that determine whether or not to get involved during an emergency. Early exposure to pro–social models as well as the moral standards of a parent, contribute to the choices that a bystander will make when faced with a situation that requires their intervention. Darley and Latane (1968) hypothesised that helping behaviour can also be determined by the size of the crowd surrounding the emergency. The resulting study revealed that pro–social behaviour became less likely as group size increased and this was termed as the "Bystander Effect". Other factors such as the role of social influence, dictates an individual 's fear of acting in a way that could be considered out of the norm. The motivation for personal glory can also contribute to the decisions made by a witness to an emergency. This essay will focus on the factors which determine whether or not a person will intervene in an emergency. Beginning in early infancy, children are exposed and introduced to helpful models and taught about pro–social norms. These ideas and behavioural ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...