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Nt1310 Unit 1 Exercise 4
Fig. 4 shows that the fit of this sum to the original data is robust. The annual and semi–annual
frequencies are seen to reproduce or account for most of the pattern in the hospital admission data,
indicating that asthma is very seasonal in El Paso. The fall peak occurs at the end of the rainy
season; the spring during the severe dry season winds. Note amplitude and phase shifts associated
with the 2006 July–August monsoon. The fall asthma peak occurred a month early, with extreme
intensity.
This process of Fourier transform and back–transform establishes the essential frequency
components of the temporal data while eliminating high–frequency noise. This is a powerful
technique to:
(1) Establish the existence of periodicity in a temporal data ... Show more content on
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In the frequency domain (Fig. 7) neither Brownsville nor El Paso has any high–amplitude peaks
corresponding to an integer number of
Fig. 7 Left – Fracture admissions for 3 Texas cities, time domain. Right – Fourier transform,
frequency domain. cpy. As seen in the time domain as well, the distribution of fracture in time is
essentially random. In striking contrast, Houston shows 5 prominent, high–amplitude frequency
peaks at the 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 integers of cpy. Other prominent non–integer peaks also are present. In
the time domain, it is seen that this complex set of frequency peaks mathematically recreates a
single prominent cycle of "negative" peaks, corresponding to a low point in fracture admissions
around late January of each year. Why are fractures seasonal in Houston? Studies in other regions
indicate a seasonal hip fracture in the elderly, typically associated with winter slips on ice (ice
storms are unusual in Houston) or shortened daylight. Here, Houston exhibits an annual winter
fracture minimum. The amplitude of the peaks leaves no doubt that this finding cannot be an artifact
of the data or its processing. Nor is it likely an artifact of some peculiarity of the Houston health
care system or its hospital admissions
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Video Watermarking : The Media Ownership And Attention...
The rapid invention going in internet usage has resulted in the media ownership and attention
towards intellectual property rights among internet users. In this paper, a Multiwavelet Transform
(MWT) based video encoding is proposed. Video watermarking is the practice of inserting an
encode information known as the watermark, into an original video in an imperceptible approach.
The watermark converts or represents information that can protect the watermarked video, typically
identifying the source or the intended destination of the video. The embedded watermark may be
detected by using a watermark detector, which helps to possible an application to react to the
presence (or absence) of the watermark in a video. However, the watermarked video may be
processed, or attacked, prior to watermark detection. Attacks may remove the fixed watermark or
make the watermark more complicated to detect. A logo watermark is composed in the
uncompressed field of a video. Using IM, the watermark is embedded into the chosen multiwavelet
coefficients by quantizing the coefficients. Scrambled watermarks are generated using a set of secret
keys, and each watermark is embedded in each motionless scene of the video. The multi–wavelet
transform uses two transformations such as Haar transform and Doubchies transform. The work is
done with the help of designed user interface. This method extracts the secret message correctly and
this provides better performance.
Keywords:–
Video, Encoding, Multiwavelet
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Survey On Digital Image Watermarking Techniques
SURVEY ON DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES
V.Belmer Gladson1Y.Sam Josuva2, Dr.R.Balasubramanian3
1Research Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor 3Professor,
Department of Computer Science&Engg, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tamilnadu,
1vbgclassic1984@gmail.com 2sam.joejaki@gmail.com,3rbalus662002@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT– In recent years, digital media are widely popular, their security related issues are
becoming greater importance. Watermarking is the process of hiding digital data in a carrier signal.
Embedding a digital signal such as audio, video or image with the information which cannot be
removed easily is called digital watermarking. Digital watermarking mainly used to verify the
authenticity, integrity of the carrier signal or to show the identity of its owners. In this paper, we
present a survey on various digital watermarking techniques. This paper mainly concentrates a
detailed survey of all watermarking techniques on image watermarking types in today's world.
Index Terms – Digital watermarking, spatial domain, Least Significant Bit (LSB), Frequency
domain, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and Discrete
Fourier Transform (DFT).
INTRODUCTION
The term digital watermarking was first emerged in 1993, Tirkel introduce two watermarking
techniques to hide the watermark data in the images [1].In recent years digital media are gaining
widely popular, and their security related issues are becoming greater importance. The protection
and
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A Perspective On Craig T. Simmons ' Henry Darcy
A Perspective on Craig T. Simmons' "Henry Darcy: Immortalised by his scientific legacy" Craig T.
Simmons' text, "Henry Darcy: Immortalised by his scientific legacy", is an extract from Simmons'
hydrogeology journal which was written in 2008. It briefly discusses the relevant details of Darcy's
life, then in more depth covers the scientific contributions Darcy made, and finally gives an
overview of Darcy's research later in life. It is an insightful piece of writing with a lengthy
compilation of references for further research if desired. Throughout the course of reading it,
though, several questions and comments arose in my mind that are worth discussing in this essay –
through these I hope to extend the conversation on Darcy as an engineer and person. I will explore
what engineering and science possibly meant to Darcy, who affected Darcy's education and
personality, how I can incorporate certain traits of his in my own life, and finally Darcy's work as an
individual. For Darcy, engineering and science can be described as means to give back to the world.
Simmons emphasizes his selfless nature on multiple occasions in his journal, explaining that Darcy
had "compassion for the poor" and "fairness and dedication to community service" (Simmons). He
was said to use his intellect and education to work for the people without gaining any personal
benefit. The most definitive example of his selflessness was his waiving of fees for the water system
that he designed and built for
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Piano Lessons At The Age Of 6
Music, in one way or another, is a part of everyone's life, whether it is listening to music when
travelling or learning how to play a musical instrument (Stutz). Beginning piano lessons at the age
of 6, I have developed a passion for music and find it to be a way to escape from a hectic life. A
requirement of the Royal Conservatory of Music, a corporation that runs exams to test the ability of
music students, is to learn music history, and during the course, I was amazed at the fact that when
two instruments, for example the flute and oboe, play the same note, they sound entirely different.
The difference in sounds can even be heard in instruments that are similar in nature, for instance, the
piano and the keyboard. When practicing piano pieces for exams or piano festivals, I go online to
listen to the interpretations of others for inspiration. I usually find videos of people playing a piano,
but sometimes there are people playing a keyboard. What surprised me was that the sounds of the
keyboard and the piano were entirely different, and this difference was especially noticeable
practicing for a performance. The practice room only contained a keyboard, and after playing the
keyboard, I realized that the music sounded much emptier compared to a piano. That got me to
wonder, what makes two instruments sound entirely different, even when playing the same note?
From comparing sounds from the keyboard and piano, I came to a conclusion that even though the
two instruments are
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IFDM Communication Systems
OFDM is a great technique to handle impairments of wireless communication channels such as
multipath propagation. Hence, OFDM is a practical candidate for future 4G wireless
communications techniques [1]–[4]. On the other hand, one of the major drawbacks of the OFDM
communication system is the drift in reference carrier. The offset present in received carrier will lose
orthogonality among the carriers. Hence, the CFO causes a reduction of desired signal amplitude in
the output decision variable and introduces ICI. Then it brings up an increase of BER. The effect
caused by CFO for OFDM system was analyzed in [7]–[9]. In [7] BER upper bound of OFDM
system is analyzed without ICI self–cancellation and BER of OFDM system is analyzed using self–
cancellation, but this method is less accurate. In [9], it is indicated that CFO should be less than 2%
of the bandwidth of the sub–channel to guarantee the signal to interference ratio to be higher than 30
dB. A critically sampled OFDM system/OQAM system is also not robust to CFO [9], even when
optimal pulses are used as shaping filters. Thus, carrier frequency offset greatly degrades system
performance. Therefore, practical OFDM systems need the CFO to be compensated with sufficient
accuracy, and this has led to a whole lot of literature on CFO estimation algorithms. Most of the
existing CFO estimators for OFDM are based on periodically transmitted pilot symbols. Yet, the
pilot symbols transmission loses a significant bandwidth,
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Nicole Oresme Research Paper
Nicole Oresme
Abstract
Nicole Oresme, also known as Nicolas Oresme, was born around 1320 in the 14th century on the
outskirts of the Norman city of Caen. Unfortunately, nothing was known of his family. Oresme was
known as one of the most famous scholastic philosophers of the middle age's. He was known for
many different subjects including; economics, physics, astrology, astronomy, theology, philosophy,
and mathematics. Oresme earned his doctorate of arts from the University of Paris between the years
of 1341–1342. In the same year he became grand master of the College of Navarre. He mainly wrote
in the language of Latin but also wrote in French [1]. Oresme was appointed canon in 1362 and later
in 1364 was made dean of the Cathedral of Rouen ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
He came about the idea to use rectangular coordinates and geometric figures to explain uniform and
non–uniform distribution of various quantities. For example, he worked on the change of velocity in
relation to time. More importantly, this helped lay a strong foundation that later led to the discovery
of analytic geometry by René Descartes. Oresme used his geometric figures to give the first proof of
the Merton theorem, shown in figure 1 below. This theorem states, "The distance traveled in any
given period by a body moving under uniform acceleration is the same as if the body moved at a
uniform speed equal to its speed at the midpoint of the period [2]." Some believe that this resulted in
later discoveries of kinematics, affecting the later work of Galileo's.
Figure 1 Another mathematical contribution was the development of the first proof of the divergence
of the harmonic series. Oresme's proof had less advanced mathematics then the modern proof today.
His proof on the harmonic series was not touched on until later centuries, and was only replicated by
the Bernoulli brothers [1]. Oresmes proof groups the harmonic terms by taking 2, 4, 8, 16, and so
on, after the first two terms, and noting that each block has a sum larger than a ½ [3]. Resulting
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Modern Transformers And Electric Power Systems
Large power modern transformers are vital components and very expensive in electric power
systems. Forthwith, it is very important to reduce the duration and frequency of unwanted outages
that results in a high demand imposed on power transformer protection relays, this includes the
requirements of dependability related with no mal–operations, operating speed related with short
fault clearing time to avoid extensive damage or to preserve power quality and power system
stability and security related with no false tripping.
Discrimination between inrush currents and internal faults has long been known as a challenging
power transformer protection problem. Otherwise, inrush currents contain large second harmonic
component compared to internal faults, conventional transformer protection are designed to achieve
required discrimination by sensing that large second harmonic content [1]. The level of second
harmonic component of the inrush current has been reduced due to improving in transformer core
material and occur power system changes. Additionally, a large second harmonic can also be found
in transformer internal fault currents if a shunt capacitor is connected to a transformer in a long extra
high voltage transmission line. Therefore, the methods based on the measurement of the second
harmonic are not sufficiently effective for differential protective relays [2].
Newly, several new protective schemes have been proposed to deal with the previous problem in
large power
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Important Discoveries And Contributions That Were Made By...
Abstract: – The many concepts we currently have in the field of mathematics are thanks to great
mathematicians from different cultures throughout time. An important era when great mathematical
discoveries were made was during Medieval Times, or the Middle Ages. In this paper we discuss
important discoveries and contributions that were made by three famous mathematicians of this time
period including French Nicole Oresme, German Jordanus Nemorarius and Italian Leonardo Pisano,
better known for his nickname of Fibonacci.
Key–Words: – Medieval, Mathematics, Fibonacci, Arithmetic, Sequence
1 Introduction
Mathematics has grown and expanded its many concepts thanks to mathematicians from different
societies throughout time. A very important era in history is considered to be the Medieval Times, or
the middle ages. According to reference [6], "People use the phrase 'Middle Ages' to describe
Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 CE and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th
century." The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, are known for their famous art, architecture,
crusades among other things, but there were also mathematical contributions happening during this
time period.
Mathematical concepts that we know and use nowadays are thanks to contributions made from
different mathematicians throughout time. The Medieval Times are no exception since great men
living in this era contributed to the beautiful subject of mathematics. Some of the many intelligent
minds from this era
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Essay On Medicinal Volume Information Recovery
incorporates three cases, specifically: added substance homomorphism; include homomorphism,
question picture highlight is not encoded; full homomorphism encryption strategy. In [15],
Bellafqira et al. proposed a protected usage of a substance based picture recovery (CBIR) technique
that works with homomorphic scrambled pictures from which it separates wavelet based picture
includes next utilized for ensuing picture examination. Test comes about show it accomplishes
recovery execution on a par with if pictures were prepared nonencrypted.
In this paper, we proposed a powerful calculation of encoded medicinal volume information
recovery in light of DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform).
Since DWT can't avoid ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
B. 3D Discrete Fourier Transform (3D–DFT)Discrete Fourier Transform is an essential change in
the field of picture rocessing. Expecting that the span of the medicinal volume information is M * N
* P, at that point the three–dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (3D–DFT) is characterized as
takes after:
M −1 N −1 P −1
F ( u , v , w )  ¦ f ( x , y , z ) ⋅e − j 2 π xu/M e − j 2 π yv/N e− j 2 π zw/P
x = 0 y = 0 z = 0 
u = 0,1, , M − 1; v = 0,1, , N − 1; w = 0,1, , P − 1;
The equation of Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform(3D–
IDFT) is as per the following:
1 M −1 N −1 P−1
f ( x, y, z) = ¦¦¦F (u, v, w) ⋅e j 2π xu/M e j 2π yv/N ej 2π zw/P
MNP u =0 v =0 w=0
x = 0,1, , M − 1; y = 0,1, , N − 1; z = 0,1, , P − 1;
Where f(x,y,z) is the testing an incentive in the spatial area, F(u,v,w) is the inspecting an incentive in
the recurrence space.
C. Calculated Map
Calculated guide is the most average and broadly utilized tumultuous framework, which is a one–
dimensional disorderly framework. Calculated Map is a nonlinear guide given by the accompanying
equation:
[ N + = μ [ N − [ N
Where 0 μ ≤ 4 is the branch parameter, xk ∈ 0,1 is
the framework variable,the emphasis numberis K.
At the point when μ ≤ , the framework will demonstrate a disorganized
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American Film Title Designer: Kyle Cooper
Kyle Cooper is an American film title designer how is responsible for creating some of the most
invitational and evocative title sequences. Designing title sequences for film and television with a
unique style and ability to invoke an emotional response through his imagery and use of narrative.
He is often compared to Saul Bass and his Typography approach to titles sequences, In the title's for
Saul Bass Psycho, he get across the nature of his main character with slicing up uneven Type and
shapes moving vertical and horizontal causes a sense of unease and discomfort. The use of
Typographic method acting, to animate the words shows the emotional effect of type and how it can
reflect the film.
Kyle cooper's titles are more that just a title they give an emotional response in a audience with his
bark and bold and unforeseen style that draws you in and hooks you
His most admired work comes from the 1995 title sequence of the American film "Seven". Not since
Saul Bass's title sequence to The Man With the Golden Arm and Vertigo have credits attracted such
attention.
But Cooper was already a title–sequence expert at this stage with more than 40 credits to his name
"Each film is a different problem to solve so each is different" Kyle cooper
Typeface has got to be a character through the narrative. It should really carry a part of the story.
The first scene we are presented with a black screen, with the sounds of Dinah Washington singing
'A Stranger on Earth' being played
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Biometric Codes Are Used For Recognising A User On The...
Abstract
Biometric systems are used for recognising a user on the basis of biometric traits he have. During
authentication some of the frequently asked questions are "Is he who he claims to be?", "Is he a
valid user for gaining access to the system?". Biometric system answers all these questions by
authenticating the users. Every second information is shared and transferred between people and it is
important to make sure that what is sent by sender is what received by the receiver thus raising the
demand of security. Steganography is one of the techniques used for securing the data. The secret
message is hidden inside a cover media like audio, video or image with the help of a secret key.
Biometric templates can also be secured with this technique. Instead of storing original templates in
the database stego–image is stored. LSB is one of the common techniques that replace the LSB of
every pixel of the cover image with the secret message to form stego–image.
Keywords: Biometric, Biometric Attacks, Biometric template, Steganography, Security.
1. Introduction
With increasing rate of attacks, everyone today needs a reliable and secure system. Biometric
systems fulfil the needs to a great extent as biometric traits are better than passwords or pins which
have chances of being stolen and forgotten. Before using biometric systems enrolment phase is
necessary during which the templates of the users are stored in the database. During authentication
user 's claim is matched with the
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Using AApplication For A Desktop Application
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROJECT SUMMARY
Many students have sat in the tutoring center working through problem after problem on their math
homework wondering why they cannot solve them. It turns out that much of classical mathematical
logic is quite different from the way human reason. In fact, without a rigorous background in
mathematical logic it is difficult for humans to reason according to the norms of formal
mathematics. Higher Mathematical Tool which involves the functionalities like Laplace
Transformation and Inverse Laplace Transformation with step–by–step solutions in very effective
manner. We are going to make a desktop application which we are provide the solution for the same.
1.2 PURPOSE
The purpose for this application provides following terms:–
Many students are facing many problems while solving the mathematical problems of like Laplace
and Inverse Laplace Transform.
Our project gives the solution of these mathematical problems solutions in step by step manner or in
direct output as per the requirements of user.
1.3 SCOPE
This system is basically for providing the solution of problem whichever is entered by the user and
which gives you the complete solution of the problem.
Another main scope of our project is that any user like student, faculty can login to this application
successfully without any difficulty and the user can easily operate this application and main in the
system is user–friendly system.
System can do:
¤ Authentication Users:
It
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An Intentional Infliction Of Emotional Distress
Question Presented Does Samuel Taylor, the former member of the Local 718 Teamsters Union,
have a cause of action against Ronald Murray, Local 718 business representative, who repeatedly
harassed Taylor for about four months and intentionally inflicted emotional distress which resulted
in Taylor's loss of twenty pounds, extreme nervousness, loss of his union membership and his job?
Brief Answer Probably yes. Under Massachusetts law, a plaintiff has a claim for an intentional
infliction of emotional distress if all of the following elements are satisfied: (1) the defendant
intended, knew or reasonably have known that his conduct will result in the emotional distress; (2)
the defendant's conduct was extreme and outrageous, beyond all possible limits of decency and
utterly intolerable in a civilized community; (3) the defendant's conduct is the cause of the plaintiff's
distress; and (4) the plaintiff's emotional agitation was so severe and of a nature that no reasonable
person could withstand. Here, Murray intended to inflict emotional distress by harassing Taylor so
he would cooperate with the union, it was of extreme and outrageous manner, when he threatened
Taylor's and his wife's life, and caused the emotional agitation so severe, which no person could be
reasonably expected to endure, and as a result, Taylor withdrew his membership, quit his job,
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Detection System Of Illegal Logging Image Using Matching...
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research||Vol, 03||Issue, 6||
www.ijceronline.com ||June ||2013|| Page 57
Detection System of Illegal Logging Image Using Matching Process With Discrete Cosine
Transform Syafruddin Syarif1, Nadjamuddin Harun2, M. Tola3, M. Wihardi Tjaronge4 1 Student of
Doctoral Program Civil Engineering Hasanuddin University, Makassar Indonesia 1,2,3 Department
of Electrical Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia 4 Department of Civil
Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
I. INTRODUCTION
Forest has many advantages to human life and the earth as the lungs of the world. In the economic
field, the forestry sector contributes significantly to the national income accounts. The high price of
timber in international market leds to timber exploitation in the early 90 's [S. Syarif, et.al, 2012]. It
encourages illegal logging actifity, which causes adverse effects especially on the economy and
ecology fields. In the economic field, the state revenues declined due to the loss of timber tax and
the chance to produce the high quality products of timber also decreased. In addition, the nature
inbalance causes climate change, declining soil productivity, soil erosion and flooding, habitat
destruction, and loss of biodiversity. To solve the problems, the illegal logging detection system is
urgently needed. In this research, image processing and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are
applied for the detection. Nowadays,
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The Founding Principles Of The Fourier Series
FOURIER SERIES AND ITS SOME APPLICATIONS
P. Sathyabama
Assistant professor,
Department of Mathematics,
Bharath collage of science and management, Thanjavur– 5
Abstract
The Fourier Series, the founding principle behind the field of Fourier Analysis, is an infinite
expansion of a function in terms of sines and cosines.In physics and engineering,expanding
functions in terms of sines and cosines is useful because it allows one to more easily manipulate
functions.In particular, the fields of electronics, quantum mechanics, and electrodynamics all make
heavy use of the Fourier series. Key words: Fourier Transform, Discrete Fourier Transform,
Convolution Transforms
I.INTRODUCTION
The Fourier Series, the founding principle behind the field of Fourier Analysis, is an infinite
expansion of a function in terms of sines and cosines or imaginary exponentials. The series is defied
in its imaginary exponential form as follows: ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Since sines and cosines (and in turn imaginary exponentials) form an orthogonal set1, this series
converges for any moderately well– behaved function f(x) .Examples of the Fourier Series for
different wave forms are given in figure I.
II.THE FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMS
The Fourier Series is only capable of analyzing the frequency components of certain,
discretefrequencies (integers) of a given function. In order to study the casewhere the frequency
components of the sine and cosineterms are continuous, the concept of the Fourier Transform must
be introduced. The imaginary exponential form of the Fourier Transform is defined as
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the pixel domain. Detection of the watermark can be done...
the pixel domain. Detection of the watermark can be done by correlating the pixels values with
expected pixel values. The drawbacks of this technique is limited information embedded, less
resistant to noise and compression and less robust to geometric attacks. These techniques are
abandoned recently[17]. Some common spatial domain algorithms include Least Significant
Bit(LSB)Modification, Patchwork, Texture Block Coding, Correlation based, SSM modulation
based etc. The most commonly used algorithm is LSB.
1) Least Significant bit(LSB)
LSB which replaces the least significant bits of pixels selected to hide the information. In this
example only the least significant bit of each pixel will be used for embedding information. If the
pixel ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A remarkable feature of this technique is the high robustness to any kind of distortion, since both
image areas are distorted in a similar way, which means that the watermark recovery by
autocorrelation still works [23].
B. Transform domain
Transform domain method takes advantage of properties of alternate domains by modifying
transform coefficients to support additional features. Transform domain method is divided into
frequency domain and wavelet domain.
1) Frequency domain
In frequency domain, we insert watermark into the coefficients of a transformed image[24] and then
watermarked image is inverted to obtain image in spatial domain.[24] The approaches used in
frequency domain are JPEGbased[ 25],spread spectrum [26],[27] and content–based approaches
[28].Frequency image transformations include the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete
Cosine Transform (DCT) and others.
a) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
Fourier transform is a powerful tool for analyzing the components of a stationary signal (signal in
which there is no change in the properties of signal) [29]. It is a powerful tool for processing signals
that are composed of some combination of sine and cosine signals (sinusoids) [30]. Fourier
coefficients have two components phase and magnitude[31]. One of the main advantage of DFT is
that it is rotation, Translation and scaling invariant which helps it in recovering from geometrical
distortions. Licks algorithm [32] is one example.
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The Coefficient Of Variation Of The Pixel Position
Where Itij is the images sampled discretely with the pixel position (i, j), gi,j is the spatial neigh–
borhood of the pixel(i, j), |gi,j| is the amount of pixels in the neighborhood window and Dt is the
size of time step. In Yu and Acton's [62] research, they had utilized the coefficient of variation of the
adaptive filtering technique to replace the gradient–driven diffusion coefficient c((rIt ij)p) and
named it the Instantaneous Coefficient of Variation or ICOV. Fig. 12. Illustration original images are
in the upper rows, Images processed by MAS– the reflection function–alities are in the lower rows
[62]. 2.3.5Difference of Gaussian (DoG) The technique known as the DoG filtering–based
normalization or DoG is a technique for nor–malization that depends on the variation of the
Gaussians filtering to create a normalized image [2, 38, 63]. Essentially, it uses a band–pass filtering
to the inputted image and after that creates a normalized version. It should be noted that prior to
utilizing the filter, one has use the gamma correction or the log transformation on the image;
otherwise the outcome will not be as antici–pated [64]. The model of illumination–reflectance can
be utilized to design a frequency–domain method in enhancing the image's appearance using the
gray–level ranged compression and simultaneously contrasting the enhancements [54,65]. This
model suggests that each pixel value f(x, y) can be reflected as the outcome of an illumination
component i (x, y) and a
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Biography of Joseph Fourier
Joseph Fourier was born in a modest family at Auxerre, France. Orphaned at an early age, Joseph
acquired his initial education from Pallais's school, which was run by the music teacher from the
cathedral. Thereafter he proceeded to the École Royale Militaire of Auxerre. While he showed an
aptitude and flair for literature, by the age of thirteen, this was overshadowed by mathematics a
subject he found himself really interested in. Joseph completed a study of the six volumes of
Bezout's Cours de mathématiques when he was fourteen and in the following year received the first
prize for his study of Bossut's Mécanique en general. In the year 1787, Fourier took admission in the
Benedictine abbey of St Benoit–sur–Loire with a motive to train himself for priesthood. However
simultaneously he submitted a paper on algebra to Montucla in Paris and even wrote a letter to
Bonard stating his desire to make a major influence in mathematics. This move suggested Fouriers
uncertainty as to whether he really wanted to pursue the training in priesthood or not. In 1789
Fourier left for Paris where he read a paper on algebraic equations at the Académie Royale des
Sciences. The next year Fourier took up the position of a tutor at the Benedictine college Ecole
Royale Militaire of Auxerre where he had studied. As if Fouriers uncertainty to follow a religious
life or one of mathematical research was not enough the conflict became worse when he got
involved in
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Analyzing Precise Electronic Structure Of The Different...
The core aim of the present work is to completely analyze precise electronic structure of the five
different doped BaTiO3 systems and the bonding interactions between the constituent atoms. This
aim is achieved successfully by adopting maximum entropy method (MEM). In this section, the
importance of electron density studies in structure analysis, the formalism of MEM method, the
principle, MEM methodology followed in this work to elucidate the electron density are given
elaborately.
1.9.2.1 Electron density The electron density is a quantum mechanical observable, that can be
measured through scattering experiments, in particular X–ray diffraction from the crystals. The
possibility of measuring charge density in a crystalline system from its X–ray diffraction pattern was
conceived several years ago when Debye and Scherrer explained the existence of halos in a powder
photograph where the images of the electronic orbit around the atoms [Debye et.al., 1918].
Electron density is the measure of probability of an electron being present at a specific location. The
regions of electron density are usually found around the atoms and its bonds. The probability of
locating an electron at one point (or) another can be calculated quantum mechanically. This
calculation gives a quantity called electron density. Electron can be viewed as a stationary wave (or)
a cloud of negative charges. The electron density is considered as a periodic function of position in a
crystal, reaches to a
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Medical Animator Essay
This paper provides knowledge about what the effects of animation has in the fields of both biology
and medicine. It also gives some information about what a medical animator is and their purpose in
science. As well as some extra information about them, such as the courses or classes they need to
attend through in order to be considered a medical animator. Information about the materials and
research necessary in order to create a scientifically accurate animation, in which they are showing
the process of something or of any type of medical or scientific event that an animation is needed
for. What makes an animation scientifically accurate, and the science that goes into an animation. In
addition to that, I will also talk about what the perks of animation in these fields are. Along with
how animation can help better the learning and understanding of difficult topics and procedures,
whether it be for students or for the general public. The paper will also include some information to
further prove that animation is a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The animators also are required to look into the physics of items that are a part of the animation to
make sure everything that is in motion or is happening is moving the way its suppose to move or if
there is a problem with how something is happening or how quick it's happening. They usually use a
specialist in this field to help them out so they can do their job right. Physics is already heavily
present in animation no matter what type of animation, it is necessary in order to make actions in the
animation believable or at least plausible enough for the audience that is watching. Physics is an
important subject that makes an exceptional animation without it would make their final product
look like it was made horribly and very lifeless. It undoubtedly plays a large role when it comes to
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Transcendentalism In Brook Farm
George Ripley, a leader of the transcendental movement, was the founder of Brook Farm, also
known as The Brook Farm of Institute of Agriculture and Education. It was a Utopian experiment
for communal living in 1841, located in Massachusetts. The goal was to establish social coherence
between the thinker and the worker and to achieve individual mental freedom. Brook Farm was
inspired by transcendentalism and was created to promote the beliefs of Fourierism. From day one,
Brook Farm was bound to fail due to its inefficient social organization.
A Utopian communist society was set up for failure based off the ideas of Charles Fourier. He was a
Utopian socialist who shaped the political and economic basis of Brook Farm. He was part of the
French Revolution and was disgusted by the violence that human beings committed in order to
achieve their goals. He believed the way to rebel against the government and to achieve goals was
through peace, not through murder. Fourier's societal vision included an ideal community called a
"Phalanx." The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In Brook Farm there was no hierarchy and no one was in charge, everyone was equal. Groups
without leaders go nowhere and are not affective. Everyone has his or her own thoughts, skills, ideas
and abilities. Leaders maintain cooperation through out a community. People can achieve more as a
group or a community than as an individual. A leader needs to be put in charge to ensure that people
work together efficiently and effectively. If there is no leader, people will do what they want and act
selfishly. They will do what is best for themselves, not for the larger group. People need to be led
and guided to the right direction in order to show their full potential. Leaders keep groups under
control and they make sure tasks are completed in an organized manner. They keep everyone
focused in order to achieve their goal. Leaders provide motivation, guidance and
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Obtaining Motion Blur Parameters Form The Frequency Spectrum
Obtaining Motion Blur Parameters Form The Frequency Spectrum
Fourier transform is applied on digital images to interprets their content in terms frequency
information. To illustrate, Flat areas, where the intensity is slowly changing, result in low
frequencies. Rough areas, on the other hand, result in high frequencies because of the dramatic
change in the intensity value. this paper discusses the impact of manipulating the frequency
information of digital images and how the frequency spectrum can be used to address a real world
situation.
Filtering an image in the frequency domain is usually composed of three steps. First, the Fourier
transform is calculated (DCT or DFT). Then, a certain operation is performed on the frequencies ...
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Huei and Kun [2] proposed that the speed of moving objects in a single image can be estimated
using the blur parameters, the camera parameters and imaging geometry. To illustrate, the
displacement of a moving object (d) can be determined using similar triangles according to the blur
length (k) Figure2. And by knowing the shutter speed of the camera (T), the speed of the object is v
=d/T(1). Since this paper is concerned with Fourier Transform, the details of equation (1) are
omitted and calculating the blur parameter is detailed below.
The blur parameters, including the blurs' direction and length, can be determined by examining their
impact on the Fourier spectrum. As shown in figure, the Fourier spectrum of the motion blur
contains strips of dark lines that are parallel and uniformly separated. Note that the Fourier spectrum
depends on the objects' orientation; so the direction of the motion blur could be extracted from the
frequency spectrum. Also, as the blurs' length increase, the edges get smoother, resulting in lower
frequency response. These observations suggest that the frequency spectrum has all the needed
information to determine the blurs parameters. In particular, the object shown in the figure is
moving along the horizontal axis, and this caused the vertical orientation of the dark lines in the
frequency spectrum. Furthermore, increasing the blurs length, which can be achieved by increasing
the object's speed, lessens the distance
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Essay On Dynamic Range
Dynamic range defined as the range of the lightest and darkest areas of an image which camera can
successfully capture without losing detail. Our real–world environment dynamic range is high that
exceeds the capabilities of modern display devices with limited dynamic range. A problem appears
when displaying high dynamic range image in low dynamic range display devices, so the tone
mapping technique has been used to solve this problem. In this paper, new adjustment tone mapping
technique is presented for displaying high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range device
without any lose in image details and maintains contrast of the image. Instead of linearly scaling the
luminance of all pixels or introduce local gamma correction with ... Show more content on
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Tone mapping technique used to map high dynamic range images to low dynamic range image that
will be displayed on recent devices, thus keeping the image looking realistic. The tone mapping
operators can be classified into two categories: global operators and local operators. Global operator
task depends on the same mapping function is used for all the pixels of the input HDR image so,
global operators can be described as spatially uniform methods. Global tone mapping operators are
computationally very simple and maintain the intensity orders of the original scenes thus avoiding
''halo'' artifacts, but cause loss of details in the mapped images. Local operators which reproduce the
tonal values in a spatially variant manner because mapping function processes for each individual
pixel. Local operators characterized that more satisfying than global operators in terms of the detail
preservation and compression ratio of the dynamic range. Also, there are two tone mapping model
linear tone mapping model and nonlinear tone mapping model. Linear model does not need
multiscale decomposition or segmentation of the images into binary or fractional maps, where the
problems associated with layer decomposition are not found. Linear model not only interested in
making the output images looks natural by enhancing the pixel intensity more significantly in
highlights, but also satisfies high radiance similarity with
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Essay On How To Solve The Sparse Approximate Dft Problem
The first work that tried to solve the sparse approximate DFT problem can be found in
cite{NYN93}, in which they designed an algorithm based on Hadamard Transform, i.e. the Fourier
transform over the Boolean cube. A polynomial time algorithm to interpolates a sparse polynomial
was developed in cite{Y95}. The method in this paper inspired the authors of cite{GMS05}, in
which they described an algorithm that can be used to approximate DFT when $N$ is a power of 2.
In the early 2000s, people paid a lot of attention to the sparse approximation problem in Fourier
space. The first algorithm with sub–linear runtime and the sub–sampling property was given in
cite{GGIMM02}. In which they give a randomized algorithm with runtime poly($s, log N, ...
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However, it needs to point out that the runtime of the algorithm in cite{AGS03} has a high
dependence on sparsity compare with cite{GGIMM02} and cite{GMS05}.
All the SFT algorithms above are randomized algorithms. This means they have small probability to
fail to give the correct or optimal recovery on each input signal. Thus, they are not appropriate for
long–lived failure intolerant applications. The first deterministic sub–linear time SFT algorithm was
developed in cite{I08} based on the deterministic Compressed Sensing results of Cormode and
Muthukrishnan (CM)cite{RSR69}cite{CM05}cite{CM06}. A simpler optimized version of this
algorithm was given in cite{I10}, which has similar runtime/sampling bounds ($mathcal{O}(s^2
log ^4 N)$) to the one in cite{GMS05}. Later, in cite{I11}, a further modified SFT algorithm was
provided. It showed simple methods for extending the improved sparse Fourier transforms to higher
dimensional settings. More specifically, the algorithm can find the near optimal $s$–term
approximation for any given input function, $f: [0,2pi]^{D} rightarrow C$ in $mathcal{O}(s^2
D^4)$ time (neglecting logarithmic factors). The algorithms in cite{I08}cite{I10}cite{I11} are all
aliasing–based search algorithm cite{indyk_overview}, which means they rely on the combinatorial
properties of aliasing among frequencies in sub–samples DFTs. The algorithms
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A Short Note On Internal And Internal Assessment
IB Mathematics HL Internal Assessment
Judy Taylor
IB HL Mathematics
Word Count: 1311
Table of Contents Abstract.......................................................................................Page 3
Introduction...................................................................................Page 4
Exploration....................................................................................Page 5
Applications...................................................................................Page 8
Conclusion.....................................................................................Page 9
References....................................................................................Page 11 Abstract The sine integral,
written as Si (x), is important factor in signal processing as it causes overshoot, ringing artifacts, and
is considered as the convolution of the cardinal sine function (represented as sin (x)/ x or sinc (x))
and the Heaviside step function that corresponds to shortening the Fourier series, which causes the
Gibbs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
After some research, I found out that cardinal sine could not be solved by elementary means and that
its integral was, in fact, a crucial part of the Gibbs phenomenon, which will be expanded upon in the
Applications section (Pg. 8) of this investigation. My aim for this investigation is to prove the
integral of cardinal sine to be sine integral and to approximate five (5) values of the sine integral
function. Afterwards, I will show how this is relevant in both mathematics and other, more practical,
applications. Exploration In order to organize the mathematical exploration most effectively, the
exploration will begin with the following problem: Prove that ∫▒sin⁡
x/x is equal to Si (x).
Approximate Si (0), Si (π/6), Si (π/4), Si (π/3), and Si (π/2) using a Taylor polynomial of order 3 at 0
for f(x) = Si (x). In order to verify the results of the approximations, Wolfram Alpha, an online
calculator capable of processing the sine integral function, will be used.
To begin with, the Taylor series representation of the sine integral function is as such:
Si (x)=∑_(n=0 )^∞▒((–1)^n x^(2n+1))/(2n+1)(2n+1)! At this point, it is necessary to find the Taylor
series representation of sin⁡
x/x. First, the Taylor series representation of sin (x) is:
∑_(n=0)^∞▒(〖(–1)〗^n x^(2n+1))/(2n+1)!
Therefore, sin⁡
x/x is equal to:
1/x ∑_(n=0)^∞▒(〖(–1)〗^n x^(2n+1))/(2n+1)!
Which is equal to:
∑_(n=0)^∞▒(〖(–1)〗^n x^(2n+1))/x(2n+1)!
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Electronics and Communication Engineering (Ece) Syllabus...
2007–2008 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD
B.TECH. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING I YEAR COURSE
STRUCTURE Code Subject English Mathematics – I Mathematical Methods Applied Physics C
Programming and Data Structures Network Analysis Electronic Devices and Circuits Engineering
Drawing Computer Programming Lab. IT Workshop Electronic Devices and Circuits Lab English
Language Communication Skills Lab. Total T 2+1 3+1 3+1 2+1 3+1 2+1 3+1 25 P/D 3 3 3 3 3 15 C
4 6 6 4 6 4 6 4 4 4 4 4 56 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
HYDERABAD. B.TECH. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING II Year
COURSE STRUCTURE Code Subject Mathematics – III Probability Theory and Stochastic
Processes Environmental Studies ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Hence, it is suggested that they read it on their own with topics selected for discussion in the class.
The time should be utilized for working out the exercises given after each section , as also for
supplementing the exercises with authentic materials of a similar kind for example, from newspaper
articles, advertisements, promotional material etc.. However, the stress in this syllabus is on skill
development and practice of language skills. 2. OBJECTIVES: a. To improve the language
proficiency of the students in English with emphasis on LSRW skills. b. To equip the students to
study academic subjects with greater facility through the theoretical and practical components of the
English syllabus. c. To develop the study skills and communication skills in formal and informal
situations. 3. SYLLABUS : Listening Skills: Objectives 1. To enable students to develop their
listening skill so that they may appreciate its role in the LSRW skills approach to language and
improve their pronunciation 2. To equip students with necessary training in listening so that can
comprehend the speech of people of different backgrounds and regions Students should be given
practice in listening to the sounds of the language to be able to recognise them, to distinguish
between them to mark stress and recognise and use the right intonation in sentences. Listening for
general content Listening to fill up information
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Explain The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Vertical...
4.3.6 Structural Partitioning
When the architectural style of a design follows a hierarchical nature the Program structure can be
partitioned horizontally and vertically.
There are mainly two types of Structure partitioning:
1. Horizontal Partitioning
2. Vertical Partitioning Figure 4.3
1. Horizontal Partitioning:
In horizontal partitioning, the control modules are used to communicate between functions and
execute the functions. It defines separate branches of the modular hierarchy for each major program
function as shown in the Figure 4.3.Control modules, represented in a darker shade are used to
coordinate communication & execution between its functions. Horizontal partitioning defines three
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Top–level modules should perform control functions and do little actual processing work. Modules
that reside low–level in the structure should be the workers, performing all input, computation, and
output tasks.
Advantages of Vertical Partitioning
Less susceptible to side effects and therefore very maintainable
4.3.7 Data Structure
Data structure is a representation of the logical relationship among individual elements of data. A
scalar item is the simplest of all data structures. It represents a single element of information that
may be addressed by an identifier. When scalar items are organized as a list or contiguous group, a
sequential vector is formed. When the sequential vector is extended to two, three, and ultimately, an
arbitrary number of dimensions, an n–dimensional space is created.In many programming
languages, an n dimensional space is called an array.
A linked list is a data structure that organizes contiguous scalar items, vectors, or spaces in a manner
(called nodes) that enables them to be processed as a list.
A hierarchical data structure is implemented using multilinked lists that contain scalar items,
vectors, and possibly, n–dimensional spaces.Stack is a conceptual model of a data structure that can
be implemented as a vector or a linked
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Research Paper On Bottleneck Analysis
Bottleneck analysis:
Bottleneck analysis is a technique to analyze the point of congestion of the work. Bottleneck creates
the longer cycler time. In this analysis we use any technique to improve the overall performance of
the system. Bottleneck limits the production capacity and we use some work force or workstation to
overcome that problem.
 Trend analysis
 Correlation
 Comparison
 Elimination drill down
 Pattern matching
MOST (Maynard operation sequence technique):
Maynard is a technique which is based on motion time system. It is used to set the standard time for
the industry in which a performer performs its task. In this system the motion is calculated in TMU's
known as time measurement units. 1 hour is equal to 100000 TMU.
An ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Gain control over the tool manually
2) Put tool in place
Take the tool to the place where it will be used either directly or by moving the body
Place tool in usage position
3) Use tool
Apply some tool action
4) Put tool aside
Gain the tool for more use, put down the tool aside, return the tool to its original location or put it on
in new location either directly or by moving body.
Tool sequence model:
Get tool Put Tool Use Tool Put Tool Aside Return
A B G A B P * A B P A
(*) May be one of the following;
F=Fasten
L=Loosen
C= cut
S= surface treat
M=measure
R= record
T=think
For e.g. before welding two plates a welder obtains a square and check the angle that is correct the
square is located three steps away from the workstation. The time would be: A6B0G1 A6B0P1
M10A6B0E1 A0
(The sum of all values)*10=Normal
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What Is A Four-Distributed Static Compensator
This paper deals with a four–leg distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) which is used to
solve the current related power quality. An amplitude adaptive notch filter (AANF) is employed for
the reference current extraction of DSTATCOM control scheme because of its simplicity, capability
of frequency and amplitude measuring, appropriate extraction of the fundamental signal, and
insensitivity to the amplitude variation of the input signal. To generate the gate pulses of the
switches, an adaptive hysteresis band current controller is used. In addition, fuzzy logic controllers
are used for a better performance of DSTATCOM under dynamic conditions. The proposed control
algorithm is robust to power disturbances, especially when the main voltage ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
However, these algorithms generally demonstrate a slow time response. Time–domain algorithms
are based on the instantaneous extraction of harmonic currents/voltages. The common time–domain
control strategies are instantaneous reactive power theory (IRPT) [6] and synchronous reference
frame theory (SRF) [7]. Calculation of active and reactive powers by transforming three–phase
voltages and currents into two phases is the principle of PQ theory, which does not work properly
under non–sinusoidal supply conditions [8]. SRF theory is based on conversion of three–phase
quantities into their corresponding dc components, and low–pass filters (LPFs) are employed for
harmonic filtering which contain a time delay and deteriorate the performance of the controller [9].
Most of the advanced control and signal processing methods are accurate and show a better dynamic
response than the FFT, but a large amount of calculations is required, which does not demonstrate an
excellent performance in frequency–varying conditions [10–13]. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) is
another advanced algorithm which has been introduced as an effective control technique for
extracting reference sinusoidal components from distorted input signal. ANF is capable of changing
the notch frequency suitably by tracking the frequency variations of the input signal [14–16].
To the best knowledge of the authors, the modified notch filter in a
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Analyzing The Consumers Generating Inter Harmonic Frequencies
Alexander B. Nassif and Jing Yong [7] have proposed a method to identify the consumers
generating inter harmonic frequencies. The inter–harmonics can be measured by means of
Impedance based approach applied at the metering point. The main idea is that, the inter–harmonic
impedance of the system is much smaller than that of an inter–harmonic generating load. This
method can identify the source of each inter–harmonic component without having to rely solely on
the active power measurement and requires only an approximate value for the inter–harmonic
impedance measured at the metering point. As per references [2], [6], [7], [9] any device with
nonlinear characteristics which derive their input power from a sinusoidal electrical system may be
responsible for injecting harmonic currents & voltages into the electrical system [2, 6, 7, 9 ].
Francisco C. De la rossa [2] have described ,all possible nonlinear loads . Among them few are
Power converters such as Variable frequency drives, DC motor controllers, Cycloconverter, Cranes,
Elevators ,Steel mills, Power supplies, UPS,Battery chargers, Inverters & ARC devices such as
Fluorescent lighting, ARC furnaces, Welding machines. According to authors [2] ,[7] Even linear
loads like power transformers can act nonlinear under saturation conditions. This occurs beyond the
so–called saturation knee of the magnetizing curve of the transformer. [2],[7]. According to author
Joseph S. Subjak [9], Communication interference
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Notes On ' Let A ! '
Let a_0 = 0. Using equations 2 and 3, after canceling terms,
∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "sin" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 "b" _"k" "T"
"b" _"k" "= " "1" /"T" ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" ) "sin" ⁡
〖"(" "πkx" ⁄"T" ")" 〗 "dx" 〗
The process to derive "a" _"k" was much simpler than deriving "b" _"k" , since I simply multiplied
the original equation by "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 and then used the orthogonality conditions.
"f" ("x" )"=" "a" _"0" "+" ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒("a" _"k" "cos" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 "+" "b" _"k" "sin" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 )
∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 〖∫_"0" ^"T" ▒"dx" "a" 〗_"0" " "
"cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 "+ " ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"dx " "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 〗 ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒("a"
_"k" "cos" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 "+" "b" _"k" "sin" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 )
∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 〖∫_"0" ^"T" ▒"dx" "a" 〗_"0" "
cos+ " ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"a" _"k" "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" "cos" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" "+"
∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"dx " "b" _"k" "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" "sin" ⁡
〖"πkx" /"T" " " 〗 〗 〗
_" " " " 〗 〗 〗_" "
Using equations 1 and 3, simplifying the equation,
∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "cos" ⁡
〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 "a" _"k" "T"
And after replacing m with k,
"a" _"k" "= " "1" /"T" ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" ) "cos" ⁡
〖"(" "πkx" ⁄"T" ")" 〗 "dx" 〗
The T represents the period of the function, while the k represents the frequency number, where k is
a positive integer. Whenever an instrument plays a sound, it does not only
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Algorithms, Algorithms And Consequences For Top-K...
4.3. Top–K Association Rule More than one algorithms & sequences were predicted for top–k
association administers mining. But, most of them do now not take advantage of the essential
definition of an association rule. As an occurrence, KORD discovers approaches with an unmarried
thing in the resulting, while the arrangement of principles of You et al. mines connection rules from
a move in lieu of an exchange database. To the wonderful of our concentration, least difficult best k
rules finds top–k affiliation rules predicated on a similar old meaning of an alliance run (with
various things, in an exchange database). the primary pivotal thought process that characterize this
calculation is that it characterizes the endeavor of mining the ... Show more content on
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With Ajax, web applications can send actualities to, and recuperate measurements from, a server
nonconcurrently (inside the legacy) without meddling with the disclosure and aura of the present site
page. Actualities might be recovered ingesting the XM HttpRequest protest. Regardless of the
category, the usage of XML isn't required and the solicitations do never again require being
nonconcurrently. Ajax isn't a solitary period, however a gathering of advancements. HTML and CSS
can be connected in collection to increase and style data. The DOM is gotten to with JavaScript to
powerfully show, and endorse the utilizer to have collaboration with, the measurements gave.
JavaScript and the XMLHttpRequest question give an approach to supplanting measurements
nonconcurrently among program and server to shun full page reloads and avert customer to converse
with the server that can keep server hits which may be ate up on the off chance that we don't utilize
AJAX. This is its miles one way to limit individual hits being hit to server and server load might be
diminished by methods for applying AJAX on shopper side. 4.6. R Language It's far a language that
becomes built for creating interactive graphs for data analysis, statistical modeling, simulation and
graphics. but, its general cause with a few sturdy techniques and functions that might be useful for
any
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Cosine Series: Integrals Used In The Fourier Series
Subject Lesson/Chapter Name
Engineering Mathematics Fourier Series
Author(s) Reviewer(s)
Name Ms.ShwetaDua
College/Department: Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences
Contact No: 9650875992 e–mail id: shwetadua8@gmail.com
Date of Submission: 12–07–2013
Date of Final Submission (after revisions if any): 17–08–2013
Contact No:
Table of Contents
Chapter 1:Fourier Series
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Fourier Series 1.1.2Advantage and Use of Fourier Series 1.1.3 Periodic Function 1.1.4
Integrals used in Fourier Series 1.2 Classes of Fourier Series 1.2.1 Trigonometric form 1.2.2 Cosine
form 1.2.3 Exponential form 1.3 Summary ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Question Obtain a Fourier Series to represent the following periodic function :– f(x) = 0 ; – ≤ x ≤ 0
x2 ; 0 ≤ x ≤
Solution From equation (2), a0 =1/2π = 1/2π 1/2π = 1/2π [ Taking the limits, = 1/2π =
From equation (3), an =1/π = 1/π Cosnxdx = 1/π
Integration by parts, = 1/π [
Taking the limits,
= 1/π [
= [Using Cosn = (–1)n]
From equation (4), bn= 1/π = 1/π Sinnxdx = 1/π Sinnxdx
Integration by parts, = 1/π[
Taking the limits, = 1/π [
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Dsp Manual
www.jntuworld.com
Department of Electronics and Communication VCET,Hyderabad.
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
LAB MANUAL
III YEAR II SEMESTER (ECE)
Prepared by: K. Ashok Kumar Reddy
Department of Electronics & Communications Engineering,
Visvesvaraya College of Engineering & Technology,
Ibrahimpatnam.
Digital Signal Processing Lab Manual
Page 1
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www.jntuworld.com
Department of Electronics and Communication VCET,Hyderabad.
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III Year B.Tech.
ECE – II Sem L T/P/D C 0 –/3/2
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB The programs shall be implemented in software (Using
MATLAB / Lab view / C programming/ Equivalent) and hardware (Using TI / Analog devices /
Motorola / Equivalent DSP ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Furthermore, it allows you to run such lists of commands such that you pass in data
Digital Signal Processing Lab Manual Page 4
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Department of Electronics and Communication VCET,Hyderabad.
and/or get data back out (i.e. the list of commands is like a function in most programming
languages). Once you save a function, it becomes part of your toolbox (i.e. it now looks to you as if
it were part of the basic toolbox that you started with). For those with computer programming
backgrounds: Note that MATLAB runs as an interpretive language (like the old BASIC). That is, it
does not need to be compiled. It simply reads through each line of the function, executes it, and then
goes on to the next line. (In practice, a form of compilation occurs when you first run a function, so
that it can run faster the next time you run it.) MATLAB Windows : MATLAB works with through
three basic windows Command Window : This is the main window .it is characterized by MATLAB
command prompt >> when you launch the application program MATLAB puts you in this window
all commands including those for user–written programs ,are typed in this window at the MATLAB
prompt Graphics window: the output of all graphics commands typed in the command window are
flushed to the graphics or figure window, a separate gray window with white background color the
user can create as many windows as the system memory will allow Edit window: This is where you
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Method Of Separation Of Variable ( Developed By J. Fourier
Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Method of Separation of Variable (developed by J. Fourier)
The method of separation is based on the expansion of an arbitrary function in terms of the Fourier
series. This method is applied by assuming that the dependent variable is a product of a number of
functions and each function being a function of a single independent variable. This reduces the
partial differential equation to a system of ordinary differential equations, each being a function of a
single independent variable. For the transient conduction in a plain wall, the dependent variable is
the solution function θ(X, F0), which is expressed in terms of θ(X, F0) = F(X)G(t), and the
application of this method results in to the two ordinary differential equations, one in terms of X and
the other one in F0.
Now we demonstrate the use of the method of separation of variables by applying it to the one–
dimensional transient heat conduction problem given in Eqs. (1). First,
Dimensionless differential equation is given by: ( ∂²θ)/∂X²=∂θ/(∂F_0 ) eq. (1a)
Boundary conditions: (∂T(0,t))/∂x=0
And –k (∂T(L,t))/∂x=h[T_((L,t))–T_a] eq. (1b)
Dimensionless initial condition is θ(X, 0) = 1
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Isis Essential Standards Week 30 Essay
ESSENTIAL STANDARDS
ASSESSMENTS
By: Isis Gill–Reid
GRAPHING TRIGONOMETRIC
FUNCTIONS
Amplitude, Period, Phase Shift, Horizontal Shift of Sine and Cosine
DEFINITION
The trigonometric functions are functions of an angle. They relate the angles of a triangle to the
lengths of its sides. Trigonometric functions are important in the study of triangles and modeling
periodic phenomena, among many other application. Amplitude is half the distance between the
minimum and maximum values of the range of a periodic function with a bounded range. A graph
that repeats after a fixed interval, which is a period, of the independent variable. Horizontal shift is
obtained by determining the change being made to the x value. A phase shift represents the ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
If a sequence of values follows a pattern of adding a fixed amount from one term to the next, it is
referred to as an arithmetic sequence.
Examples
Arithmetic
Sequence
Common Difference, d d add 3 to each term to arrive at the next term, or...the difference a2
– a1 is 3.
1, 4, 7, 10,
13, 16, ...
=3
15, 10, 5, 0,
–5, –10, ...
d=
–5
add –5 to each term to arrive at the next term, or...the difference a2
– a1 is –5. add–1/2 to each term to arrive at the next term, or....the difference a2 – a1 is –1/2.
REAL LIFE SITUATION
Arithmetic sequences and series are used every day by engineers, accountants, and builders.
GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND
SERIES
Geometric Sequence, Geometric Series
DEFINITION
If a sequence of values follows a pattern of multiplying a fixed amount times each term to arrive at
the following term it is referred to as a geometric sequence. The sum of the terms of a sequence is
called a series.
EXAMPLE
Geometric Sequence
Common Ratio, r r 5, 10, 20, 40, ...
=2
multiply each term
by 2 to arrive
at the next
term or...divide a2
–11, 22, –44, 88, ...
by a1 to find the common ratio, 2.
r = –2
or...divide
multiply each term by –2 to arrive at the next term
.or...divide a2 by a1 to find the common ratio, –2. multiply each term by 2/3 to arrive at the next
term a2 by a1 to find the common
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Edge Detection And Frequency Domain
Edge Detection in Frequency Domain
A comparison between different Filtering techniques in Time and Frequncy Domain
Adithya R H
Department of Electronics and Communication
Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering
Mysore, Karnataka, India rhadithya@gmail.com Akash Sharma
Department of Electronics and Communication
Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering
Mysore, Karnataka, India akashshrm02@gmail.com Abstract–This paper presents a comprehensive
comparison of different high pass filtering techniques for Edge detection in both time domain and
frequency domain. The paper examines various kernels and compares the efficiency of the filtering
technique against the computation time for various sizes of images with various sizes of high–pass
filter kernels. We have made use of Sobel filter as the standard filter kernel against which other
techniques are compared.
Keywords–frequency domain; edge detection; sobel filter; laplacian; gaussian;
I. INTRODUCTION
Image sharpening and smoothening is perhaps one of the most ubiquitously used techniques in any
image processing application. While these are considered inexpensive operations, multiple use of
the same may become computationally intensive, and hence may make the overall application slow.
In this paper we examine and compare the performance of sharpening filters in time–domain and
frequency domain. While there are many apparent computational advantages in converting an image
into frequency domain to apply a
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Chase-Pyndiah Et. Al. : How Do You Could Be Used?
SOVA–based decoding is generally inferior to the MAP–based decoding in terms of BER
performance. The authors show that the original SOVA introduces two types of distortions in its
output. They show that the performance of the SOVA can be improved by normalizing its output and
eliminating the correlation between intrinsic and the extrinsic information derived in each decoding
iteration. A modified updating rule can also be applied to improve performance. It was discovered
that the original SOVA proposed in [48] omits some updates for ease of implementation, leading to
overestimation of the reliability [51]. It was proved that the modified SOVA of [48] is equivalent to
Max–log–MAP algorithm [52]. Application of SOVA–based SISO decoding for ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
either +1 or –1; where +1 represents a bit 1 and –1 represents a bit 0); and it is possible that one or
both of c+ and c– may not exist due to the fact that the Chase algorithm operates using a subset of
the 2n possible codewords. In the event that there are not two competing codewords, the Pyndiah
algorithm uses a scaling factor, βm, which approximates the value of the extrinsic information for
the mth decoding. These values, which are a function of m, are specified in [47]. The values for βm
in [44] are approximated using computer simulation of a (64,57)2 BTC (the superscript "x" indicates
x dimensional BTC). A simple, yet effective alternative for approximating βm, which does not
require computer simulation, is presented in [53]. A soft–input value, λi,j, is computed by the
decoder for each entry in C. These soft–values are used to select the codewords in each subset, the
competing codewords, as well as, in computing the extrinsic information. The soft–input is
computed using: (10) where αm is a scaling factor, which is either pre–defined for increasing values
of m [44], or computed after every decoding by assuming that the extrinsic information is governed
by Gaussian statistics [53]; a method that is very similar to the one used in computing the scaling
factor in [50]. The above equations demonstrate how to compute the soft–input and extrinsic
likelihood values for a row decoder. For the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Nt1310 Unit 1 Exercise 4

  • 1. Nt1310 Unit 1 Exercise 4 Fig. 4 shows that the fit of this sum to the original data is robust. The annual and semi–annual frequencies are seen to reproduce or account for most of the pattern in the hospital admission data, indicating that asthma is very seasonal in El Paso. The fall peak occurs at the end of the rainy season; the spring during the severe dry season winds. Note amplitude and phase shifts associated with the 2006 July–August monsoon. The fall asthma peak occurred a month early, with extreme intensity. This process of Fourier transform and back–transform establishes the essential frequency components of the temporal data while eliminating high–frequency noise. This is a powerful technique to: (1) Establish the existence of periodicity in a temporal data ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the frequency domain (Fig. 7) neither Brownsville nor El Paso has any high–amplitude peaks corresponding to an integer number of Fig. 7 Left – Fracture admissions for 3 Texas cities, time domain. Right – Fourier transform, frequency domain. cpy. As seen in the time domain as well, the distribution of fracture in time is essentially random. In striking contrast, Houston shows 5 prominent, high–amplitude frequency peaks at the 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 integers of cpy. Other prominent non–integer peaks also are present. In the time domain, it is seen that this complex set of frequency peaks mathematically recreates a single prominent cycle of "negative" peaks, corresponding to a low point in fracture admissions around late January of each year. Why are fractures seasonal in Houston? Studies in other regions indicate a seasonal hip fracture in the elderly, typically associated with winter slips on ice (ice storms are unusual in Houston) or shortened daylight. Here, Houston exhibits an annual winter fracture minimum. The amplitude of the peaks leaves no doubt that this finding cannot be an artifact of the data or its processing. Nor is it likely an artifact of some peculiarity of the Houston health care system or its hospital admissions ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Video Watermarking : The Media Ownership And Attention... The rapid invention going in internet usage has resulted in the media ownership and attention towards intellectual property rights among internet users. In this paper, a Multiwavelet Transform (MWT) based video encoding is proposed. Video watermarking is the practice of inserting an encode information known as the watermark, into an original video in an imperceptible approach. The watermark converts or represents information that can protect the watermarked video, typically identifying the source or the intended destination of the video. The embedded watermark may be detected by using a watermark detector, which helps to possible an application to react to the presence (or absence) of the watermark in a video. However, the watermarked video may be processed, or attacked, prior to watermark detection. Attacks may remove the fixed watermark or make the watermark more complicated to detect. A logo watermark is composed in the uncompressed field of a video. Using IM, the watermark is embedded into the chosen multiwavelet coefficients by quantizing the coefficients. Scrambled watermarks are generated using a set of secret keys, and each watermark is embedded in each motionless scene of the video. The multi–wavelet transform uses two transformations such as Haar transform and Doubchies transform. The work is done with the help of designed user interface. This method extracts the secret message correctly and this provides better performance. Keywords:– Video, Encoding, Multiwavelet ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Survey On Digital Image Watermarking Techniques SURVEY ON DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES V.Belmer Gladson1Y.Sam Josuva2, Dr.R.Balasubramanian3 1Research Scholar, 2 Assistant Professor 3Professor, Department of Computer Science&Engg, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tamilnadu, 1vbgclassic1984@gmail.com 2sam.joejaki@gmail.com,3rbalus662002@yahoo.com ABSTRACT– In recent years, digital media are widely popular, their security related issues are becoming greater importance. Watermarking is the process of hiding digital data in a carrier signal. Embedding a digital signal such as audio, video or image with the information which cannot be removed easily is called digital watermarking. Digital watermarking mainly used to verify the authenticity, integrity of the carrier signal or to show the identity of its owners. In this paper, we present a survey on various digital watermarking techniques. This paper mainly concentrates a detailed survey of all watermarking techniques on image watermarking types in today's world. Index Terms – Digital watermarking, spatial domain, Least Significant Bit (LSB), Frequency domain, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). INTRODUCTION The term digital watermarking was first emerged in 1993, Tirkel introduce two watermarking techniques to hide the watermark data in the images [1].In recent years digital media are gaining widely popular, and their security related issues are becoming greater importance. The protection and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. A Perspective On Craig T. Simmons ' Henry Darcy A Perspective on Craig T. Simmons' "Henry Darcy: Immortalised by his scientific legacy" Craig T. Simmons' text, "Henry Darcy: Immortalised by his scientific legacy", is an extract from Simmons' hydrogeology journal which was written in 2008. It briefly discusses the relevant details of Darcy's life, then in more depth covers the scientific contributions Darcy made, and finally gives an overview of Darcy's research later in life. It is an insightful piece of writing with a lengthy compilation of references for further research if desired. Throughout the course of reading it, though, several questions and comments arose in my mind that are worth discussing in this essay – through these I hope to extend the conversation on Darcy as an engineer and person. I will explore what engineering and science possibly meant to Darcy, who affected Darcy's education and personality, how I can incorporate certain traits of his in my own life, and finally Darcy's work as an individual. For Darcy, engineering and science can be described as means to give back to the world. Simmons emphasizes his selfless nature on multiple occasions in his journal, explaining that Darcy had "compassion for the poor" and "fairness and dedication to community service" (Simmons). He was said to use his intellect and education to work for the people without gaining any personal benefit. The most definitive example of his selflessness was his waiving of fees for the water system that he designed and built for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Piano Lessons At The Age Of 6 Music, in one way or another, is a part of everyone's life, whether it is listening to music when travelling or learning how to play a musical instrument (Stutz). Beginning piano lessons at the age of 6, I have developed a passion for music and find it to be a way to escape from a hectic life. A requirement of the Royal Conservatory of Music, a corporation that runs exams to test the ability of music students, is to learn music history, and during the course, I was amazed at the fact that when two instruments, for example the flute and oboe, play the same note, they sound entirely different. The difference in sounds can even be heard in instruments that are similar in nature, for instance, the piano and the keyboard. When practicing piano pieces for exams or piano festivals, I go online to listen to the interpretations of others for inspiration. I usually find videos of people playing a piano, but sometimes there are people playing a keyboard. What surprised me was that the sounds of the keyboard and the piano were entirely different, and this difference was especially noticeable practicing for a performance. The practice room only contained a keyboard, and after playing the keyboard, I realized that the music sounded much emptier compared to a piano. That got me to wonder, what makes two instruments sound entirely different, even when playing the same note? From comparing sounds from the keyboard and piano, I came to a conclusion that even though the two instruments are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. IFDM Communication Systems OFDM is a great technique to handle impairments of wireless communication channels such as multipath propagation. Hence, OFDM is a practical candidate for future 4G wireless communications techniques [1]–[4]. On the other hand, one of the major drawbacks of the OFDM communication system is the drift in reference carrier. The offset present in received carrier will lose orthogonality among the carriers. Hence, the CFO causes a reduction of desired signal amplitude in the output decision variable and introduces ICI. Then it brings up an increase of BER. The effect caused by CFO for OFDM system was analyzed in [7]–[9]. In [7] BER upper bound of OFDM system is analyzed without ICI self–cancellation and BER of OFDM system is analyzed using self– cancellation, but this method is less accurate. In [9], it is indicated that CFO should be less than 2% of the bandwidth of the sub–channel to guarantee the signal to interference ratio to be higher than 30 dB. A critically sampled OFDM system/OQAM system is also not robust to CFO [9], even when optimal pulses are used as shaping filters. Thus, carrier frequency offset greatly degrades system performance. Therefore, practical OFDM systems need the CFO to be compensated with sufficient accuracy, and this has led to a whole lot of literature on CFO estimation algorithms. Most of the existing CFO estimators for OFDM are based on periodically transmitted pilot symbols. Yet, the pilot symbols transmission loses a significant bandwidth, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Nicole Oresme Research Paper Nicole Oresme Abstract Nicole Oresme, also known as Nicolas Oresme, was born around 1320 in the 14th century on the outskirts of the Norman city of Caen. Unfortunately, nothing was known of his family. Oresme was known as one of the most famous scholastic philosophers of the middle age's. He was known for many different subjects including; economics, physics, astrology, astronomy, theology, philosophy, and mathematics. Oresme earned his doctorate of arts from the University of Paris between the years of 1341–1342. In the same year he became grand master of the College of Navarre. He mainly wrote in the language of Latin but also wrote in French [1]. Oresme was appointed canon in 1362 and later in 1364 was made dean of the Cathedral of Rouen ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... He came about the idea to use rectangular coordinates and geometric figures to explain uniform and non–uniform distribution of various quantities. For example, he worked on the change of velocity in relation to time. More importantly, this helped lay a strong foundation that later led to the discovery of analytic geometry by René Descartes. Oresme used his geometric figures to give the first proof of the Merton theorem, shown in figure 1 below. This theorem states, "The distance traveled in any given period by a body moving under uniform acceleration is the same as if the body moved at a uniform speed equal to its speed at the midpoint of the period [2]." Some believe that this resulted in later discoveries of kinematics, affecting the later work of Galileo's. Figure 1 Another mathematical contribution was the development of the first proof of the divergence of the harmonic series. Oresme's proof had less advanced mathematics then the modern proof today. His proof on the harmonic series was not touched on until later centuries, and was only replicated by the Bernoulli brothers [1]. Oresmes proof groups the harmonic terms by taking 2, 4, 8, 16, and so on, after the first two terms, and noting that each block has a sum larger than a ½ [3]. Resulting ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Modern Transformers And Electric Power Systems Large power modern transformers are vital components and very expensive in electric power systems. Forthwith, it is very important to reduce the duration and frequency of unwanted outages that results in a high demand imposed on power transformer protection relays, this includes the requirements of dependability related with no mal–operations, operating speed related with short fault clearing time to avoid extensive damage or to preserve power quality and power system stability and security related with no false tripping. Discrimination between inrush currents and internal faults has long been known as a challenging power transformer protection problem. Otherwise, inrush currents contain large second harmonic component compared to internal faults, conventional transformer protection are designed to achieve required discrimination by sensing that large second harmonic content [1]. The level of second harmonic component of the inrush current has been reduced due to improving in transformer core material and occur power system changes. Additionally, a large second harmonic can also be found in transformer internal fault currents if a shunt capacitor is connected to a transformer in a long extra high voltage transmission line. Therefore, the methods based on the measurement of the second harmonic are not sufficiently effective for differential protective relays [2]. Newly, several new protective schemes have been proposed to deal with the previous problem in large power ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Important Discoveries And Contributions That Were Made By... Abstract: – The many concepts we currently have in the field of mathematics are thanks to great mathematicians from different cultures throughout time. An important era when great mathematical discoveries were made was during Medieval Times, or the Middle Ages. In this paper we discuss important discoveries and contributions that were made by three famous mathematicians of this time period including French Nicole Oresme, German Jordanus Nemorarius and Italian Leonardo Pisano, better known for his nickname of Fibonacci. Key–Words: – Medieval, Mathematics, Fibonacci, Arithmetic, Sequence 1 Introduction Mathematics has grown and expanded its many concepts thanks to mathematicians from different societies throughout time. A very important era in history is considered to be the Medieval Times, or the middle ages. According to reference [6], "People use the phrase 'Middle Ages' to describe Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 CE and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century." The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, are known for their famous art, architecture, crusades among other things, but there were also mathematical contributions happening during this time period. Mathematical concepts that we know and use nowadays are thanks to contributions made from different mathematicians throughout time. The Medieval Times are no exception since great men living in this era contributed to the beautiful subject of mathematics. Some of the many intelligent minds from this era ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Essay On Medicinal Volume Information Recovery incorporates three cases, specifically: added substance homomorphism; include homomorphism, question picture highlight is not encoded; full homomorphism encryption strategy. In [15], Bellafqira et al. proposed a protected usage of a substance based picture recovery (CBIR) technique that works with homomorphic scrambled pictures from which it separates wavelet based picture includes next utilized for ensuing picture examination. Test comes about show it accomplishes recovery execution on a par with if pictures were prepared nonencrypted. In this paper, we proposed a powerful calculation of encoded medicinal volume information recovery in light of DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) and DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform). Since DWT can't avoid ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... B. 3D Discrete Fourier Transform (3D–DFT)Discrete Fourier Transform is an essential change in the field of picture rocessing. Expecting that the span of the medicinal volume information is M * N * P, at that point the three–dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (3D–DFT) is characterized as takes after: M −1 N −1 P −1 F ( u , v , w )  ¦ f ( x , y , z ) ⋅e − j 2 π xu/M e − j 2 π yv/N e− j 2 π zw/P x = 0 y = 0 z = 0  u = 0,1, , M − 1; v = 0,1, , N − 1; w = 0,1, , P − 1; The equation of Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform(3D– IDFT) is as per the following: 1 M −1 N −1 P−1 f ( x, y, z) = ¦¦¦F (u, v, w) ⋅e j 2π xu/M e j 2π yv/N ej 2π zw/P MNP u =0 v =0 w=0 x = 0,1, , M − 1; y = 0,1, , N − 1; z = 0,1, , P − 1; Where f(x,y,z) is the testing an incentive in the spatial area, F(u,v,w) is the inspecting an incentive in
  • 20. the recurrence space. C. Calculated Map Calculated guide is the most average and broadly utilized tumultuous framework, which is a one– dimensional disorderly framework. Calculated Map is a nonlinear guide given by the accompanying equation: [ N + = μ [ N − [ N Where 0 μ ≤ 4 is the branch parameter, xk ∈ 0,1 is the framework variable,the emphasis numberis K. At the point when μ ≤ , the framework will demonstrate a disorganized ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21.
  • 22. American Film Title Designer: Kyle Cooper Kyle Cooper is an American film title designer how is responsible for creating some of the most invitational and evocative title sequences. Designing title sequences for film and television with a unique style and ability to invoke an emotional response through his imagery and use of narrative. He is often compared to Saul Bass and his Typography approach to titles sequences, In the title's for Saul Bass Psycho, he get across the nature of his main character with slicing up uneven Type and shapes moving vertical and horizontal causes a sense of unease and discomfort. The use of Typographic method acting, to animate the words shows the emotional effect of type and how it can reflect the film. Kyle cooper's titles are more that just a title they give an emotional response in a audience with his bark and bold and unforeseen style that draws you in and hooks you His most admired work comes from the 1995 title sequence of the American film "Seven". Not since Saul Bass's title sequence to The Man With the Golden Arm and Vertigo have credits attracted such attention. But Cooper was already a title–sequence expert at this stage with more than 40 credits to his name "Each film is a different problem to solve so each is different" Kyle cooper Typeface has got to be a character through the narrative. It should really carry a part of the story. The first scene we are presented with a black screen, with the sounds of Dinah Washington singing 'A Stranger on Earth' being played ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23.
  • 24. Biometric Codes Are Used For Recognising A User On The... Abstract Biometric systems are used for recognising a user on the basis of biometric traits he have. During authentication some of the frequently asked questions are "Is he who he claims to be?", "Is he a valid user for gaining access to the system?". Biometric system answers all these questions by authenticating the users. Every second information is shared and transferred between people and it is important to make sure that what is sent by sender is what received by the receiver thus raising the demand of security. Steganography is one of the techniques used for securing the data. The secret message is hidden inside a cover media like audio, video or image with the help of a secret key. Biometric templates can also be secured with this technique. Instead of storing original templates in the database stego–image is stored. LSB is one of the common techniques that replace the LSB of every pixel of the cover image with the secret message to form stego–image. Keywords: Biometric, Biometric Attacks, Biometric template, Steganography, Security. 1. Introduction With increasing rate of attacks, everyone today needs a reliable and secure system. Biometric systems fulfil the needs to a great extent as biometric traits are better than passwords or pins which have chances of being stolen and forgotten. Before using biometric systems enrolment phase is necessary during which the templates of the users are stored in the database. During authentication user 's claim is matched with the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25.
  • 26. Using AApplication For A Desktop Application 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROJECT SUMMARY Many students have sat in the tutoring center working through problem after problem on their math homework wondering why they cannot solve them. It turns out that much of classical mathematical logic is quite different from the way human reason. In fact, without a rigorous background in mathematical logic it is difficult for humans to reason according to the norms of formal mathematics. Higher Mathematical Tool which involves the functionalities like Laplace Transformation and Inverse Laplace Transformation with step–by–step solutions in very effective manner. We are going to make a desktop application which we are provide the solution for the same. 1.2 PURPOSE The purpose for this application provides following terms:– Many students are facing many problems while solving the mathematical problems of like Laplace and Inverse Laplace Transform. Our project gives the solution of these mathematical problems solutions in step by step manner or in direct output as per the requirements of user. 1.3 SCOPE This system is basically for providing the solution of problem whichever is entered by the user and which gives you the complete solution of the problem. Another main scope of our project is that any user like student, faculty can login to this application successfully without any difficulty and the user can easily operate this application and main in the system is user–friendly system. System can do: ¤ Authentication Users: It ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27.
  • 28. An Intentional Infliction Of Emotional Distress Question Presented Does Samuel Taylor, the former member of the Local 718 Teamsters Union, have a cause of action against Ronald Murray, Local 718 business representative, who repeatedly harassed Taylor for about four months and intentionally inflicted emotional distress which resulted in Taylor's loss of twenty pounds, extreme nervousness, loss of his union membership and his job? Brief Answer Probably yes. Under Massachusetts law, a plaintiff has a claim for an intentional infliction of emotional distress if all of the following elements are satisfied: (1) the defendant intended, knew or reasonably have known that his conduct will result in the emotional distress; (2) the defendant's conduct was extreme and outrageous, beyond all possible limits of decency and utterly intolerable in a civilized community; (3) the defendant's conduct is the cause of the plaintiff's distress; and (4) the plaintiff's emotional agitation was so severe and of a nature that no reasonable person could withstand. Here, Murray intended to inflict emotional distress by harassing Taylor so he would cooperate with the union, it was of extreme and outrageous manner, when he threatened Taylor's and his wife's life, and caused the emotional agitation so severe, which no person could be reasonably expected to endure, and as a result, Taylor withdrew his membership, quit his job, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29.
  • 30. Detection System Of Illegal Logging Image Using Matching... International Journal of Computational Engineering Research||Vol, 03||Issue, 6|| www.ijceronline.com ||June ||2013|| Page 57 Detection System of Illegal Logging Image Using Matching Process With Discrete Cosine Transform Syafruddin Syarif1, Nadjamuddin Harun2, M. Tola3, M. Wihardi Tjaronge4 1 Student of Doctoral Program Civil Engineering Hasanuddin University, Makassar Indonesia 1,2,3 Department of Electrical Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia 4 Department of Civil Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia I. INTRODUCTION Forest has many advantages to human life and the earth as the lungs of the world. In the economic field, the forestry sector contributes significantly to the national income accounts. The high price of timber in international market leds to timber exploitation in the early 90 's [S. Syarif, et.al, 2012]. It encourages illegal logging actifity, which causes adverse effects especially on the economy and ecology fields. In the economic field, the state revenues declined due to the loss of timber tax and the chance to produce the high quality products of timber also decreased. In addition, the nature inbalance causes climate change, declining soil productivity, soil erosion and flooding, habitat destruction, and loss of biodiversity. To solve the problems, the illegal logging detection system is urgently needed. In this research, image processing and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are applied for the detection. Nowadays, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31.
  • 32. The Founding Principles Of The Fourier Series FOURIER SERIES AND ITS SOME APPLICATIONS P. Sathyabama Assistant professor, Department of Mathematics, Bharath collage of science and management, Thanjavur– 5 Abstract The Fourier Series, the founding principle behind the field of Fourier Analysis, is an infinite expansion of a function in terms of sines and cosines.In physics and engineering,expanding functions in terms of sines and cosines is useful because it allows one to more easily manipulate functions.In particular, the fields of electronics, quantum mechanics, and electrodynamics all make heavy use of the Fourier series. Key words: Fourier Transform, Discrete Fourier Transform, Convolution Transforms I.INTRODUCTION The Fourier Series, the founding principle behind the field of Fourier Analysis, is an infinite expansion of a function in terms of sines and cosines or imaginary exponentials. The series is defied in its imaginary exponential form as follows: ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Since sines and cosines (and in turn imaginary exponentials) form an orthogonal set1, this series converges for any moderately well– behaved function f(x) .Examples of the Fourier Series for different wave forms are given in figure I. II.THE FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMS The Fourier Series is only capable of analyzing the frequency components of certain, discretefrequencies (integers) of a given function. In order to study the casewhere the frequency components of the sine and cosineterms are continuous, the concept of the Fourier Transform must be introduced. The imaginary exponential form of the Fourier Transform is defined as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33.
  • 34. the pixel domain. Detection of the watermark can be done... the pixel domain. Detection of the watermark can be done by correlating the pixels values with expected pixel values. The drawbacks of this technique is limited information embedded, less resistant to noise and compression and less robust to geometric attacks. These techniques are abandoned recently[17]. Some common spatial domain algorithms include Least Significant Bit(LSB)Modification, Patchwork, Texture Block Coding, Correlation based, SSM modulation based etc. The most commonly used algorithm is LSB. 1) Least Significant bit(LSB) LSB which replaces the least significant bits of pixels selected to hide the information. In this example only the least significant bit of each pixel will be used for embedding information. If the pixel ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A remarkable feature of this technique is the high robustness to any kind of distortion, since both image areas are distorted in a similar way, which means that the watermark recovery by autocorrelation still works [23]. B. Transform domain Transform domain method takes advantage of properties of alternate domains by modifying transform coefficients to support additional features. Transform domain method is divided into frequency domain and wavelet domain. 1) Frequency domain In frequency domain, we insert watermark into the coefficients of a transformed image[24] and then watermarked image is inverted to obtain image in spatial domain.[24] The approaches used in frequency domain are JPEGbased[ 25],spread spectrum [26],[27] and content–based approaches [28].Frequency image transformations include the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and others. a) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Fourier transform is a powerful tool for analyzing the components of a stationary signal (signal in which there is no change in the properties of signal) [29]. It is a powerful tool for processing signals that are composed of some combination of sine and cosine signals (sinusoids) [30]. Fourier coefficients have two components phase and magnitude[31]. One of the main advantage of DFT is that it is rotation, Translation and scaling invariant which helps it in recovering from geometrical distortions. Licks algorithm [32] is one example. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35.
  • 36. The Coefficient Of Variation Of The Pixel Position Where Itij is the images sampled discretely with the pixel position (i, j), gi,j is the spatial neigh– borhood of the pixel(i, j), |gi,j| is the amount of pixels in the neighborhood window and Dt is the size of time step. In Yu and Acton's [62] research, they had utilized the coefficient of variation of the adaptive filtering technique to replace the gradient–driven diffusion coefficient c((rIt ij)p) and named it the Instantaneous Coefficient of Variation or ICOV. Fig. 12. Illustration original images are in the upper rows, Images processed by MAS– the reflection function–alities are in the lower rows [62]. 2.3.5Difference of Gaussian (DoG) The technique known as the DoG filtering–based normalization or DoG is a technique for nor–malization that depends on the variation of the Gaussians filtering to create a normalized image [2, 38, 63]. Essentially, it uses a band–pass filtering to the inputted image and after that creates a normalized version. It should be noted that prior to utilizing the filter, one has use the gamma correction or the log transformation on the image; otherwise the outcome will not be as antici–pated [64]. The model of illumination–reflectance can be utilized to design a frequency–domain method in enhancing the image's appearance using the gray–level ranged compression and simultaneously contrasting the enhancements [54,65]. This model suggests that each pixel value f(x, y) can be reflected as the outcome of an illumination component i (x, y) and a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37.
  • 38. Biography of Joseph Fourier Joseph Fourier was born in a modest family at Auxerre, France. Orphaned at an early age, Joseph acquired his initial education from Pallais's school, which was run by the music teacher from the cathedral. Thereafter he proceeded to the École Royale Militaire of Auxerre. While he showed an aptitude and flair for literature, by the age of thirteen, this was overshadowed by mathematics a subject he found himself really interested in. Joseph completed a study of the six volumes of Bezout's Cours de mathématiques when he was fourteen and in the following year received the first prize for his study of Bossut's Mécanique en general. In the year 1787, Fourier took admission in the Benedictine abbey of St Benoit–sur–Loire with a motive to train himself for priesthood. However simultaneously he submitted a paper on algebra to Montucla in Paris and even wrote a letter to Bonard stating his desire to make a major influence in mathematics. This move suggested Fouriers uncertainty as to whether he really wanted to pursue the training in priesthood or not. In 1789 Fourier left for Paris where he read a paper on algebraic equations at the Académie Royale des Sciences. The next year Fourier took up the position of a tutor at the Benedictine college Ecole Royale Militaire of Auxerre where he had studied. As if Fouriers uncertainty to follow a religious life or one of mathematical research was not enough the conflict became worse when he got involved in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39.
  • 40. Analyzing Precise Electronic Structure Of The Different... The core aim of the present work is to completely analyze precise electronic structure of the five different doped BaTiO3 systems and the bonding interactions between the constituent atoms. This aim is achieved successfully by adopting maximum entropy method (MEM). In this section, the importance of electron density studies in structure analysis, the formalism of MEM method, the principle, MEM methodology followed in this work to elucidate the electron density are given elaborately. 1.9.2.1 Electron density The electron density is a quantum mechanical observable, that can be measured through scattering experiments, in particular X–ray diffraction from the crystals. The possibility of measuring charge density in a crystalline system from its X–ray diffraction pattern was conceived several years ago when Debye and Scherrer explained the existence of halos in a powder photograph where the images of the electronic orbit around the atoms [Debye et.al., 1918]. Electron density is the measure of probability of an electron being present at a specific location. The regions of electron density are usually found around the atoms and its bonds. The probability of locating an electron at one point (or) another can be calculated quantum mechanically. This calculation gives a quantity called electron density. Electron can be viewed as a stationary wave (or) a cloud of negative charges. The electron density is considered as a periodic function of position in a crystal, reaches to a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41.
  • 42. Medical Animator Essay This paper provides knowledge about what the effects of animation has in the fields of both biology and medicine. It also gives some information about what a medical animator is and their purpose in science. As well as some extra information about them, such as the courses or classes they need to attend through in order to be considered a medical animator. Information about the materials and research necessary in order to create a scientifically accurate animation, in which they are showing the process of something or of any type of medical or scientific event that an animation is needed for. What makes an animation scientifically accurate, and the science that goes into an animation. In addition to that, I will also talk about what the perks of animation in these fields are. Along with how animation can help better the learning and understanding of difficult topics and procedures, whether it be for students or for the general public. The paper will also include some information to further prove that animation is a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The animators also are required to look into the physics of items that are a part of the animation to make sure everything that is in motion or is happening is moving the way its suppose to move or if there is a problem with how something is happening or how quick it's happening. They usually use a specialist in this field to help them out so they can do their job right. Physics is already heavily present in animation no matter what type of animation, it is necessary in order to make actions in the animation believable or at least plausible enough for the audience that is watching. Physics is an important subject that makes an exceptional animation without it would make their final product look like it was made horribly and very lifeless. It undoubtedly plays a large role when it comes to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43.
  • 44. Transcendentalism In Brook Farm George Ripley, a leader of the transcendental movement, was the founder of Brook Farm, also known as The Brook Farm of Institute of Agriculture and Education. It was a Utopian experiment for communal living in 1841, located in Massachusetts. The goal was to establish social coherence between the thinker and the worker and to achieve individual mental freedom. Brook Farm was inspired by transcendentalism and was created to promote the beliefs of Fourierism. From day one, Brook Farm was bound to fail due to its inefficient social organization. A Utopian communist society was set up for failure based off the ideas of Charles Fourier. He was a Utopian socialist who shaped the political and economic basis of Brook Farm. He was part of the French Revolution and was disgusted by the violence that human beings committed in order to achieve their goals. He believed the way to rebel against the government and to achieve goals was through peace, not through murder. Fourier's societal vision included an ideal community called a "Phalanx." The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In Brook Farm there was no hierarchy and no one was in charge, everyone was equal. Groups without leaders go nowhere and are not affective. Everyone has his or her own thoughts, skills, ideas and abilities. Leaders maintain cooperation through out a community. People can achieve more as a group or a community than as an individual. A leader needs to be put in charge to ensure that people work together efficiently and effectively. If there is no leader, people will do what they want and act selfishly. They will do what is best for themselves, not for the larger group. People need to be led and guided to the right direction in order to show their full potential. Leaders keep groups under control and they make sure tasks are completed in an organized manner. They keep everyone focused in order to achieve their goal. Leaders provide motivation, guidance and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45.
  • 46. Obtaining Motion Blur Parameters Form The Frequency Spectrum Obtaining Motion Blur Parameters Form The Frequency Spectrum Fourier transform is applied on digital images to interprets their content in terms frequency information. To illustrate, Flat areas, where the intensity is slowly changing, result in low frequencies. Rough areas, on the other hand, result in high frequencies because of the dramatic change in the intensity value. this paper discusses the impact of manipulating the frequency information of digital images and how the frequency spectrum can be used to address a real world situation. Filtering an image in the frequency domain is usually composed of three steps. First, the Fourier transform is calculated (DCT or DFT). Then, a certain operation is performed on the frequencies ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Huei and Kun [2] proposed that the speed of moving objects in a single image can be estimated using the blur parameters, the camera parameters and imaging geometry. To illustrate, the displacement of a moving object (d) can be determined using similar triangles according to the blur length (k) Figure2. And by knowing the shutter speed of the camera (T), the speed of the object is v =d/T(1). Since this paper is concerned with Fourier Transform, the details of equation (1) are omitted and calculating the blur parameter is detailed below. The blur parameters, including the blurs' direction and length, can be determined by examining their impact on the Fourier spectrum. As shown in figure, the Fourier spectrum of the motion blur contains strips of dark lines that are parallel and uniformly separated. Note that the Fourier spectrum depends on the objects' orientation; so the direction of the motion blur could be extracted from the frequency spectrum. Also, as the blurs' length increase, the edges get smoother, resulting in lower frequency response. These observations suggest that the frequency spectrum has all the needed information to determine the blurs parameters. In particular, the object shown in the figure is moving along the horizontal axis, and this caused the vertical orientation of the dark lines in the frequency spectrum. Furthermore, increasing the blurs length, which can be achieved by increasing the object's speed, lessens the distance ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47.
  • 48. Essay On Dynamic Range Dynamic range defined as the range of the lightest and darkest areas of an image which camera can successfully capture without losing detail. Our real–world environment dynamic range is high that exceeds the capabilities of modern display devices with limited dynamic range. A problem appears when displaying high dynamic range image in low dynamic range display devices, so the tone mapping technique has been used to solve this problem. In this paper, new adjustment tone mapping technique is presented for displaying high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range device without any lose in image details and maintains contrast of the image. Instead of linearly scaling the luminance of all pixels or introduce local gamma correction with ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Tone mapping technique used to map high dynamic range images to low dynamic range image that will be displayed on recent devices, thus keeping the image looking realistic. The tone mapping operators can be classified into two categories: global operators and local operators. Global operator task depends on the same mapping function is used for all the pixels of the input HDR image so, global operators can be described as spatially uniform methods. Global tone mapping operators are computationally very simple and maintain the intensity orders of the original scenes thus avoiding ''halo'' artifacts, but cause loss of details in the mapped images. Local operators which reproduce the tonal values in a spatially variant manner because mapping function processes for each individual pixel. Local operators characterized that more satisfying than global operators in terms of the detail preservation and compression ratio of the dynamic range. Also, there are two tone mapping model linear tone mapping model and nonlinear tone mapping model. Linear model does not need multiscale decomposition or segmentation of the images into binary or fractional maps, where the problems associated with layer decomposition are not found. Linear model not only interested in making the output images looks natural by enhancing the pixel intensity more significantly in highlights, but also satisfies high radiance similarity with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49.
  • 50. Essay On How To Solve The Sparse Approximate Dft Problem The first work that tried to solve the sparse approximate DFT problem can be found in cite{NYN93}, in which they designed an algorithm based on Hadamard Transform, i.e. the Fourier transform over the Boolean cube. A polynomial time algorithm to interpolates a sparse polynomial was developed in cite{Y95}. The method in this paper inspired the authors of cite{GMS05}, in which they described an algorithm that can be used to approximate DFT when $N$ is a power of 2. In the early 2000s, people paid a lot of attention to the sparse approximation problem in Fourier space. The first algorithm with sub–linear runtime and the sub–sampling property was given in cite{GGIMM02}. In which they give a randomized algorithm with runtime poly($s, log N, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, it needs to point out that the runtime of the algorithm in cite{AGS03} has a high dependence on sparsity compare with cite{GGIMM02} and cite{GMS05}. All the SFT algorithms above are randomized algorithms. This means they have small probability to fail to give the correct or optimal recovery on each input signal. Thus, they are not appropriate for long–lived failure intolerant applications. The first deterministic sub–linear time SFT algorithm was developed in cite{I08} based on the deterministic Compressed Sensing results of Cormode and Muthukrishnan (CM)cite{RSR69}cite{CM05}cite{CM06}. A simpler optimized version of this algorithm was given in cite{I10}, which has similar runtime/sampling bounds ($mathcal{O}(s^2 log ^4 N)$) to the one in cite{GMS05}. Later, in cite{I11}, a further modified SFT algorithm was provided. It showed simple methods for extending the improved sparse Fourier transforms to higher dimensional settings. More specifically, the algorithm can find the near optimal $s$–term approximation for any given input function, $f: [0,2pi]^{D} rightarrow C$ in $mathcal{O}(s^2 D^4)$ time (neglecting logarithmic factors). The algorithms in cite{I08}cite{I10}cite{I11} are all aliasing–based search algorithm cite{indyk_overview}, which means they rely on the combinatorial properties of aliasing among frequencies in sub–samples DFTs. The algorithms ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51.
  • 52. A Short Note On Internal And Internal Assessment IB Mathematics HL Internal Assessment Judy Taylor IB HL Mathematics Word Count: 1311 Table of Contents Abstract.......................................................................................Page 3 Introduction...................................................................................Page 4 Exploration....................................................................................Page 5 Applications...................................................................................Page 8 Conclusion.....................................................................................Page 9 References....................................................................................Page 11 Abstract The sine integral, written as Si (x), is important factor in signal processing as it causes overshoot, ringing artifacts, and is considered as the convolution of the cardinal sine function (represented as sin (x)/ x or sinc (x)) and the Heaviside step function that corresponds to shortening the Fourier series, which causes the Gibbs ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... After some research, I found out that cardinal sine could not be solved by elementary means and that its integral was, in fact, a crucial part of the Gibbs phenomenon, which will be expanded upon in the Applications section (Pg. 8) of this investigation. My aim for this investigation is to prove the integral of cardinal sine to be sine integral and to approximate five (5) values of the sine integral function. Afterwards, I will show how this is relevant in both mathematics and other, more practical, applications. Exploration In order to organize the mathematical exploration most effectively, the exploration will begin with the following problem: Prove that ∫▒sin⁡ x/x is equal to Si (x). Approximate Si (0), Si (π/6), Si (π/4), Si (π/3), and Si (π/2) using a Taylor polynomial of order 3 at 0 for f(x) = Si (x). In order to verify the results of the approximations, Wolfram Alpha, an online calculator capable of processing the sine integral function, will be used. To begin with, the Taylor series representation of the sine integral function is as such: Si (x)=∑_(n=0 )^∞▒((–1)^n x^(2n+1))/(2n+1)(2n+1)! At this point, it is necessary to find the Taylor series representation of sin⁡ x/x. First, the Taylor series representation of sin (x) is: ∑_(n=0)^∞▒(〖(–1)〗^n x^(2n+1))/(2n+1)! Therefore, sin⁡ x/x is equal to: 1/x ∑_(n=0)^∞▒(〖(–1)〗^n x^(2n+1))/(2n+1)! Which is equal to: ∑_(n=0)^∞▒(〖(–1)〗^n x^(2n+1))/x(2n+1)!
  • 53. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. Electronics and Communication Engineering (Ece) Syllabus... 2007–2008 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD B.TECH. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING I YEAR COURSE STRUCTURE Code Subject English Mathematics – I Mathematical Methods Applied Physics C Programming and Data Structures Network Analysis Electronic Devices and Circuits Engineering Drawing Computer Programming Lab. IT Workshop Electronic Devices and Circuits Lab English Language Communication Skills Lab. Total T 2+1 3+1 3+1 2+1 3+1 2+1 3+1 25 P/D 3 3 3 3 3 15 C 4 6 6 4 6 4 6 4 4 4 4 4 56 JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD. B.TECH. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING II Year COURSE STRUCTURE Code Subject Mathematics – III Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes Environmental Studies ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Hence, it is suggested that they read it on their own with topics selected for discussion in the class. The time should be utilized for working out the exercises given after each section , as also for supplementing the exercises with authentic materials of a similar kind for example, from newspaper articles, advertisements, promotional material etc.. However, the stress in this syllabus is on skill development and practice of language skills. 2. OBJECTIVES: a. To improve the language proficiency of the students in English with emphasis on LSRW skills. b. To equip the students to study academic subjects with greater facility through the theoretical and practical components of the English syllabus. c. To develop the study skills and communication skills in formal and informal situations. 3. SYLLABUS : Listening Skills: Objectives 1. To enable students to develop their listening skill so that they may appreciate its role in the LSRW skills approach to language and improve their pronunciation 2. To equip students with necessary training in listening so that can comprehend the speech of people of different backgrounds and regions Students should be given practice in listening to the sounds of the language to be able to recognise them, to distinguish between them to mark stress and recognise and use the right intonation in sentences. Listening for general content Listening to fill up information ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Explain The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Vertical... 4.3.6 Structural Partitioning When the architectural style of a design follows a hierarchical nature the Program structure can be partitioned horizontally and vertically. There are mainly two types of Structure partitioning: 1. Horizontal Partitioning 2. Vertical Partitioning Figure 4.3 1. Horizontal Partitioning: In horizontal partitioning, the control modules are used to communicate between functions and execute the functions. It defines separate branches of the modular hierarchy for each major program function as shown in the Figure 4.3.Control modules, represented in a darker shade are used to coordinate communication & execution between its functions. Horizontal partitioning defines three ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Top–level modules should perform control functions and do little actual processing work. Modules that reside low–level in the structure should be the workers, performing all input, computation, and output tasks. Advantages of Vertical Partitioning Less susceptible to side effects and therefore very maintainable 4.3.7 Data Structure Data structure is a representation of the logical relationship among individual elements of data. A scalar item is the simplest of all data structures. It represents a single element of information that may be addressed by an identifier. When scalar items are organized as a list or contiguous group, a sequential vector is formed. When the sequential vector is extended to two, three, and ultimately, an arbitrary number of dimensions, an n–dimensional space is created.In many programming languages, an n dimensional space is called an array. A linked list is a data structure that organizes contiguous scalar items, vectors, or spaces in a manner (called nodes) that enables them to be processed as a list. A hierarchical data structure is implemented using multilinked lists that contain scalar items, vectors, and possibly, n–dimensional spaces.Stack is a conceptual model of a data structure that can be implemented as a vector or a linked ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Research Paper On Bottleneck Analysis Bottleneck analysis: Bottleneck analysis is a technique to analyze the point of congestion of the work. Bottleneck creates the longer cycler time. In this analysis we use any technique to improve the overall performance of the system. Bottleneck limits the production capacity and we use some work force or workstation to overcome that problem.  Trend analysis  Correlation  Comparison  Elimination drill down  Pattern matching MOST (Maynard operation sequence technique): Maynard is a technique which is based on motion time system. It is used to set the standard time for the industry in which a performer performs its task. In this system the motion is calculated in TMU's known as time measurement units. 1 hour is equal to 100000 TMU. An ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Gain control over the tool manually 2) Put tool in place Take the tool to the place where it will be used either directly or by moving the body Place tool in usage position 3) Use tool Apply some tool action 4) Put tool aside Gain the tool for more use, put down the tool aside, return the tool to its original location or put it on in new location either directly or by moving body. Tool sequence model: Get tool Put Tool Use Tool Put Tool Aside Return A B G A B P * A B P A (*) May be one of the following; F=Fasten L=Loosen C= cut S= surface treat M=measure R= record
  • 60. T=think For e.g. before welding two plates a welder obtains a square and check the angle that is correct the square is located three steps away from the workstation. The time would be: A6B0G1 A6B0P1 M10A6B0E1 A0 (The sum of all values)*10=Normal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61.
  • 62. What Is A Four-Distributed Static Compensator This paper deals with a four–leg distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) which is used to solve the current related power quality. An amplitude adaptive notch filter (AANF) is employed for the reference current extraction of DSTATCOM control scheme because of its simplicity, capability of frequency and amplitude measuring, appropriate extraction of the fundamental signal, and insensitivity to the amplitude variation of the input signal. To generate the gate pulses of the switches, an adaptive hysteresis band current controller is used. In addition, fuzzy logic controllers are used for a better performance of DSTATCOM under dynamic conditions. The proposed control algorithm is robust to power disturbances, especially when the main voltage ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, these algorithms generally demonstrate a slow time response. Time–domain algorithms are based on the instantaneous extraction of harmonic currents/voltages. The common time–domain control strategies are instantaneous reactive power theory (IRPT) [6] and synchronous reference frame theory (SRF) [7]. Calculation of active and reactive powers by transforming three–phase voltages and currents into two phases is the principle of PQ theory, which does not work properly under non–sinusoidal supply conditions [8]. SRF theory is based on conversion of three–phase quantities into their corresponding dc components, and low–pass filters (LPFs) are employed for harmonic filtering which contain a time delay and deteriorate the performance of the controller [9]. Most of the advanced control and signal processing methods are accurate and show a better dynamic response than the FFT, but a large amount of calculations is required, which does not demonstrate an excellent performance in frequency–varying conditions [10–13]. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) is another advanced algorithm which has been introduced as an effective control technique for extracting reference sinusoidal components from distorted input signal. ANF is capable of changing the notch frequency suitably by tracking the frequency variations of the input signal [14–16]. To the best knowledge of the authors, the modified notch filter in a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63.
  • 64. Analyzing The Consumers Generating Inter Harmonic Frequencies Alexander B. Nassif and Jing Yong [7] have proposed a method to identify the consumers generating inter harmonic frequencies. The inter–harmonics can be measured by means of Impedance based approach applied at the metering point. The main idea is that, the inter–harmonic impedance of the system is much smaller than that of an inter–harmonic generating load. This method can identify the source of each inter–harmonic component without having to rely solely on the active power measurement and requires only an approximate value for the inter–harmonic impedance measured at the metering point. As per references [2], [6], [7], [9] any device with nonlinear characteristics which derive their input power from a sinusoidal electrical system may be responsible for injecting harmonic currents & voltages into the electrical system [2, 6, 7, 9 ]. Francisco C. De la rossa [2] have described ,all possible nonlinear loads . Among them few are Power converters such as Variable frequency drives, DC motor controllers, Cycloconverter, Cranes, Elevators ,Steel mills, Power supplies, UPS,Battery chargers, Inverters & ARC devices such as Fluorescent lighting, ARC furnaces, Welding machines. According to authors [2] ,[7] Even linear loads like power transformers can act nonlinear under saturation conditions. This occurs beyond the so–called saturation knee of the magnetizing curve of the transformer. [2],[7]. According to author Joseph S. Subjak [9], Communication interference ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65.
  • 66. Notes On ' Let A ! ' Let a_0 = 0. Using equations 2 and 3, after canceling terms, ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "sin" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 "b" _"k" "T" "b" _"k" "= " "1" /"T" ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" ) "sin" ⁡ 〖"(" "πkx" ⁄"T" ")" 〗 "dx" 〗 The process to derive "a" _"k" was much simpler than deriving "b" _"k" , since I simply multiplied the original equation by "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 and then used the orthogonality conditions. "f" ("x" )"=" "a" _"0" "+" ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒("a" _"k" "cos" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 "+" "b" _"k" "sin" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 ) ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 〖∫_"0" ^"T" ▒"dx" "a" 〗_"0" " " "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 "+ " ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"dx " "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 〗 ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒("a" _"k" "cos" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 "+" "b" _"k" "sin" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" 〗 ) ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 〖∫_"0" ^"T" ▒"dx" "a" 〗_"0" " cos+ " ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"a" _"k" "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" "cos" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" "+" ∑_"k=1" ^"∞" ▒∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"dx " "b" _"k" "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" "sin" ⁡ 〖"πkx" /"T" " " 〗 〗 〗 _" " " " 〗 〗 〗_" " Using equations 1 and 3, simplifying the equation, ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" )" " "cos" ⁡ 〖"πmx" /"T" 〗 " dx= " 〗 "a" _"k" "T" And after replacing m with k, "a" _"k" "= " "1" /"T" ∫_"0" ^"T" ▒〖"f" ("x" ) "cos" ⁡ 〖"(" "πkx" ⁄"T" ")" 〗 "dx" 〗 The T represents the period of the function, while the k represents the frequency number, where k is a positive integer. Whenever an instrument plays a sound, it does not only ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 67.
  • 68. Algorithms, Algorithms And Consequences For Top-K... 4.3. Top–K Association Rule More than one algorithms & sequences were predicted for top–k association administers mining. But, most of them do now not take advantage of the essential definition of an association rule. As an occurrence, KORD discovers approaches with an unmarried thing in the resulting, while the arrangement of principles of You et al. mines connection rules from a move in lieu of an exchange database. To the wonderful of our concentration, least difficult best k rules finds top–k affiliation rules predicated on a similar old meaning of an alliance run (with various things, in an exchange database). the primary pivotal thought process that characterize this calculation is that it characterizes the endeavor of mining the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With Ajax, web applications can send actualities to, and recuperate measurements from, a server nonconcurrently (inside the legacy) without meddling with the disclosure and aura of the present site page. Actualities might be recovered ingesting the XM HttpRequest protest. Regardless of the category, the usage of XML isn't required and the solicitations do never again require being nonconcurrently. Ajax isn't a solitary period, however a gathering of advancements. HTML and CSS can be connected in collection to increase and style data. The DOM is gotten to with JavaScript to powerfully show, and endorse the utilizer to have collaboration with, the measurements gave. JavaScript and the XMLHttpRequest question give an approach to supplanting measurements nonconcurrently among program and server to shun full page reloads and avert customer to converse with the server that can keep server hits which may be ate up on the off chance that we don't utilize AJAX. This is its miles one way to limit individual hits being hit to server and server load might be diminished by methods for applying AJAX on shopper side. 4.6. R Language It's far a language that becomes built for creating interactive graphs for data analysis, statistical modeling, simulation and graphics. but, its general cause with a few sturdy techniques and functions that might be useful for any ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69.
  • 70. Cosine Series: Integrals Used In The Fourier Series Subject Lesson/Chapter Name Engineering Mathematics Fourier Series Author(s) Reviewer(s) Name Ms.ShwetaDua College/Department: Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences Contact No: 9650875992 e–mail id: shwetadua8@gmail.com Date of Submission: 12–07–2013 Date of Final Submission (after revisions if any): 17–08–2013 Contact No: Table of Contents Chapter 1:Fourier Series 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Fourier Series 1.1.2Advantage and Use of Fourier Series 1.1.3 Periodic Function 1.1.4 Integrals used in Fourier Series 1.2 Classes of Fourier Series 1.2.1 Trigonometric form 1.2.2 Cosine form 1.2.3 Exponential form 1.3 Summary ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Question Obtain a Fourier Series to represent the following periodic function :– f(x) = 0 ; – ≤ x ≤ 0 x2 ; 0 ≤ x ≤ Solution From equation (2), a0 =1/2π = 1/2π 1/2π = 1/2π [ Taking the limits, = 1/2π = From equation (3), an =1/π = 1/π Cosnxdx = 1/π Integration by parts, = 1/π [ Taking the limits, = 1/π [ = [Using Cosn = (–1)n] From equation (4), bn= 1/π = 1/π Sinnxdx = 1/π Sinnxdx Integration by parts, = 1/π[ Taking the limits, = 1/π [ ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 71.
  • 72. Dsp Manual www.jntuworld.com Department of Electronics and Communication VCET,Hyderabad. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB MANUAL III YEAR II SEMESTER (ECE) Prepared by: K. Ashok Kumar Reddy Department of Electronics & Communications Engineering, Visvesvaraya College of Engineering & Technology, Ibrahimpatnam. Digital Signal Processing Lab Manual Page 1 www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com Department of Electronics and Communication VCET,Hyderabad. JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD III Year B.Tech. ECE – II Sem L T/P/D C 0 –/3/2 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB The programs shall be implemented in software (Using MATLAB / Lab view / C programming/ Equivalent) and hardware (Using TI / Analog devices / Motorola / Equivalent DSP ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Furthermore, it allows you to run such lists of commands such that you pass in data Digital Signal Processing Lab Manual Page 4 www.jntuworld.com
  • 73. www.jntuworld.com Department of Electronics and Communication VCET,Hyderabad. and/or get data back out (i.e. the list of commands is like a function in most programming languages). Once you save a function, it becomes part of your toolbox (i.e. it now looks to you as if it were part of the basic toolbox that you started with). For those with computer programming backgrounds: Note that MATLAB runs as an interpretive language (like the old BASIC). That is, it does not need to be compiled. It simply reads through each line of the function, executes it, and then goes on to the next line. (In practice, a form of compilation occurs when you first run a function, so that it can run faster the next time you run it.) MATLAB Windows : MATLAB works with through three basic windows Command Window : This is the main window .it is characterized by MATLAB command prompt >> when you launch the application program MATLAB puts you in this window all commands including those for user–written programs ,are typed in this window at the MATLAB prompt Graphics window: the output of all graphics commands typed in the command window are flushed to the graphics or figure window, a separate gray window with white background color the user can create as many windows as the system memory will allow Edit window: This is where you ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Method Of Separation Of Variable ( Developed By J. Fourier Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Method of Separation of Variable (developed by J. Fourier) The method of separation is based on the expansion of an arbitrary function in terms of the Fourier series. This method is applied by assuming that the dependent variable is a product of a number of functions and each function being a function of a single independent variable. This reduces the partial differential equation to a system of ordinary differential equations, each being a function of a single independent variable. For the transient conduction in a plain wall, the dependent variable is the solution function θ(X, F0), which is expressed in terms of θ(X, F0) = F(X)G(t), and the application of this method results in to the two ordinary differential equations, one in terms of X and the other one in F0. Now we demonstrate the use of the method of separation of variables by applying it to the one– dimensional transient heat conduction problem given in Eqs. (1). First, Dimensionless differential equation is given by: ( ∂²θ)/∂X²=∂θ/(∂F_0 ) eq. (1a) Boundary conditions: (∂T(0,t))/∂x=0 And –k (∂T(L,t))/∂x=h[T_((L,t))–T_a] eq. (1b) Dimensionless initial condition is θ(X, 0) = 1 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Isis Essential Standards Week 30 Essay ESSENTIAL STANDARDS ASSESSMENTS By: Isis Gill–Reid GRAPHING TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Amplitude, Period, Phase Shift, Horizontal Shift of Sine and Cosine DEFINITION The trigonometric functions are functions of an angle. They relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of its sides. Trigonometric functions are important in the study of triangles and modeling periodic phenomena, among many other application. Amplitude is half the distance between the minimum and maximum values of the range of a periodic function with a bounded range. A graph that repeats after a fixed interval, which is a period, of the independent variable. Horizontal shift is obtained by determining the change being made to the x value. A phase shift represents the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If a sequence of values follows a pattern of adding a fixed amount from one term to the next, it is referred to as an arithmetic sequence. Examples Arithmetic Sequence Common Difference, d d add 3 to each term to arrive at the next term, or...the difference a2 – a1 is 3. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, ... =3 15, 10, 5, 0, –5, –10, ... d= –5
  • 78. add –5 to each term to arrive at the next term, or...the difference a2 – a1 is –5. add–1/2 to each term to arrive at the next term, or....the difference a2 – a1 is –1/2. REAL LIFE SITUATION Arithmetic sequences and series are used every day by engineers, accountants, and builders. GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES AND SERIES Geometric Sequence, Geometric Series DEFINITION If a sequence of values follows a pattern of multiplying a fixed amount times each term to arrive at the following term it is referred to as a geometric sequence. The sum of the terms of a sequence is called a series. EXAMPLE Geometric Sequence Common Ratio, r r 5, 10, 20, 40, ... =2 multiply each term by 2 to arrive at the next term or...divide a2 –11, 22, –44, 88, ... by a1 to find the common ratio, 2. r = –2 or...divide multiply each term by –2 to arrive at the next term .or...divide a2 by a1 to find the common ratio, –2. multiply each term by 2/3 to arrive at the next term a2 by a1 to find the common ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79.
  • 80. Edge Detection And Frequency Domain Edge Detection in Frequency Domain A comparison between different Filtering techniques in Time and Frequncy Domain Adithya R H Department of Electronics and Communication Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering Mysore, Karnataka, India rhadithya@gmail.com Akash Sharma Department of Electronics and Communication Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering Mysore, Karnataka, India akashshrm02@gmail.com Abstract–This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of different high pass filtering techniques for Edge detection in both time domain and frequency domain. The paper examines various kernels and compares the efficiency of the filtering technique against the computation time for various sizes of images with various sizes of high–pass filter kernels. We have made use of Sobel filter as the standard filter kernel against which other techniques are compared. Keywords–frequency domain; edge detection; sobel filter; laplacian; gaussian; I. INTRODUCTION Image sharpening and smoothening is perhaps one of the most ubiquitously used techniques in any image processing application. While these are considered inexpensive operations, multiple use of the same may become computationally intensive, and hence may make the overall application slow. In this paper we examine and compare the performance of sharpening filters in time–domain and frequency domain. While there are many apparent computational advantages in converting an image into frequency domain to apply a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 81.
  • 82. Chase-Pyndiah Et. Al. : How Do You Could Be Used? SOVA–based decoding is generally inferior to the MAP–based decoding in terms of BER performance. The authors show that the original SOVA introduces two types of distortions in its output. They show that the performance of the SOVA can be improved by normalizing its output and eliminating the correlation between intrinsic and the extrinsic information derived in each decoding iteration. A modified updating rule can also be applied to improve performance. It was discovered that the original SOVA proposed in [48] omits some updates for ease of implementation, leading to overestimation of the reliability [51]. It was proved that the modified SOVA of [48] is equivalent to Max–log–MAP algorithm [52]. Application of SOVA–based SISO decoding for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... either +1 or –1; where +1 represents a bit 1 and –1 represents a bit 0); and it is possible that one or both of c+ and c– may not exist due to the fact that the Chase algorithm operates using a subset of the 2n possible codewords. In the event that there are not two competing codewords, the Pyndiah algorithm uses a scaling factor, βm, which approximates the value of the extrinsic information for the mth decoding. These values, which are a function of m, are specified in [47]. The values for βm in [44] are approximated using computer simulation of a (64,57)2 BTC (the superscript "x" indicates x dimensional BTC). A simple, yet effective alternative for approximating βm, which does not require computer simulation, is presented in [53]. A soft–input value, λi,j, is computed by the decoder for each entry in C. These soft–values are used to select the codewords in each subset, the competing codewords, as well as, in computing the extrinsic information. The soft–input is computed using: (10) where αm is a scaling factor, which is either pre–defined for increasing values of m [44], or computed after every decoding by assuming that the extrinsic information is governed by Gaussian statistics [53]; a method that is very similar to the one used in computing the scaling factor in [50]. The above equations demonstrate how to compute the soft–input and extrinsic likelihood values for a row decoder. For the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...