Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Improved Executive Functioning from Wii Active Exergame Play

2,788 views

Published on

Presentation by Amanda E. Staiano, Anisha Abraham, and Sandra L. Calvert given May 27, 2010, at the annual Games for Health conference in Boston, MA.

Published in: Technology, Education
  • There's too much wasted effort into researching marginal results by restricting studies to just Wii. The first question that should be asked is what exergames are the most effective in terms of engagement (for boys and girls), calories burn and sustainability.. Exergaming should not be marginalised or stereotyped by limited research.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Improved Executive Functioning from Wii Active Exergame Play

  1. 1. Improved Executive Functioning from Wii Active Exergame Play Amanda E. Staiano, Anisha Abraham, & Sandra L. Calvert Games for Health 2010 May 27, 2010 Children’s Digital Media Center Department of Psychology, Georgetown University Funded by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Games Research
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Study 1: Social Exergame Play for Caloric Expenditure among Adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Study 2: Improved Executive Functioning from Wii Active Exergame Play </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  4. 4. 1998 Rise of Adult Obesity (Obesity = *BMI  30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 2007 1990 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, http: //www.cdc.gov/brfss/ Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  5. 5. Rise of Pediatric Obesity Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Examination Surveys II (ages 6–11) and III (ages 12–17), and National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I, II and III, and 1999–2006. Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  6. 6. Rise of Pediatric Obesity The National Survey of Children's Health. Childhood Obesity Action Network. State Obesity Profiles, 2008. National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality, Child Policy Research Center, and Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. Retrieved 5/9/09 from http://www.nschdata.org:80/Content/ObesityReportCards.aspx. Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  7. 7. Consequences of Pediatric Obesity <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular risk factors, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleep apnea (McGinnis, Gootman, & Kraak, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social discrimination, low self-esteem (Eisenberg, Neumarck-Sztainer, & Story, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missed school days, poorer academic achievement (Staiano, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity, CDC, 2009 </li></ul></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  8. 8. Low Physical Activity Rates <ul><li>Youth are not meeting </li></ul><ul><li>physical activity recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Eaton, Kann, & Kinchen, et al., 2006 </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  9. 9. High Gaming Rates <ul><li>Youth spend 36 minutes daily </li></ul><ul><li>playing on video game consoles </li></ul>Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010 Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  10. 10. <ul><li>Exergames burn calories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to walking at 3 miles per hour, skipping, or jumping (Staiano & Calvert, 2010; Maddison et al., 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exergames meet requirements for aerobic fitness </li></ul><ul><li>(Unnithan, Houser, & Fernhall, 2006; Tan et al., 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Exergames are engaging (Warburton et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Wii Sports: Youth expend more energy when playing boxing, tennis, and bowling than when playing sedentary video game (Graves et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males expend more energy than females, particularly in Wii tennis </li></ul></ul>Exergames for Caloric Loss Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  11. 11. Limitations in Current Research <ul><li>Small sample sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Only target athletic youth </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Little comparison to sports activities </li></ul><ul><li>Only solitary game play </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  12. 12. Study 1 Social Exergame Play for Caloric Expenditure among Adolescents Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  13. 13. Research Questions <ul><li>How does playing a videogame alone (solitary) versus playing a videogame with a partner (social) affect energy expenditure? </li></ul><ul><li>How does energy expenditure during exergame play compare to actual sport play? </li></ul><ul><li>How does enjoyment of playing the Wii game differ by gender? </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  14. 14. Hypotheses <ul><li>H1: Exergame play will burn more calories than a sedentary activity </li></ul><ul><li>H2: Social group will burn more calories than solitary group </li></ul><ul><li>H3: Tennis court play will burn more calories than exergame play </li></ul><ul><li>H4: Boys will enjoy exergame more than girls </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  15. 15. Methodology <ul><li>74 low-income African American 12- to 18-year-old adolescents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean BMI percentile = 69.28 (SD = 28.06) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportion overweight/obese = 41.89% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean Age = 14.45 years (SD = 1.67) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting: Campus of Georgetown University </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  16. 16. Stimulus: Nintendo Wii Sports Tennis Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  17. 17. Solitary Condition Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  18. 18. Social Condition Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  19. 19. Control Condition Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  20. 20. Treatment <ul><li>10 min of tennis skills test on tennis court </li></ul><ul><li>30 min of solitary or social exergame play </li></ul><ul><li>or 30 min of sedentary computer activity </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  21. 21. Measures <ul><li>Weight, BMI percentile, waist-to-hip ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Actical physical activity monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reported enjoyment of exergame play </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  22. 22. Results Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  23. 23. Caloric Expenditure: By Condition Linear regression predicting caloric expenditure by condition. Variable B SE B β ________ Gender -6.59 2.15 -0.19** Age -1.45 0.64 -0.15* Solitary Condition -6.72 2.49 -0.19** Control Condition -20.12 2.58 -0.58*** Weight 0.64 0.09 0.65*** BMI Percentile -0.09 0.06 -0.14 Waist-to-Hip Ratio 3.75 18.36 0.01 R 2 0.76 _____________________________________________________________________ Values are expressed as coefficient. *** = p < .001, ** = p < .01, * = p < .05. For Gender, 0 = Male, 1 = Female. F (7,66) = 30.373, p = .000, r 2 = .763 (adjusted r 2 = .738). Condition was dummy-coded so that Solitary = 1, Control = 1, and Social = 0. Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  24. 24. Caloric Expenditure & METs (by condition) Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University Social Solitary Control Condition (kCal) 62.93 54.83 37.69 Condition (METs) 2.017 1.788 1.262
  25. 25. Caloric Expenditure: Tennis Court Play vs. Exergame Play = tennis court play is significantly different than treatment, p < .05. Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  26. 26. Enjoyment of exergame play Note .  2 (1, N = 47) = 4.968, p = .026 Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University Enjoy Do Not Enjoy Males 18 4 Females 25 0
  27. 27. Summary of Results <ul><li>As expected: </li></ul><ul><li>Social expended more calories than solitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Both expended more calories than control. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, males, younger, and heavier weight individuals burned more calories. </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  28. 28. Summary of Results <ul><li>Social exergame play was comparable to tennis court play </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary play and control condition burned significantly fewer calories than during tennis court play. </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  29. 29. Summary of Results <ul><li>100% of girls and 82% of boys enjoyed playing the exergame </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  30. 30. Implications of Findings <ul><li>Social exergame play is a more physically active option than solitary gameplay </li></ul><ul><li>Exergames may be a viable supplemental physical activity, particularly for low-income adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating enjoyable physical activities in schools and homes may encourage energy expenditure and potentially improve health for at-risk youth </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  31. 31. Study 2 Social Exergame Play for Improved Executive Functioning among Adolescents Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  32. 32. Research Question <ul><li>Exergames produce caloric expenditure that </li></ul><ul><li>may promote physical health, </li></ul><ul><li>but can they also promote cognitive health? </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  33. 33. Activity  Improved Cognition <ul><li>Executive function hypothesis (Davis et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced executive control skills (Etnier et al., 2006; Hertzog et al., 2008; Hillman et al., 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced attention and concentration (Budde et al., 2008) </li></ul></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  34. 34. Video Games  Improved Cognition <ul><li>Attention (Green & Bavelier, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacities: Task-switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Spatial Skills: Useful field of view, spatial and temporal resolution, attentional blink paradigm, alerting and orienting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention (Pivec, 2008) </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  35. 35. Hypothesis <ul><li>Participants who play an exergame will improve more in executive functioning and visual spatial skills than those in a sedentary control group. </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  36. 36. Methodology <ul><li>50 (34 female) low-income African American 14- to 19-year-old overweight and obese adolescents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean BMI = 33.27 (SD = 6.38) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean BMI percentile = 94.76 (SD = 5.51) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean Age = 16.8 years (SD = 1.14) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting: Inner-city public high school </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  37. 37. Stimulus: EA Active for Nintendo Wii Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  38. 38. Game Play Exposure <ul><li>Baseline cognitive assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Two 15 minute sessions of Wii Active play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate cognitive assessment following each 15 minute session of game play </li></ul></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  39. 39. Cognitive Measures <ul><li>Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale (DKEFS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trail-Making Test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bender Gestalt visual spatial skills test </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  40. 40. Results Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  41. 41. Executive Functioning (DKEFS) Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  42. 42. Executive Functioning (DKEFS) <ul><li>Repeated measures ANOVA at baseline and week 6 </li></ul><ul><li>All participants improved over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1, 45) = 11.073, p = .002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wii players improved more than control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1, 45) = 4.502, p = .039 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wii players increased on average 11.26% </li></ul><ul><li>vs. 3.34% for control group </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  43. 43. Visual Spatial Skills (Bender Gestalt) Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  44. 44. Visual Spatial Skills (Bender Gestalt) <ul><li>Repeated measures ANOVA at baseline and week 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Wii players improved more than control </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F (1, 48) = 5.014, p = .030 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wii players increased average of 9.45% </li></ul><ul><li>vs. 5.44% for the control group </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  45. 45. Summary of Results <ul><li>Wii Active players significantly improved scores on executive functioning and visual spatial skills more than the sedentary control group did </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  46. 46. Implications of Findings <ul><li>Only 15 minutes of exergame play produces short-term improved cognitive outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>The physical activity component and video game component may enhance cognitive outcomes from exergames </li></ul><ul><li>Exergames could be integrated within the school day (PE; Recess) to produce short-term gains in cognitive performance </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  47. 47. Future Work <ul><li>Analysis of the full 8 month Wii Active exergame intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical health change (BMI, caloric expenditure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive change (memory, attention, concentration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-emotional change (self-efficacy, motivation, self-esteem, attitude towards physical activity) </li></ul></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  48. 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Exergames produce physiological and cognitive benefits for at-risk adolescents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social exergame play produces caloric expenditure similar to low to moderate intensity physical activity and matches actual sport play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social exergame play produces short-term cognitive gains in executive function skills and visual spatial skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exergames may be a tool </li></ul><ul><li>to promote physical and cognitive health </li></ul>Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University
  49. 49. Acknowledgements Staiano, Abraham, & Calvert, 2010 Georgetown University

×