Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Personal Trainer Certification Education: Exercise Science Review


Published on

Fitness trainer educational documents to help you become a qualified personal trainer.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Personal Trainer Certification Education: Exercise Science Review

  1. 1. EXERCISE SCIENCE EDUCATION: Training Adaptations to the Nervous System FREE TRAINING FROM NESTA The type of neural adaptation which occurs depends upon the stimulus placed on it. This is what training is – the body adapting to a new stimulus. In fact, the first results obtained from a new training stimulus are neural adaptations. Early strength gains (within the first few weeks) from resistance training are not due to increases in muscle mass. The body adapts to a new stimulus with more efficient movement or enhanced ability to move greater loads due to the improved communication between the nervous and musculoskeletal systems, if the training stimulus has been correctly applied. This method of adaptation is called the Law of Facilitation. The law of facilitation states that when an impulse passes through a given set of neurons to the exclusion of others, it will tend to do so again, and each time it transverses this path, the resistance will be smaller. The body will then adapt and be able to respond with greater ease and increasing ability. Trainers must understand how an individual learns. Anytime an individual learns something new, several mistakes are often made. This is normal and called the cognitive phase of learning. In this phase the individual must think about the action, requiring the involvement of the central nervous system. Movement is usually gross and uncoordinated and relies on visual and verbal cues. However, with continued practice, less errors or mistakes are made. This is called the associative phase of learn- ing. There is greater consistency in replicating the movement while less visual cues and greater proprioception are required. Proprioception is an awareness of one’s position in space. Ultimately, with continued (quality) practice, an individual will perform movements “flawlessly.” This is called the autonomic phase of learning. The skill is now performed automatically. Conscious thought is not required, which is the ultimate goal in performing efficient movement. This is known as the Fitts and Posner Three-Stage Model of Motor Learning. What does this mean? The more an action is repeated, the more efficient the brain becomes in communicating with the muscles, and the mes- sage between the brain (central nervous system) and muscles (musculoskeletal system) is enhanced. Personal trainers should view this as the process of learning technique. If a person learns poor technique and repeats it continually, the client will only be good at poor technique. That’s why teaching proper form from the beginning is the key. Trainers must not only teach good form, but the importance of good form. Proper form (technique) leads to the development of proper motor skills and proper motor skills lead to mechanical efficiency. The more appropriately the nervous system is challenged, the better the overall adaptation. In other words, exercises which challenge overall balance and coordination are going to allow for better neuromuscular adaptation and improved bodily control. All other movements should see improvement. Movement starts with the brain. If a trainer is able to have their client “realize” and “become conscious” of what is happening, this will lead to more effective and efficient exercise execution and result in an increase in performance. This is no easy task. This is your challenge. Lastly, when talking about neuromuscular development, we must mention power. Remember, power is the rate that work is performed and power has a HUGE neuromuscular component. What is going to determine how fast and powerful someone is able to move? A major factor is how quickly their brain can tell their muscles to fire. What is Mechanical Efficiency? The job of the personal fitness trainer is defined as maximizing your client’s performance safely and
  2. 2. efficiently. It was later pointed out that Maximum Performance will be determined by Mechanical and Physiological Efficiency. In physics, mechanical efficiency measures the efficiency of a machine. Mechanical efficiency is a ratio of the work output to work input. Mechanical Efficiency = Work Output _________ Work Input So if a machine is 100% efficient, all the work going into it would be transferred to work out- put (an “ideal machine”). Well, there are no ideal machines and the human body is far from ideal. That said, we want to be as efficient as possible. We don’t want “wasted” energy.
  3. 3.